Different patterns of expansion, contraction and memory differentiation of HIV-1 Gag-specific CD8 T cells elicited by adenovirus type 5 and modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines.
ABSTRACT: The magnitude and functional quality of antiviral CD8 T cell responses are critical for the efficacy of T cell based vaccines. Here, we investigate the influence of two popular viral vectors, adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), on expansion, contraction and memory differentiation of HIV-1 Gag insert-specific CD8 T cell responses following immunization and show different patterns for the two recombinant viral vectors. The Ad5 vector primed 6-fold higher levels of insert-specific CD8 effector T cells than the MVA vector. The Ad5-primed effector cells also underwent less contraction (<2-fold) than the MVA-primed cells (>5-fold). The Ad5-primed memory cells were predominantly CD62L negative (effector memory) whereas the MVA-primed memory cells were predominantly CD62L positive (central memory). Consistent with their memory phenotype, MVA-primed CD8 T cells underwent higher fold expansion than Ad5-primed CD8 T cells following a homologous or heterologous boost. Impressively, the Ad5 boost changed the quality of MVA-primed memory response such that they undergo less contraction with effector memory phenotype. However, the MVA boost did not influence the contraction and memory phenotype of Ad5-primed response. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that vaccine vector strongly influences the expansion, contraction and the functional quality of insert-specific CD8 T cell responses and have implications for vaccine development against infectious diseases.
Project description:We compared the relative efficacies against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge of three vaccine regimens that elicited similar frequencies of SIV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses but differed in the level of antibody responses to the gp120 envelope protein. All macaques were primed with DNA plasmids expressing SIV gag, pol, env, and Retanef genes and were boosted with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing the same genes, either once (1 × MVA) or twice (2 × MVA), or were boosted once with MVA followed by a single boost with replication-competent adenovirus (Ad) type 5 host range mutant (Ad5 h) expressing SIV gag and nef genes but not Retanef or env (1 × MVA/Ad5). While two of the vaccine regimens (1 × MVA and 1 × MVA/Ad5) protected from high levels of SIV replication only during the acute phase of infection, the 2 × MVA regimen, with the highest anti-SIV gp120 titers, protected during the acute phase and transiently during the chronic phase of infection. Mamu-A*01 macaques of this third group exhibited persistent Gag CD8(+)CM9(+) effector memory T cells with low expression of surface Programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor and high levels of expression of genes associated with major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II antigen. The fact that control of SIV replication was associated with both high titers of antibodies to the SIV envelope protein and durable effector SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells suggests the hypothesis that the presence of antibodies at the time of challenge may increase innate immune recruiting activity by enhancing antigen uptake and may result in improvement of the quality and potency of secondary SIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses.
Project description:T-cell based vaccines have been considered as attractive candidates for prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. In this study we compared the magnitude and phenotypic characteristics of CD8+ T-cells induced by three commonly used viral vectors, Adenovirus-5 (Ad5), Vaccinia virus (VV) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing the HCV NS3/4A protein. C57/BL6 mice were primed with DNA expressing NS3/4A and boosted with each of the viral vectors in individual groups of mice. We then tracked the vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell responses using pentamer binding and cytokine production analysis. Overall, our data indicate that the memory cells induced by Ad5 were inferior to those induced by VV or MVA. We found that Ad5 boosting resulted in rapid expansion and significantly higher frequencies of NS3-specific T-cells compared to VV and MVA boosting. However, the functional profiles, assessed through analysis of the memory cell marker CD127 and the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2 in the blood, spleen, and liver; and measurements of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-2 production indicated significantly lower frequencies of long-lived memory T-cells following Ad5 boosting compared to VV and MVA. This same set of analyses suggested that the memory cells induced following boosting with MVA were superior to those induced by both Ad5 and VV. This superiority of the MVA-induced CD8+ T-cells was confirmed following surrogate challenge of mice with a recombinant mouse herpes virus expressing the HCV NS3 protein. Higher levels of NS3-specific CD8+ T-cells displaying the functional markers CD69, Ki67 and Granzyme B were found in the spleens of mice boosted with MVA compared to VV and Ad5, both alone and in combination. These data suggest that MVA may be a more successful viral vector for induction of effective CD8+ T-cell responses against hepatitis C virus.
