A local glucose-and oxygen concentration-based insulin secretion model for pancreatic islets.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Because insulin is the main regulator of glucose homeostasis, quantitative models describing the dynamics of glucose-induced insulin secretion are of obvious interest. Here, a computational model is introduced that focuses not on organism-level concentrations, but on the quantitative modeling of local, cellular-level glucose-insulin dynamics by incorporating the detailed spatial distribution of the concentrations of interest within isolated avascular pancreatic islets. METHODS: All nutrient consumption and hormone release rates were assumed to follow Hill-type sigmoid dependences on local concentrations. Insulin secretion rates depend on both the glucose concentration and its time-gradient, resulting in second-and first-phase responses, respectively. Since hypoxia may also be an important limiting factor in avascular islets, oxygen and cell viability considerations were also built in by incorporating and extending our previous islet cell oxygen consumption model. A finite element method (FEM) framework is used to combine reactive rates with mass transport by convection and diffusion as well as fluid-mechanics. RESULTS: The model was calibrated using experimental results from dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIR) perifusion studies with isolated islets. Further optimization is still needed, but calculated insulin responses to stepwise increments in the incoming glucose concentration are in good agreement with existing experimental insulin release data characterizing glucose and oxygen dependence. The model makes possible the detailed description of the intraislet spatial distributions of insulin, glucose, and oxygen levels. In agreement with recent observations, modeling also suggests that smaller islets perform better when transplanted and/or encapsulated. CONCLUSIONS: An insulin secretion model was implemented by coupling local consumption and release rates to calculations of the spatial distributions of all species of interest. The resulting glucose-insulin control system fits in the general framework of a sigmoid proportional-integral-derivative controller, a generalized PID controller, more suitable for biological systems, which are always nonlinear due to the maximum response being limited. Because of the general framework of the implementation, simulations can be carried out for arbitrary geometries including cultured, perifused, transplanted, and encapsulated islets.
Project description:Rates of glucose oxidation and insulin release in response to a wide range of glucose concentrations were studied in short-term experiments in isolated mouse pancreatic islets maintained in tissue culture for 6 days at either a physiological glucose concentration (6.7mm) or at a high glucose concentration (28mm). The curves relating glucose oxidation or insulin release to the extracellular glucose concentration obtained with islets cultured in 6.7mm-glucose displayed a sigmoid shape similar to that observed for freshly isolated non-cultured islets. By contrast islets that had been cultured in 28mm-glucose showed a linear relationship between the rate of glucose oxidation and the extracellular glucose concentration up to about 8mm-glucose. The maximal oxidative rate was twice that of the non-cultured islets and the glucose concentration associated with the half-maximal rate considerably decreased. In islets cultured at 28mm-glucose there was only a small increase in the insulin release in response to glucose, probably due to a depletion of stored insulin in those B cells that had been cultured in a high-glucose medium. It is concluded that exposure of B cells for 6 days to a glucose concentration comparable with that found in diabetic individuals causes adaptive metabolic alterations rather than degeneration of these cells.
Project description:Previous studies have reported beneficial effects of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) inhibition on beta-cell survival in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms by which NOX4 inhibition protects insulin producing cells are, however, not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a pharmacological NOX4 inhibitor (GLX7013114) on human islet and EndoC-βH1 cell mitochondrial function, and to correlate such effects with survival in islets of different size, activity, and glucose-stimulated insulin release responsiveness. We found that maximal oxygen consumption rates, but not the rates of acidification and proton leak, were increased in islets after acute NOX4 inhibition. In EndoC-βH1 cells, NOX4 inhibition increased the mitochondrial membrane potential, as estimated by JC-1 fluorescence; mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as estimated by MitoSOX fluorescence; and the ATP/ADP ratio, as assessed by a bioluminescent assay. Moreover, the insulin release from EndoC-βH1 cells at a high glucose concentration increased with NOX4 inhibition. These findings were paralleled by NOX4 inhibition-induced protection against human islet cell death when challenged with high glucose and sodium palmitate. The NOX4 inhibitor protected equally well islets of different size, activity, and glucose responsiveness. We conclude that pharmacological alleviation of NOX4-induced inhibition of beta-cell mitochondria leads to increased, and not decreased, mitochondrial ROS, and this was associated with protection against cell death occurring in different types of heterogeneous islets. Thus, NOX4 inhibition or modulation may be a therapeutic strategy in type 2 diabetes that targets all types of islets.
