Rtt107 is required for recruitment of the SMC5/6 complex to DNA double strand breaks.
ABSTRACT: Genome integrity is maintained by a network of DNA damage response pathways, including checkpoints and DNA repair processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the BRCT domain-containing protein Rtt107/Esc4 is required for the restart of DNA replication after successful repair of DNA damage and for cellular resistance to DNA-damaging agents. In addition to its well characterized interaction with the endonuclease Slx4, Rtt107 interacts with a number of other DNA repair and recombination proteins. These include the evolutionarily conserved SMC5/6 complex, which is involved in numerous chromosome maintenance activities, such as DNA repair, chromosome segregation, and telomere function. The interaction between Rtt107 and the SMC5/6 complex was mediated through the N-terminal BRCT domains of Rtt107 and the Nse6 subunit of SMC5/6 and was independent of methyl methane sulfonate-induced damage and Slx4. Supporting a shared function in the DNA damage response, Rtt107 was required for recruitment of SMC5/6 to DNA double strand breaks. However, this functional relationship did not extend to other types of DNA lesions such as protein-bound nicks. Interestingly, Rtt107 was phosphorylated when SMC5/6 function was compromised in the absence of DNA-damaging agents, indicating a connection beyond the DNA damage response. Genetic analyses revealed that, although a subset of Rtt107 and SMC5/6 functions was shared, these proteins also contributed independently to maintenance of genome integrity.
Project description:Rtt107 (regulator of Ty1 transposition 107; Esc4) is a DNA repair protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that can restore stalled replication forks following DNA damage. There are six BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) domains in Rtt107 that act as binding sites for other recruited proteins during DNA repair. Several Rtt107 binding partners have been identified, including Slx4, Rtt101, Rad55, and the Smc5/6 (structural maintenance of chromosome) protein complex. Rtt107 can reportedly be recruited to chromatin in the presence of Rtt101 and Rtt109 upon DNA damage, but the chromatin-binding site of Rtt107 has not been identified. Here, we report our investigation of the interaction between phosphorylated histone H2A (γH2A) and the C-terminal tandem BRCT repeats (BRCT(5)-BRCT(6)) of Rtt107. The crystal structures of BRCT(5)-BRCT(6) alone and in a complex with γH2A reveal the molecular basis of the Rtt107-γH2A interaction. We used in vitro mutagenesis and a fluorescence polarization assay to confirm the location of the Rtt107 motif that is crucial for this interaction. In addition, these assays indicated that this interaction requires the phosphorylation of H2A. An in vivo phenotypic analysis in yeast demonstrated the critical role of BRCT(5)-BRCT(6) and its interaction with γH2A during the DNA damage response. Our results shed new light on the molecular mechanism by which Rtt107 is recruited to chromatin in response to stalled DNA replication forks.
Project description:Genomic integrity is maintained by the coordinated interaction of many DNA damage response pathways, including checkpoints, DNA repair processes, and cell cycle restart. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the BRCA1 C-terminal domain-containing protein Rtt107/Esc4 is required for restart of DNA replication after successful repair of DNA damage and for cellular resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Rtt107 and its interaction partner Slx4 are phosphorylated during the initial phase of DNA damage response by the checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Tel1. Because the natural chromatin template plays an important role during the DNA damage response, we tested whether chromatin modifications affected the requirement for Rtt107 and Slx4 during DNA damage repair. Here, we report that the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents of rtt107? and slx4? mutants was rescued by inactivation of the chromatin regulatory pathway leading to H3 K79 trimethylation. Further analysis revealed that lack of Dot1, the H3 K79 methyltransferase, led to activation of the translesion synthesis pathway, thereby allowing the survival in the presence of DNA damage. The DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of Rtt107 and Slx4, which was mutually dependent, was not restored in the absence of Dot1. The antagonistic relationship between Rtt107 and Dot1 was specific for DNA damage-induced phenotypes, whereas the genomic instability caused by loss of Rtt107 was not rescued. These data revealed a multifaceted functional relationship between Rtt107 and Dot1 in the DNA damage response and maintenance of genome integrity.