Project description:We characterized prime-boost vaccine regimens using heterologous and homologous vector and gene inserts. Heterologous regimens offer a promising approach that focuses the cell-mediated immune response on the insert and away from vector-dominated responses. Ad35-GRIN/ENV (Ad35-GE) vaccine is comprised of two vectors containing sequences from HIV-1 subtype A gag, rt, int, nef (Ad35-GRIN) and env (Ad35-ENV). MVA-CMDR (MVA-C), MVA-KEA (MVA-K) and MVA-TZC (MVA-T) vaccines contain gag, env and pol genes from HIV-1 subtypes CRF01_AE, A and C, respectively. Balb/c mice were immunized with different heterologous and homologous vector and insert prime-boost combinations. HIV and vector-specific immune responses were quantified post-boost vaccination. Gag-specific IFN-? ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) (CD107a, IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2), pentamer staining and T-cell phenotyping were used to differentiate responses to inserts and vectors. Ad35-GE prime followed by boost with any of the recombinant MVA constructs (rMVA) induced CD8+ Gag-specific responses superior to Ad35-GE-Ad35-GE or rMVA-rMVA prime-boost combinations. Notably, there was a shift toward insert-focus responses using heterologous vector prime-boost regimens. Gag-specific central and effector memory T cells were generated more rapidly and in greater numbers in the heterologous compared to the homologous prime-boost regimens. These results suggest that heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimens enhance immunity by increasing the magnitude, onset and multifunctionality of the insert-specific cell-mediated immune response compared to homologous vaccination regimens. This study supports the rationale for testing heterologous prime-boost regimens in humans.
Project description:Tumor antigen-primed CD8 T cells differentiate into effector T cells that kill tumor cells rapidly, whereas durable responses of CD8 T cells are required to cope with long-lasting tumor growth. However, it is not well known how persisting CD8 T cells are generated. In this study, we analyzed CD8 T cells primed by antigens in tumor-draining lymph nodes and found that CD8 T cells first differentiated into a CD62L-intermediate (CD62Lint) stage upon antigen stimulation. These cells gave rise to tumor-infiltrating CD62L-CD44high Bcl6- effector T cells and CD62L+CD44highBcl6+ memory-like T cells. Memory-like T cells within the tumor expressed CD127, CXCR3 and had the potential to proliferate significantly when they were transferred into tumor-bearing mice. Bcl6 expression in these T cells was critical because Bcl6-/-CD62L+CD44highCD8T cells within the tumor were defective in expansion after secondary transfer. Taken together, our findings show that CD62L+CD44highBcl6+ cells are generated from highly proliferating CD62Lint T cells and retain high proliferative potential, which contributes to replenishment of effector T cells within the tumor.
Project description:The rapid recall of influenza virus-specific CD8(+) T cell effector function is protective, although our understanding of T cell memory remains incomplete. Recent debate has focused particularly on the CD62L lymph node homing receptor. The present analysis shows that although functional memory can be established from both CD62L(hi) and CD62L(lo) CD8(+) T cell subsets soon after initial encounter between naïve precursors and antigen, the optimal precursors are CD8(+)CD44(hi)CD25(lo) immune lymphocytes isolated from draining lymph nodes on day 3.5 after influenza virus infection. Analysis of primed T cells at different times after challenge indicates that the capacity to transfer memory is diminished at the peak of the primary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, challenging speculations that the transition to memory first requires full differentiation to effector status. It seems that location rather than CD62Lhi/lo phenotype may be the more profitable focus for further dissection of the early establishment of T cell memory.
Project description:Memory CD8+ T cell quantity and quality determine protective efficacy against reinfection. Heterologous prime boost vaccination minimizes contraction of anamnestic effectors and maximizes memory CD8+ T cell quantity but reportedly erodes proliferative potential and protective efficacy. This study exploited heterologous prime boost vaccination to discover parameters regulating effector CD8+ T cell contraction and memory differentiation. When abundant memory T cells were established, boosting induced only 5-8 cell divisions, unusually rapid memory T cell differentiation as measured by phenotype and mitochondrial bioenergetic function, long-lived survival of 50% of effector T cells, and preservation of proliferative potential. Conversely, boosting in situations of low memory CD8+ T cell frequencies induced many cell divisions, increased contraction of effector cells, and caused senescence, low mitochondrial membrane potential, and poorly protective memory. Thus, anamnestic memory T cell differentiation is flexible, and abundant quantity can be achieved while maximizing protective efficacy and preserving proliferative potential.
Project description:Vaccines formulated with nonreplicating pathogens require adjuvants to help bolster immunogenicity. The role of adjuvants in Ab production has been well studied, but how they influence memory CD8(+) T cell differentiation remains poorly defined. In this study we implemented dendritic cell-mediated immunization to study the effects of commonly used adjuvants, TLR ligands, on effector and memory CD8(+) T cell differentiation in mice. Intriguingly, we found that the TLR4 ligand LPS was far more superior to other TLR ligands in generating memory CD8(+) T cells upon immunization. LPS boosted clonal expansion similar to the other adjuvants, but fewer of the activated CD8(+) T cells died during contraction, generating a larger pool of memory cells. Surprisingly, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), another TLR4 ligand, enhanced clonal expansion of effector CD8(+) T cells, but it also promoted their terminal differentiation and contraction; thus, fewer memory CD8(+) T cells formed, and MPLA-primed animals were less protected against secondary infection compared with those primed with LPS. Furthermore, gene expression profiling revealed that LPS-primed effector cells displayed a stronger pro-memory gene expression signature, whereas the gene expression profile of MPLA-primed effector cells aligned closer with terminal effector CD8(+) T cells. Lastly, we demonstrated that the LPS-TLR4-derived "pro-memory" signals were MyD88, but not Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-?, dependent. This study reveals the influential power of adjuvants on the quantity and quality of CD8(+) T cell memory, and that attention to adjuvant selection is crucial because boosting effector cell expansion may not always equate with more memory T cells or greater protection.