Project description:Loss-of-function mutations of ?-cell KATP channels cause the most severe form of congenital hyperinsulinism (KATPHI). KATPHI is characterized by fasting and protein-induced hypoglycemia that is unresponsive to medical therapy. For a better understanding of the pathophysiology of KATPHI, we examined cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+] i ), insulin secretion, oxygen consumption, and [U-13C]glucose metabolism in islets isolated from the pancreases of children with KATPHI who required pancreatectomy. Basal [Ca2+] i and insulin secretion were higher in KATPHI islets compared with controls. Unlike controls, insulin secretion in KATPHI islets increased in response to amino acids but not to glucose. KATPHI islets have an increased basal rate of oxygen consumption and mitochondrial mass. [U-13C]glucose metabolism showed a twofold increase in alanine levels and sixfold increase in 13C enrichment of alanine in KATPHI islets, suggesting increased rates of glycolysis. KATPHI islets also exhibited increased serine/glycine and glutamine biosynthesis. In contrast, KATPHI islets had low ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and lacked 13C incorporation into GABA in response to glucose stimulation. The expression of key genes involved in these metabolic pathways was significantly different in KATPHI ?-cells compared with control, providing a mechanism for the observed changes. These findings demonstrate that the pathophysiology of KATPHI is complex, and they provide a framework for the identification of new potential therapeutic targets for this devastating condition.
Project description:Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is suppressed through α-adrenergic receptor stimulation by catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, in pancreatic β-cells. Previous work has elucidated a bevy of adrenergic regulatory mechanisms beyond traditional Gi-coupled signaling including regulation of ion channels and interactions with exocytotic machinery. Glucose oxidation may also be an important site for adrenergic regulation of GSIS, but the link between epinephrine and glucose oxidation in β-cells is undefined. Here, we evaluate whether adrenergic stimulation decreases oxidative metabolism in β cells. Oxygen consumption rates were determined for Min6 and isolated rat islets in 20mM glucose complete media, then epinephrine was added at either 0 nM (vehicle control) or 100nM, followed by 10uM yohimbine (a selective Adrα2A antagonist). To identify glucose oxidation as the primary metabolic pathway affected by epinephrine, oxidation of 14C(U)-labeled glucose was determined in Min6 cells with epinephrine or vehicle. Oxygen consumption and glucose oxidation experiments were conducted in the presence of cAMP and insulin secretion blockers, respectively. Proteomics was performed on Min6 cells exposed to epinephrine for 4 hours and compared to controls. Epinephrine, but not vehicle, reduced (P<0.01) oxygen consumption rates in rat islets and Min6 cells to 64 ± 6% and 65 ± 1% of baseline, respectively, and yohimbine restored oxygen consumption to rates not different from baseline. In Min6 cells incubated with epinephrine rates of 14C glucose oxidation were reduced (P<0.01) 66 ± 4% compared to vehicle controls. These results demonstrate that acute epinephrine exposure suppresses glucose oxidation in β cells via the specific adrenergic receptor, Adrα2A, and indicate a new role for adrenergic regulation in GSIS.
Project description:Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose metabolism and inhibited by catecholamines through adrenergic receptor stimulation. We determined whether catecholamines suppress oxidative metabolism in ?-cells through adrenergic receptors. In Min6 cells and isolated rat islets, epinephrine decreased oxygen consumption rates compared to vehicle control or co-administration of epinephrine with ?2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine. Epinephrine also decreased forskolin-stimulated oxygen consumption rates, indicating cAMP dependent and independent actions. Furthermore, glucose oxidation rates were decreased with epinephrine, independent of the exocytosis of insulin, which was blocked with yohimbine. We evaluated metabolic targets through proteomic analysis after 4?h epinephrine exposure that revealed 466 differentially expressed proteins that were significantly enriched for processes including oxidative metabolism, protein turnover, exocytosis, and cell proliferation. These results demonstrate that acute ?2-adrenergic stimulation suppresses glucose oxidation in ?-cells independent of nutrient availability and insulin exocytosis, while cAMP concentrations are elevated. Proteomics and immunoblots revealed changes in electron transport chain proteins that were correlated with lower metabolic reducing equivalents, intracellular ATP concentrations, and altered mitochondrial membrane potential implicating a new role for adrenergic control of mitochondrial function and ultimately insulin secretion.