Project description:RTT107 (ESC4, YHR154W) encodes a BRCA1 C-terminal domain protein that is important for recovery from DNA damage during S phase. Rtt107 is a substrate of the checkpoint kinase Mec1, and it forms complexes with DNA repair enzymes, including the nuclease subunit Slx4, but the role of Rtt107 in the DNA damage response remains unclear. We find that Rtt107 interacts with chromatin when cells are treated with compounds that cause replication forks to arrest. This damage-dependent chromatin binding requires the acetyltransferase Rtt109, but it does not require acetylation of the known Rtt109 target, histone H3-K56. Chromatin binding of Rtt107 also requires the cullin Rtt101, which seems to play a direct role in Rtt107 recruitment, because the two proteins are found in complex with each other. Finally, we provide evidence that Rtt107 is bound at or near stalled replication forks in vivo. Together, these results indicate that Rtt109, Rtt101, and Rtt107, which genetic evidence suggests are functionally related, form a DNA damage response pathway that recruits Rtt107 complexes to damaged or stalled replication forks.
Project description:The DNA damage checkpoint pathway is activated in response to DNA lesions and replication stress to preserve genome integrity. However, hyper-activation of this surveillance system is detrimental to the cell, because it might prevent cell cycle re-start after repair, which may also lead to senescence. Here we show that the scaffold proteins Slx4 and Rtt107 limit checkpoint signalling at a persistent double-strand DNA break (DSB) and at uncapped telomeres. We found that Slx4 is recruited within a few kilobases of an irreparable DSB, through the interaction with Rtt107 and the multi-BRCT domain scaffold Dpb11. In the absence of Slx4 or Rtt107, Rad9 binding near the irreparable DSB is increased, leading to robust checkpoint signalling and slower nucleolytic degradation of the 5' strand. Importantly, in slx4Δ sae2Δ double mutant cells these phenotypes are exacerbated, causing a severe Rad9-dependent defect in DSB repair. Our study sheds new light on the molecular mechanism that coordinates the processing and repair of DSBs with DNA damage checkpoint signalling, preserving genome integrity.
Project description:Efficient repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSB) requires a coordinated response at the site of lesion. Nucleolytic resection commits repair towards homologous recombination, which preferentially occurs between sister chromatids. DSB resection promotes recruitment of the Mec1 checkpoint kinase to the break. Rtt107 is a target of Mec1 and serves as a scaffold during repair. Rtt107 plays an important role during rescue of damaged replication forks, however whether Rtt107 contributes to the repair of DSBs is unknown. Here we show that Rtt107 is recruited to DSBs induced by the HO endonuclease. Rtt107 phosphorylation by Mec1 and its interaction with the Smc5-Smc6 complex are both required for Rtt107 loading to breaks, while Rtt107 regulators Slx4 and Rtt101 are not. We demonstrate that Rtt107 has an effect on the efficiency of sister chromatid recombination (SCR) and propose that its recruitment to DSBs, together with the Smc5-Smc6 complex is important for repair through the SCR pathway.
Project description:In response to DNA damage, checkpoint signalling protects genome integrity at the cost of repressing cell cycle progression and DNA replication. Mechanisms for checkpoint down-regulation are therefore necessary for proper cellular proliferation. We recently uncovered a phosphatase-independent mechanism for dampening checkpoint signalling, where the checkpoint adaptor Rad9 is counteracted by the repair scaffolds Slx4-Rtt107. Here, we establish the molecular requirements for this new mode of checkpoint regulation. We engineered a minimal multi-BRCT-domain (MBD) module that recapitulates the action of Slx4-Rtt107 in checkpoint down-regulation. MBD mimics the damage-induced Dpb11-Slx4-Rtt107 complex by synergistically interacting with lesion-specific phospho-sites in Ddc1 and H2A. We propose that efficient recruitment of Dpb11-Slx4-Rtt107 or MBD via a cooperative 'two-site-docking' mechanism displaces Rad9. MBD also interacts with the Mus81 nuclease following checkpoint dampening, suggesting a spatio-temporal coordination of checkpoint signalling and DNA repair via a combinatorial mode of BRCT-domains interactions.
