Proteomic biomarkers for acute interstitial lung disease in gefitinib-treated Japanese lung cancer patients.
ABSTRACT: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) events have been reported in Japanese non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We investigated proteomic biomarkers for mechanistic insights and improved prediction of ILD. Blood plasma was collected from 43 gefitinib-treated NSCLC patients developing acute ILD (confirmed by blinded diagnostic review) and 123 randomly selected controls in a nested case-control study within a pharmacoepidemiological cohort study in Japan. We generated ?7 million tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) measurements with extensive quality control and validation, producing one of the largest proteomic lung cancer datasets to date, incorporating rigorous study design, phenotype definition, and evaluation of sample processing. After alignment, scaling, and measurement batch adjustment, we identified 41 peptide peaks representing 29 proteins best predicting ILD. Multivariate peptide, protein, and pathway modeling achieved ILD prediction comparable to previously identified clinical variables; combining the two provided some improvement. The acute phase response pathway was strongly represented (17 of 29 proteins, p?=?1.0×10(-25)), suggesting a key role with potential utility as a marker for increased risk of acute ILD events. Validation by Western blotting showed correlation for identified proteins, confirming that robust results can be generated from an MS/MS platform implementing strict quality control.
Project description:Background: Lung cancer is a well-known comorbidity of interstitial lung disease (ILD), and the actual efficacy and safety of chemotherapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer and interstitial lung disease (NSCLC-ILD) have not been determined. We conducted this meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy for patients with NSCLC-ILD. Methods: We searched related studies from the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase. The endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), 1-year overall survival rate (1-yOS rate), and first-line chemotherapy-related acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease rate (AE-ILD rate). Results: We included 21 studies involving 684 patients in our analysis. The pooled ORR was 43% (95% CI: 38.0-49.0%), and the pooled DCR was 80.0% (95% CI: 75.7-83.9%). The modified overall 1-yOS rate was 33.0% (95% CI: 29.0-37.0%). The pooled AE-ILD rate was 8.07% (95% CI: 6.12-10.26%). Subgroup analysis revealed a trend for lower AE-ILD rate (4.98%; 95% CI: 2.44-8.37%) in patients with carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel. Lung function and AE-ILD may be associated with the prognosis of patients with NSCLC-ILD. Conclusions: First-line chemotherapy is effective in patients with NSCLC-ILD, and the AE-ILD rate is acceptable, but the prognosis is limited. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to explore more appropriate treatment regimens to improve the prognosis of patients with NSCLC-ILD.
Project description:This study compared the effect of collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CVD-ILD) with that of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) on the outcomes of lung cancer surgery.This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and compared the data of 16 patients with CVD-ILD with those of 70 patients with IIPs. The patterns of interstitial lung disease (ILD) on chest computed tomography were classified into usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) patterns.The numbers of UIP and NSIP patterns were 10 (62.5%) and 6 (37.5%) patients in CVD-ILD group, and 62 (88.6%) and 8 (11.4%) patients in IIPs group, respectively. A postoperative acute exacerbation (AE) appeared in 1 patient (6.3%) in the CVD-ILD group and 6 patients (8.6%) in the IIPs group. No significant differences in the incidence of postoperative AE and mortalities were observed between the two groups. The five-year overall survival rates of the CVD-ILD and IIPs groups were 37.5 and 49.2%, respectively.Surgery for NSCLC in CVD-ILD patients appear to cause no increase in postoperative AE and mortality in comparison to that seen in IIPs patients. Similar to IIPs, CVD-ILD might therefore affect the prognosis of resected NSCLC.
Project description:Drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) is not uncommon, with diverse patterns ranging from benign infiltrates to the potentially fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. As acute respiratory failure due to drug-associated ILD has an unpredictable onset and rapid time course, establishing a diagnosis is often difficult. An accurate diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological (including high-resolution computed tomography) and histological manifestations, although is often only possible by exclusion. Cancer chemotherapy is commonly associated with acute disease that, on pathology, is often diffuse alveolar damage. Furthermore, a combination of drugs with or without radiotherapy can increase the risk of ILD. This article reviews treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that are associated with the development of ILD and how systematic evaluation of the possible role of these drugs in ILD is warranted. A difference between Japan and the rest of the world in reporting rates of ILD when gefitinib ('Iressa') has been used in advanced NSCLC is also discussed. However, the difference remains unexplained, leaving important epidemiological and mechanistic questions.