Project description:The effects on the pancreatic B cell of streptozotocin and its aglucone derivative N-nitrosomethylurea were investigated in obese-hyperglycaemic mice and their lean littermates. Both streptozotocin and N-nitrosomethylurea were found to be B-cytotoxic although N-nitrosomethylurea produced less islet damage. Both substances decreased the concentrations of NAD(+) in the islet cells to about 10% of the control values within 2h after injection. This NAD(+) depletion was prevented by injection of nicotinamide 10min after the administration of streptozotocin or N-nitrosomethylurea. In islets taken from animals 10min after injection of streptozotocin or N-nitrosomethylurea there was no stimulatory effect of glucose on the respiration or insulin release and the oxidation of glucose was markedly decreased. Addition of nicotinamide (10mm) to the incubated islets restored glucose stimulation of both the oxygen consumption and insulin release. It is concluded that islet NAD(+) depletion is probably important for the B-cytotoxin action of N-nitrosomethylurea and streptozotocin. The glucose residue in the streptozotocin molecule may potentiate the B-cytotoxic action of this drug in mice.
Project description:The function and viability of cultured, transplanted, or encapsulated pancreatic islets is often limited by hypoxia because these islets have lost their vasculature during the isolation process and have to rely on gradient-driven passive diffusion, which cannot provide adequate oxygen transport. Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) are particularly susceptible due to their relatively large size, large metabolic demand, and increased sensitivity to hypoxia. Here, finite element method (FEM) based multiphysics models are explored to describe oxygen transport and cell viability in avascular islets both in static and in moving culture media.Two- and three-dimensional models were built in COMSOL Multiphysics using the convection and diffusion as well as the incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics application modes. Oxygen consumption was assumed to follow Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics and to cease when local concentrations fell below a critical threshold; in a dynamic model, it was also allowed to increase with increasing glucose concentration.Partial differential equation (PDE) based exploratory cellular-level oxygen consumption and cell viability models incorporating physiologically realistic assumptions have been implemented for fully scaled cell culture geometries with 100, 150, and 200 microm diameter islets as representative. Calculated oxygen concentrations and intra-islet regions likely to suffer from hypoxia-related necrosis obtained for traditional flask-type cultures, oxygen-permeable silicone-rubber membrane bottom cultures, and perifusion chambers with flowing media and varying incoming glucose levels are presented in detail illustrated with corresponding colour-coded figures and animations.Results of the computational models are, as a first estimate, in good quantitative agreement with existing experimental evidence, and they confirm that during culture, hypoxia is often a problem for non-vascularised islet and can lead to considerable cell death (necrosis), especially in the core region of larger islets. Such models are of considerable interest to improve the function and viability of cultured, transplanted, or encapsulated islets. The present implementation allows convenient extension to true multiphysics applications that solve coupled physics phenomena such as diffusion and consumption with convection due to flowing or moving media.
