A calcineurin-independent mechanism of angiogenesis inhibition by a nonimmunosuppressive cyclosporin A analog.
ABSTRACT: Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a widely used immunosuppressant drug. Its immunosuppressive activity occurs through the inhibition of the protein phosphatase calcineurin via formation of a ternary complex with cyclophilin A (CypA). CsA also inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. This has been thought to occur through calcineurin inhibition as well. However, CsA is also a potent inhibitor of cyclophilins, a class of prolyl isomerases. Because calcineurin inhibition requires binding, and therefore inhibition of CypA, the relative contributions of calcineurin and cyclophilin inhibition in antiangiogenesis have not been addressed. We have taken a chemical biology approach to explore this question by dissociating the two activities of CsA at the molecular level. We have identified a nonimmunosuppressive analog of CsA that does not inhibit calcineurin but maintains inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation and in vivo angiogenesis. The same analog also maintains inhibition of all cyclophilin isoforms tested. We also show that a second, structurally distinct, cyclophilin inhibitor is sufficient to block endothelial cell proliferation. These results suggest that the inhibition of cyclophilins may play a larger role in the antiangiogenic activity of CsA than previously believed, and that cyclophilins may be potential antiangiogenic drug targets.
Project description:Alisporivir (ALV) is an 11-amino-acid hydrophobic cyclic peptide with N-methyl-D-alanine and N-ethyl-L-valine (NEV) residues at positions 3 and 4, respectively. ALV is a non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin A (CsA) derivative. This inhibitor targets cyclophilins (Cyps), a family of proteins with peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase enzymatic activity. Cyps act as protein chaperones and are involved in numerous cellular functions. Moreover, Cyps have been shown to be an essential cofactor for the replication of many viruses, including Hepatitis C virus and Human immunodeficiency virus, and have also been shown to be involved in mitochondrial diseases. For these reasons, cyclophilins represent an attractive drug target. The structure of ALV in complex with cyclophilin A (CypA), the most abundant Cyp in humans, has been determined at 1.5?Å resolution. This first structure of the CypA-ALV complex shows that the binding of ALV is highly similar to that of CsA. The high resolution allowed the unambiguous determination of the conformations of residues 3 and 4 in ALV when bound to its target. In particular, the side-chain conformation of NEV4 precludes the interaction of the CypA-ALV complex with calcineurin, a cellular protein phosphatase involved in the immune response, which explains the non-immunosuppressive property of ALV. This study provides detailed molecular insights into the CypA-ALV interaction.
Project description:The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits T-cell function by blocking the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. This effect is mediated by formation of a complex between the drug and cyclophilin (CyP), which creates a composite surface able to make high-affinity contacts with calcineurin. In vitro, the CyPB/CsA complex is more effective in inhibiting calcineurin than the CyPA/CsA and CyPC/CsA complexes, pointing to fine structural differences in the calcineurin-binding region. To delineate the calcineurin-binding region of CyPB, we mutated several amino acids, located in two loops corresponding to CyPA regions known to be involved, as follows: R76A, G77H, D155R, and D158R. Compared to wild-type CyPB, the G77H, D155R, and D158R mutants had intact isomerase and CsA-binding activities, indicating that no major conformational changes had taken place. When complexed to CsA, they all displayed only reduced affinity for calcineurin and much decreased inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity. These results strongly suggest that the three amino acids G77, D155, and D158 are directly involved in the interaction of CyPB/CsA with calcineurin, in agreement with their exposed position. The G77, D155, and D158 residues are not maintained in CyPA and might therefore account for the higher affinity of the CyPB/CsA complex for calcineurin.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The advent of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) provoked researchers to propose multiple antiviral strategies to improve patients' outcomes. Studies provide evidence that cyclosporine A (CsA) decreases SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro and decreases mortality rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. CsA binds cyclophilins, which isomerize prolines, affecting viral protein activity.<h4>Methods</h4>We investigated the proline composition from various coronavirus proteomes to identify proteins that may critically rely on cyclophilin's peptidyl-proline isomerase activity and found that the nucleocapsid (N) protein significantly depends on cyclophilin A (CyPA). We modeled CyPA and N protein interactions to demonstrate the N protein as a potential indirect therapeutic target of CsA, which we propose may impede coronavirus replication by obstructing nucleocapsid folding.<h4>Results</h4>Finally, we analyzed the literature and protein-protein interactions, finding evidence that, by inhibiting CyPA, CsA may impact coagulation proteins and hemostasis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Despite CsA's promising antiviral characteristics, the interactions between cyclophilins and coagulation factors emphasize risk stratification for COVID patients with thrombosis dispositions.