Project description:Introduction: Data on the efficacy and risk of curative-intent chemoradiotherapy in patients with inoperable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) are limited. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ILD classification on acute exacerbation (AE) of ILD and prognosis in patients with stage III NSCLC and ILD treated with chemoradiotherapy. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with stage III NSCLC and ILD treated with curative-intent chemoradiotherapy as the first-line treatment at the Shizuoka Cancer Center between June 2009 and May 2014. Results: Of 37 patients, 17 (46%) developed AE of ILD worse than grade 3 within 1 year after the last irradiation. In univariate analysis, the incidence rate of AE of ILD was lower in patients with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern than in those with a UIP pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that ILD classification was significantly associated with the incidence of AE of ILD. The median overall survival (OS) durations in patients with a non-UIP pattern and a UIP pattern were 16.5 and 9.3 months, respectively. In univariate analysis, patients with a non-UIP pattern showed better survival. Multivariate analysis showed that ILD classification was a significant independent prognostic factor. Conclusion: The incidence of AE of ILD was high in patients with stage III NSCLC and ILD treated with chemoradiotherapy as the first-line treatment. However, diagnosis of a non-UIP pattern could predict lower risk of AE of ILD and longer OS durations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease (AE-ILD) is the most serious complication in lung cancer patients with pre-existing ILD receiving chemotherapy. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in pathogenesis of AE-ILD is conflicting. The influence of bevacizumab (Bev), a monoclonal antibody against VEGF, on lung cancer patients with pre-existing ILD remains unclear. We examined the effect of Bev on reducing AE-ILD risk in non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving chemotherapy. METHODS:We analysed incidence of AE-ILD and outcomes of 48 patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC with ILD who received first-line chemotherapy with (Bev group, n = 17) and without (non-Bev group, n = 31) Bev between July 2011 and July 2016. Gray's test, which was competing risk analysis during the study period, was performed for both groups. RESULTS:The most common regimen used for first-line chemotherapy was the combination of carboplatin plus pemetrexed (PEM) in both groups. The incidences of chemotherapy-related AE-ILD 120 days after first-line chemotherapy initiation were significantly lower in the Bev than in the non-Bev groups (0% vs. 22.6%, p = 0.037, Gray's test). However, there were no differences in development of progressive disease of lung cancer and other events as the competing risk factors of AE-ILD between the two groups. Only patients receiving PEM-containing regimens also showed a significant difference in the incidence of AE-ILD between the two groups (p = 0.044). The overall-cumulative incidence of AE-ILD during the first-line and subsequent chemotherapy was 29.2% (14 of the 48). The median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the Bev than in the non-Bev groups (8.0 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS:The addition of Bev to chemotherapy regimens may reduce the risk of chemotherapy-related AE-ILD in patients with lung cancer.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) level is an established diagnostic marker of interstitial lung disease (ILD). However, it is also elevated in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The significance of circulating thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CC chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17) in malignant diseases remains unknown. METHODS: We measured circulating TARC/CCL17 and KL-6 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively, in 26 patients with malignant disease and six patients with benign lung disease (BLD). The cutoff levels were 500 U/mL for KL-6 and 450 pg/mL for TARC/CCL17. The significance of the markers was evaluated in relationship to the presence of ILD (n=10). The statistical significance was set at P<0.05. RESULTS: The KL-6 positive ratio was significantly higher in the patients with NSCLC (n=17) than in those with BLD. There was a significant difference in the KL-6 positive ratio between the patients with NSCLC without ILD and those with BLD without ILD. However, there were no significant differences in the TARC/CCL17 positive ratio between the patients with NSCLC and BLD or between those with NSCLC without ILD and those with BLD without ILD. The TARC/CCL17 positive ratio was significantly higher in the patients with malignancy and ILD than in those without ILD. There was also a significant difference in the TARC/CCL17 positive ratio between the patients with NSCLC without ILD and those with ILD. CONCLUSION: TARC/CCL17 may be useful for the diagnosis of ILD in patients with malignancies. Confirmation of the results is warranted through a large-scale study.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to clarify the opinions of radiation oncologists in Japan regarding treatment for lung cancer complicated with interstitial lung disease (ILD) by a questionnaire survey, and the risk of acute exacerbation (AE) after radiotherapy. Questionnaires were sent to all of the facilities in which radiation therapy is performed for lung cancer in Japan by using the mailing list of the Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology (JASTRO). The questionnaire survey was conducted to clarify who judges the existence of ILD, the indications for radiation therapy in cases of ILD-combined lung cancer, and the ratio of ILD-combined lung cancer in lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. Patients with ILD-combined lung cancer who received radiotherapy during the period from April 2014 to March 2015 were retrospectively analysed. Any cases of AE without any other obvious cause were included. ILD confirmation was performed by central radiologists using computed tomography images. A total of 47 facilities responded to the questionnaire. Radiation therapy was an option in cases of ILD-combined lung cancer in 39 (83%) of the facilities. The indication for radiation therapy was based on image findings in 35 (90%) of the 39 facilities in which radiation therapy was acceptable or was a choice in some cases of ILD. The final indication was based on the opinion of the pulmonologist in 29 (74%) of those 39 facilities. In fiscal year 2014, a total of 2128 patients in 38 facilities received chest irradiation. Seventy-eight (3.7%) of those 2128 patients had ILD-combined lung cancer. Sixty-seven patients were included in patient analysis. AE occurred in 5 patients (7.5%), and one of those 5 patients (20.0%) died from radiation-induced AE. The median period from radiotherapy to AE was 4 months (range, 2-7 months). The following four independent risk factors for AE were identified in univariate analysis: non-advanced age (<75 years), increased C-reactive protein level (?0.3 mg/dl), adjuvant chemotherapy and ? Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis. Radiotherapy was an option for lung cancer even in cases with ILD in 83% (39/47) of the facilities in Japan. Seventy-eight (3.7%) of 2128 patients who received radiation therapy for lung cancer had ILD. Radiotherapy for ILD-combined lung cancer may induce AE at a substantial rate and AE can be life-threatening. Minimizing the risk of radiation pneumonitis might enable the risk of AE to be reduced.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Interstitial lung disease (ILD) induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is a potentially life-threatening adverse event. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the development of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), especially ILD, was associated with treatment efficacy and to research the features and risk factors of ILD in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS:Between December 2015 and November 2018, 130 advanced NSCLC patients were treated with nivolumab, pembrolizumab or atezolizumab. The patients were categorized into two groups (irAEs group or non-irAEs group). Subsequently, we divided the irAEs group into two groups based on the incidence of ILD (ILD group and irAEs-non-ILD group). Treatment efficacy and the characteristics of ILD were evaluated. RESULTS:A total of 39 (30%) patients developed irAEs. ILD was observed in 16 (12%) patients. Patients with ILD had a higher objective response rate (ORR) compared with irAEs-non-ILD patients and non-irAEs patients (63%, 43% and 22%, respectively). Median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 15.9?months in ILD patients, 5.4?months in irAEs-non-ILD patients and 3.3?months in non-irAEs patients (log-rank test, P = 0.033). Pre-existing interstitial pneumonia (IP) was an independent risk factor for ILD-induced ICIs (odds ratio [OR] 14.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.16-99.6, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:ORR and PFS were significantly better in ILD patients than in irAEs-non-ILD and non-irAEs patients. Pre-existing history of IP was an independent risk factor for ILD-induced ICIs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has become an established treatment option for medically-inoperable early-stage (Stage I-IIA) non-small cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC). SABR is able to obtain high rates of local control with low rates of symptomatic toxicity in this patient population. However, in a subset of patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD), elevated rates of SABR-related toxicity and mortality have been described. The Assessment of Precision Irradiation in Early Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Interstitial Lung Disease (ASPIRE-ILD) study will conduct a thorough prospective evaluation of the clinical outcomes, toxicity, changes in diagnostic test parameters and patient-related outcomes following SABR for ES-NSCLC for patients with fibrotic ILD. METHODS:ASPIRE-ILD is a single-arm Phase II prospective study. The accrual target is 39 adult patients with T1-2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer with co-existing ILD who are not candidates for surgical excision. Pathological confirmation of diagnosis is strongly recommended but not strictly required. Enrolled patients will be stratified by ILD-related mortality risk. The starting SABR dose will be 50?Gy in 5 fractions every other day (biologically effective dose: 100?Gy10 or 217?Gy3), but the radiation dose can be de-escalated up to two times to 50?Gy in 10 fractions daily (75?Gy10 or 133?Gy3) and 45?Gy in 15 fractions daily (58?Gy10 or 90?Gy3). Dose de-escalation will occur if 2 or more of the first 7 patients in a cohort experiences grade 5 toxicity within 6?months of treatment. Similarly, dose de-escalation can also occur if 2 or more of the first 7 patients with a specific subtype of ILD experiences grade 5 toxicity within 6?months of treatment. The primary endpoint is overall survival. Secondary endpoints include toxicity (CTC-AE 4.0), progression-free survival, local control, patient-reported outcomes (cough severity and quality of life), rates of ILD exacerbation and changes in pulmonary function tests/high-resolution computed tomography findings post-SABR. DISCUSSION:ASPIRE-ILD will be the first prospective study specifically designed to comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of SABR for ES-NSCLC in patients with co-existing ILD. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03485378. Date of registration: April 2, 2018.
Project description:Nivolumab improves overall survival rates of patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Among immune-related adverse events caused by nivolumab, interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a clinically serious and potentially life-threatening toxicity, for which appropriate treatment is needed immediately. However, ILD is sometimes difficult to distinguish from invasive lung adenocarcinoma using only computed tomography (CT) findings. A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. The patient developed dyspnoea after eight cycles of nivolumab, when chest CT indicated ILD classified with a cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) pattern. Although immunosuppressive therapies improved the CT findings temporarily, dyspnoea was re-exacerbated 2 months later. The CT findings helped in making the diagnosis of a combination of ILD and invasive lung cancer, confirmed by a transbronchial lung biopsy. In conclusion, nivolumab-related ILD and cancer invasion may concur and aggressive biopsy should be considered if nivolumab-related ILD is refractory to immunosuppressive therapy.