Project description:The DNA damage response (DDR) is a dynamic process that is crucial for protecting the cell from challenges to genome integrity. Although many genome-wide studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified genes that contribute to resistance to DNA-damaging agents, more work is needed to elucidate the changes in genetic interaction networks in response to DNA lesions. Here we used conditional epistatic miniarray profiling to analyze the genetic interaction networks of the DDR genes RTT107, SLX4, and HRQ1 under three DNA-damaging conditions: camptothecin, hydroxyurea, and methyl methanesulfonate. Rtt107 and its interaction partner Slx4 are targets of the checkpoint kinase Mec1, which is central to the DDR-signaling cascades. Hrq1 recently was identified as a novel member of the RecQ helicase family in S. cerevisiae but is still poorly characterized. The conditional genetic networks that we generated revealed functional insights into all three genes and showed that there were varied responses to different DNA damaging agents. We observed that RTT107 had more genetic interactions under camptothecin conditions than SLX4 or HRQ1, suggesting that Rtt107 has an important role in response to this type of DNA lesion. Although RTT107 and SLX4 function together, they also had many distinct genetic interactions. In particular, RTT107 and SLX4 showed contrasting genetic interactions for a few genes, which we validated with independently constructed strains. Interestingly, HRQ1 had a genetic interaction profile that correlated with that of SLX4 and both were enriched for very similar gene ontology terms, suggesting that they function together in the DDR.
Project description:Duplication of the genome poses one of the most significant threats to genetic integrity, cellular fitness, and organismal health. Therefore, numerous mechanisms have evolved that maintain replication fork stability in the face of DNA damage and allow faithful genome duplication. The fission yeast BRCT-domain-containing protein Brc1, and its budding yeast orthologue Rtt107, has emerged as a "hub" factor that integrates multiple replication fork protection mechanisms. Notably, the cofactors and pathways through which Brc1, Rtt107, and their human orthologue (PTIP) act have appeared largely distinct. This either represents true evolutionary functional divergence, or perhaps an incomplete genetic and biochemical analysis of each protein. In this regard, we recently showed that like Rtt107, Brc1 supports key functions of the Smc5-Smc6 complex, including its recruitment into DNA repair foci, chromatin association, and SUMO ligase activity. Furthermore, fission yeast cells lacking the Nse5-Nse6 genome stability factor were found to exhibit defects in Smc5-Smc6 function, similar to but more severe than those in cells lacking Brc1. Here, we place these findings in context with the known functions of Brc1, Rtt107, and Smc5-Smc6, present data suggesting a role for acetylation in Smc5-Smc6 chromatin loading, and discuss wider implications for genome stability.
Project description:In response to genotoxic stress, a transient arrest in cell-cycle progression enforced by the DNA-damage checkpoint (DDC) signalling pathway positively contributes to genome maintenance. Because hyperactivated DDC signalling can lead to a persistent and detrimental cell-cycle arrest, cells must tightly regulate the activity of the kinases involved in this pathway. Despite their importance, the mechanisms for monitoring and modulating DDC signalling are not fully understood. Here we show that the DNA-repair scaffolding proteins Slx4 and Rtt107 prevent the aberrant hyperactivation of DDC signalling by lesions that are generated during DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On replication stress, cells lacking Slx4 or Rtt107 show hyperactivation of the downstream DDC kinase Rad53, whereas activation of the upstream DDC kinase Mec1 remains normal. An Slx4-Rtt107 complex counteracts the checkpoint adaptor Rad9 by physically interacting with Dpb11 and phosphorylated histone H2A, two positive regulators of Rad9-dependent Rad53 activation. A decrease in DDC signalling results from hypomorphic mutations in RAD53 and H2A and rescues the hypersensitivity to replication stress of cells lacking Slx4 or Rtt107. We propose that the Slx4-Rtt107 complex modulates Rad53 activation by a competition-based mechanism that balances the engagement of Rad9 at replication-induced lesions. Our findings show that DDC signalling is monitored and modulated through the direct action of DNA-repair factors.
Project description:BRCT domains support myriad protein-protein interactions involved in genome maintenance. Although di-BRCT recognition of phospho-proteins is well known to support the genotoxic response, whether multi-BRCT domains can acquire distinct structures and functions is unclear. Here we present the tetra-BRCT structures from the conserved yeast protein Rtt107 in free and ligand-bound forms. The four BRCT repeats fold into a tetrahedral structure that recognizes unmodified ligands using a bi-partite mechanism, suggesting repeat origami enabling function acquisition. Functional studies show that Rtt107 binding of partner proteins of diverse activities promotes genome replication and stability in both distinct and concerted manners. A unified theme is that tetra- and di-BRCT domains of Rtt107 collaborate to recruit partner proteins to chromatin. Our work thus illustrates how a master regulator uses two types of BRCT domains to recognize distinct genome factors and direct them to chromatin for constitutive genome protection.