Project description:Cyclophilins are peptidyl cis-trans prolyl isomerases (PPIases), whose activity is typically inhibited by cyclosporine A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressor. Cyclophilins are also chaperones. Emerging evidence supports that cyclophilins present nonoverlapping PPIase and chaperone activities. The proteostasis of the disease-relevant substrates, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and 5 (STAT3/STAT5), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1), and M-opsin, is regulated by nonoverlapping chaperone and PPIase activities of the cyclophilin domain (CY) of Ranbp2, a multifunctional and modular scaffold that controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and proteostasis of selective substrates. Although highly homologous, CY and the archetypal cyclophilin A (CyPA) present distinct catalytic and CsA-binding activities owing to unique structural features between these cylophilins. We explored structural idiosyncrasies between CY and CyPA to screen in silico nearly 9 million small molecules (SM) against the CY PPIase pocket and identify SMs with selective bioactivity toward STAT3, hnRNPA2B1, or M-opsin proteostasis. We found three classes of SMs that enhance the cytokine-stimulated transcriptional activity of STAT3 without changing latent and activated STAT3 levels, down-regulate hnRNPA2B1 or M-opsin proteostasis, or a combination of these. Further, a SM that suppresses hnRNPA2B1 proteostasis also inhibits strongly and selectively the PPIase activity of CY. This study unravels chemical probes for multimodal regulation of CY of Ranbp2 and its substrates, and this regulation likely results in the allosterism stemming from the interconversion of conformational substates of cyclophilins. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of CY in drug discovery against disease-relevant substrates controlled by Ranbp2, and they open new opportunities for therapeutic interventions.
Project description:Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a member of cyclophilins, a family of the highly homologous peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases), which can bind to cyclosporin A (CsA). CypA plays critical roles in various biological processes, including protein folding, assembly, transportation, regulation of neuron growth, and HIV replication. The discovery of CypA inhibitor is now of a great special interest in the treatment of immunological disorders. In this study, a series of novel small molecular CypA inhibitors have been discovered by using structure-based virtual screening in conjunction with chemical synthesis and bioassay. The SPECS_1 database containing 85,000 small molecular compounds was searched by virtual screening against the crystal structure of human CypA. After SPR-based binding affinity assay, 15 compounds were found to show binding affinities to CypA at submicro-molar or micro-molar level (compounds 1-15). Seven compounds were selected as the starting point for the further structure modification in considering binding activity, synthesis difficulty, and structure similarity. We thus synthesized 40 new small molecular compounds (1-6, 15, 16a-q, 17a-d, and 18a-l), and four of which (compounds 16b, 16h, 16k, and 18g) showed high CypA PPIase inhibition activities with IC50s of 2.5-6.2 microM. Pharmacological assay indicated that these four compounds demonstrated somewhat inhibition activities against the proliferation of spleen cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: An understanding of host cell factors that affect viral replication contributes to elucidation of the mechanism for determination of viral tropism. Cyclophilin A (CypA), a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase), is a host factor essential for efficient replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in human cells. However, the role of cyclophilins in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effect of cyclosporine A (CsA), a PPIase inhibitor, on SIV replication. RESULTS: SIV replication in human CEM-SS T cells was not inhibited but rather enhanced by treatment with CsA, which inhibited HIV-1 replication. CsA treatment of target human cells enhanced an early step of SIV replication. CypA overexpression enhanced the early phase of HIV-1 but not SIV replication, while CypA knock-down resulted in suppression of HIV-1 but not SIV replication in CEM-SS cells, partially explaining different sensitivities of HIV-1 and SIV replication to CsA treatment. In contrast, CsA treatment inhibited SIV replication in macaque T cells; CsA treatment of either virus producer or target cells resulted in suppression of SIV replication. SIV infection was enhanced by CypA overexpression in macaque target cells. CONCLUSIONS: CsA treatment enhanced SIV replication in human T cells but abrogated SIV replication in macaque T cells, implying a host cell species-specific effect of CsA on SIV replication. Further analyses indicated a positive effect of CypA on SIV infection into macaque but not into human T cells. These results suggest possible contribution of CypA to the determination of SIV tropism.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cyclophilins (CyP), conserved in all genera, are known to have regulatory responses of various cellular processes including stress tolerance. Interestingly, CyP has a crucial role as peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases). Our earlier in silico based approach resulted into the identification of cyclophilin family from rice, Arabidopsis and yeast. In our recent report, we discovered a new OsCYP-25 from rice. Here, we identified a novel cyclophylin A-like protein (PiCyP) from Piriformospora indica which is responsible for abiotic stress tolerance in E. coli. RESULTS: Cyclophylin A-like protein (CyPA) (accession number GQ214003) was selected from cDNA library. The genomic organization CyPA revealed a 1304 bp of CyPA in P. indica genome, showing 10 exons and 9 introns. Further, CyPA was evident in PCR with gDNA and cDNA and Southern blot analysis. The phylogenetic examination of CyPA of P. indica showed that it is closed to human cyclophilin. The uniqueness of PiCyPA protein was apparent in western blot study. Kinetics of purified PiCyPA protein for its PPIas activity was determined via first order rate constant (0.104 s-1) in the presence of 1 ?g of PiCyPA, with increasing PiCyPA concentration, in the presence of cyclosporin A (CsA) and the inhibition constant (4.435 nM) of CsA for inhibition of PiCyPA. The differential response of E. coli harbouring pET28a-PiCypA was observed for their different degree of tolerance to different abiotic stresses as compared to empty pET28a vector. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of PiCyPA protein E. coli cells confer enhanced tolerance to wide range of abiotic stresses. Thus, this study provides the significance of PiCypA as a molecular chaperone which advanced cellular stress responses of E. coli cells under adverse conditions, and it, furthermore, confirms the mounting the sustainability of E. coli for exploitation in recombinant proteins production. Additionally, the PiCyPA gene cooperates substantial functions in cellular network of stress tolerance mechanism, essentially required for various developmental stages, and might be a potential paramount candidate for crop improvement and its sustainable production under adverse conditions.