Project description:Based on the partial efficacy of the HIV/AIDS Thai trial (RV144) with a canarypox vector prime and protein boost, attenuated poxvirus recombinants expressing HIV-1 antigens are increasingly sought as vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS. Here we describe using systems analysis the biological and immunological characteristics of the attenuated vaccinia virus Ankara strain expressing the HIV-1 antigens Env/Gag-Pol-Nef of HIV-1 of clade C (referred as MVA-C). MVA-C infection of human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) induced the expression of HIV-1 antigens at high levels from 2 to 8 hpi and triggered moDCs maturation as revealed by enhanced expression of HLA-DR, CD86, CD40, HLA-A2, and CD80 molecules. Infection ex vivo of purified mDC and pDC with MVA-C induced the expression of immunoregulatory pathways associated with antiviral responses, antigen presentation, T cell and B cell responses. Similarly, human whole blood or primary macrophages infected with MVA-C express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines involved with T cell activation. The vector MVA-C has the ability to cross-present antigens to HIV-specific CD8 T cells in vitro and to increase CD8 T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The immunogenic profiling in mice after DNA-C prime/MVA-C boost combination revealed activation of HIV-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell memory responses that are polyfunctional and with effector memory phenotype. Env-specific IgG binding antibodies were also produced in animals receiving DNA-C prime/MVA-C boost. Our systems analysis of profiling immune response to MVA-C infection highlights the potential benefit of MVA-C as vaccine candidate against HIV/AIDS for clade C, the prevalent subtype virus in the most affected areas of the world.
Project description:The Bacillus Calmette - Guerin (BCG) vaccine provides a critical but limited defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). More than 60 years after the widespread introduction of BCG, there is an urgent need for a better vaccine. A large body of pre-clinical research continues to support ongoing clinical trials to assess whether viral vectors expressing M.tb antigens that are shared by BCG and M.tb, can be used alongside BCG to enhance protection. A major focus involves using multiple unique viral vectors to limit anti-vector immunity and thereby enhance responses to the insert antigen delivered. The successful introduction of viral vector vaccines to target M.tb and other pathogens will be reliant on reducing the costs when using multiple vectors and inhibiting the development of unwanted anti-vector responses that interfere with the response to insert antigen. This study examines methods to reduce the logistical costs of vaccination by mixing different viral vectors that share the same insert antigen in one vaccine; and whether combining different viral vectors reduces anti-vector immunity to improve immunogenicity to the insert antigen. Here we show that a homologous prime-boost regimen with a mixture of MVA (Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara) and Ad5 (human adenovirus type 5) vectors both expressing Ag85A in a single vaccine preparation is able to reduce anti-vector immunity, compared with a homologous prime-boost regimen with either vector alone. However, the level of immunogenicity induced by the homologous mixture remained comparable to that induced with single viral vectors and was less immunogenic than a heterologous Ad5 prime-MVA-boost regimen. These findings advance the understanding of how anti-vector immunity maybe reduced in viral vector vaccination regimens. Furthermore, an insight is provided to the impact on vaccine immunogenicity from altering vaccination methods to reduce the logistical demands of using separate vaccine preparations in the field.
Project description:Here we implemented a simple dendritic cell (DC)-mediated immunization approach to study the effects of commonly used adjuvants, Toll like receptor (TLR) ligands, on effector CD8 T cell differentiation and memory T cell development. To our surprise, we found that the TLR4 ligand LPS was far more superior to other TLR ligands in generating memory CD8 T cells upon immunization. LPS boosted clonal expansion similar to the other adjuvants, but fewer of the activated CD8 T cells died during contraction, generating a larger pool of memory cells. Intriguingly, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), another TLR4 ligand, enhanced clonal expansion of effector CD8 T cells, but also promoted their terminal differentiation and contraction; thus, fewer memory CD8 T cells formed and MPLA-primed animals were less protected against secondary infection compared to those primed with LPS. Furthermore, gene expression profiling revealed that LPS-primed effector cells displayed a stronger pro-memory gene expression signature, whereas the gene expression profile of MPLA-primed effector cells had aligned closer with terminal effector CD8 T cells. Mice that contain small number of P14 CD8 T cells were immunized with DC-33 either alone or in combination with LPS or MPLA. KLRG1loIL-7Rhi MPECs were purified by FACS sort, and mRNA isolated from MPECs was subjected to whole-genome expression profiling using Illumina MouseWG-6 v2.0 Expression BeadChip.