Project description:<h4>Aims/hypothesis</h4>ZBED6 (zinc finger, BED-type containing 6) is known to regulate muscle mass by suppression of Igf2 gene transcription. In insulin-producing cell lines, ZBED6 maintains proliferative capacity at the expense of differentiation and beta cell function. The aim was to study the impact of Zbed6 knockout on beta cell function and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6 mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Beta cell area and proliferation were determined in Zbed6 knockout mice using immunohistochemical analysis. Muscle and fat distribution were assessed using micro-computed tomography. Islet gene expression was assessed by RNA sequencing. Effects of a high-fat diet were analysed by glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. ZBED6 was overexpressed in EndoC-βH1 cells and human islet cells using an adenoviral vector. Beta cell cell-cycle analysis, insulin release and mitochondrial function were studied in vitro using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry, ELISA, the Seahorse technique, and the fluorescent probes JC-1 and MitoSox.<h4>Results</h4>Islets from Zbed6 knockout mice showed lowered expression of the cell cycle gene Pttg1, decreased beta cell proliferation and decreased beta cell area, which occurred independently from ZBED6 effects on Igf2 gene expression. Zbed6 knockout mice, but not wild-type mice, developed glucose intolerance when given a high-fat diet. The high-fat diet Zbed6 knockout islets displayed upregulated expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes and genes associated with beta cell differentiation. In vitro, ZBED6 overexpression resulted in increased EndoC-βH1 cell proliferation and a reduced glucose-stimulated insulin release in human islets. ZBED6 also reduced mitochondrial JC-1 J-aggregate formation, mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, both at basal and palmitate + high glucose-stimulated conditions. ZBED6-induced inhibition of OCR was not rescued by IGF2 addition. ZBED6 reduced levels of the mitochondrial regulator PPAR-γ related coactivator 1 protein (PRC) and bound its promoter/enhancer region. Knockdown of PRC resulted in a lowered OCR.<h4>Conclusions/interpretation</h4>It is concluded that ZBED6 is required for normal beta cell replication and also limits excessive beta cell mitochondrial activation in response to an increased functional demand. ZBED6 may act, at least in part, by restricting PRC-mediated mitochondrial activation/ROS production, which may lead to protection against beta cell dysfunction and glucose intolerance in vivo.
Project description:The reduction of functional ? cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Here, we studied metabolic functions and islet gene expression profiles of C57BL/6J mice with naturally occurring nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) deletion mutation, a widely used model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes. On high fat diet (HF), the mice developed obesity and hyperinsulinemia, while blood glucose levels were only mildly elevated indicating a substantial capacity to compensate for insulin resistance. The basal serum insulin levels were elevated in HF mice, but insulin secretion in response to glucose load was significantly blunted. Hyperinsulinemia in HF fed mice was associated with an increase in islet mass and size along with higher BrdU incorporation to ? cells. The temporal profiles of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) of isolated islets were comparable in HF and normal chow fed mice. Islets isolated from HF fed mice had elevated basal oxygen consumption per islet but failed to increase oxygen consumption further in response to glucose or carbonyl cyanide-4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). To obtain an unbiased assessment of metabolic pathways in islets, we performed microarray analysis comparing gene expression in islets from HF to normal chow-fed mice. A few genes, for example, those genes involved in the protection against oxidative stress (hypoxia upregulated protein 1) and Pgc1? were up-regulated in HF islets. In contrast, several genes in extracellular matrix and other pathways were suppressed in HF islets. These results indicate that islets from C57BL/6J mice with NNT deletion mutation develop structural, metabolic and gene expression features consistent with compensation and decompensation in response to HF diet.
Project description:Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic ?-cells requires an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Glucose uptake into ?-cells promotes Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In other cell types, Ca2+ and ROS jointly induce Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels. Therefore, we explored here if RyR-mediated Ca2+ release contributes to GSIS in ?-cell islets isolated from male rats. Stimulatory glucose increased islet insulin secretion, and promoted ROS generation in islets and dissociated ?-cells. Conventional PCR assays and immunostaining confirmed that ?-cells express RyR2, the cardiac RyR isoform. Extended incubation of ?-cell islets with inhibitory ryanodine suppressed GSIS; so did the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which also decreased insulin secretion induced by glucose plus caffeine. Inhibitory ryanodine or NAC did not affect insulin secretion induced by glucose plus carbachol, which engages inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Incubation of islets with H2O2 in basal glucose increased insulin secretion 2-fold. Inhibitory ryanodine significantly decreased H2O2-stimulated insulin secretion and prevented the 4.5-fold increase of cytoplasmic [Ca2+] produced by incubation of dissociated ?-cells with H2O2. Addition of stimulatory glucose or H2O2 (in basal glucose) to ?-cells disaggregated from islets increased RyR2 S-glutathionylation to similar levels, measured by a proximity ligation assay; in contrast, NAC significantly reduced the RyR2 S-glutathionylation increase produced by stimulatory glucose. We propose that RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, induced by the concomitant increases in [Ca2+] and ROS produced by stimulatory glucose, is an essential step in GSIS.