Project description:The cyclophilins are a family of ubiquitous eukaryotic proteins first identified by high affinity for cyclosporin A (CsA). The immunosuppressant and cytotoxic effects of CsA are thought to result from formation of a toxic complex between cyclophilin and CsA rather than from inhibition of cyclophilin function. The physiological role(s) of the cyclophilins is unknown. Cyclophilins have in vitro peptidylprolyl cistrans isomerase (PPIase) activity, and thus may be involved in protein folding in vivo. We have isolated a yeast cyclophilin gene, CPR3, which encodes a presumptive mitochondrial isoform. While CPR3 disruption mutants lack any phenotype at 30 degrees C, they are unable to grow on L-lactate at 37 degrees C. Disruptions of two other cyclophilin genes (CPR1, CPR2) and of FPR1, the gene encoding an FK506 binding protein with PPIase activity, do not affect growth on L-lactate at 37 degrees C. L-Lactate metabolism requires transcriptional induction of CYB2, the gene encoding flavocytochrome b2; cpr3 mutants induce transcription of this gene normally. This result demonstrates a conditional lethal phenotype for a cyclophilin mutation and presents a system for genetic and biochemical analysis of cyclophilin function.
Project description:Cyclophilin (Cyp) and Ca<sup>2+</sup>/calcineurin proteins are cellular components related to fungal morphogenesis and virulence; however, their roles in mediating the pathogenesis of <i>Botrytis cinerea</i>, the causative agent of gray mold on over 1000 plant species, remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that disruption of cyclophilin gene <i>BcCYP2</i> did not impair the pathogen mycelial growth, osmotic and oxidative stress adaptation as well as cell wall integrity, but delayed conidial germination and germling development, altered conidial and sclerotial morphology, reduced infection cushion (IC) formation, sclerotial production and virulence. Exogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) rescued the deficiency of IC formation of the ?<i>Bccyp2</i> mutants, and exogenous cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor targeting cyclophilins, altered hyphal morphology and prevented host-cell penetration in the <i>BcCYP2</i> harboring strains. Moreover, calcineurin-dependent (CND) genes are differentially expressed in strains losing <i>BcCYP2</i> in the presence of CsA, suggesting that BcCyp2 functions in the upstream of cAMP- and Ca<sup>2+</sup>/calcineurin-dependent signaling pathways. Interestingly, during IC formation, expression of <i>BcCYP2</i> is downregulated in a mutant losing <i>BcJAR1</i>, a gene encoding histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylase that regulates fungal development and pathogenesis, in <i>B. cinerea</i>, implying that BcCyp2 functions under the control of BcJar1. Collectively, our findings provide new insights into cyclophilins mediating the pathogenesis of <i>B. cinerea</i> and potential targets for drug intervention for fungal diseases.
Project description:Renal excretion of citrate, an inhibitor of calcium stone formation, is controlled mainly by reabsorption via the apical Na(+)-dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC1 (SLC13A2) in the proximal tubule. Recently, it has been shown that the protein phosphatase calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK-506 induce hypocitraturia, a risk factor for nephrolithiasis in kidney transplant patients, but apparently through urine acidification. This suggests that these agents up-regulate NaDC1 activity. Using the Xenopus lævis oocyte and HEK293 cell expression systems, we examined first the effect of both anti-calcineurins on NaDC1 activity and expression. While FK-506 had no effect, CsA reduced NaDC1-mediated citrate transport by lowering heterologous carrier expression (as well as endogenous carrier expression in HEK293 cells), indicating that calcineurin is not involved. Given that CsA also binds specifically to cyclophilins, we determined next whether such proteins could account for the observed changes by examining the effect of selected cyclophilin wild types and mutants on NaDC1 activity and cyclophilin-specific siRNA. Interestingly, our data show that the cyclophilin isoform B is likely responsible for down-regulation of carrier expression by CsA and that it does so via its chaperone activity on NaDC1 (by direct interaction) rather than its rotamase activity. We have thus identified for the first time a regulatory partner for NaDC1, and have gained novel mechanistic insight into the effect of CsA on renal citrate transport and kidney stone disease, as well as into the regulation of membrane transporters in general.