Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis isolates as determined by comparative genome hybridization.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that causes infections in young piglets. S. suis is a heterogeneous species. Thirty-three different capsular serotypes have been described, that differ in virulence between as well as within serotypes. RESULTS: In this study, the correlation between gene content, serotype, phenotype and virulence among 55 S. suis strains was studied using Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH). Clustering of CGH data divided S. suis isolates into two clusters, A and B. Cluster A isolates could be discriminated from cluster B isolates based on the protein expression of extracellular factor (EF). Cluster A contained serotype 1 and 2 isolates that were correlated with virulence. Cluster B mainly contained serotype 7 and 9 isolates. Genetic similarity was observed between serotype 7 and serotype 2 isolates that do not express muramidase released protein (MRP) and EF (MRP?EF?), suggesting these isolates originated from a common founder. Profiles of 25 putative virulence-associated genes of S. suis were determined among the 55 isolates. Presence of all 25 genes was shown for cluster A isolates, whereas cluster B isolates lacked one or more putative virulence genes. Divergence of S. suis isolates was further studied based on the presence of 39 regions of difference. Conservation of genes was evaluated by the definition of a core genome that contained 78% of all ORFs in P1/7. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we show that CGH is a valuable method to study distribution of genes or gene clusters among isolates in detail, yielding information on genetic similarity, and virulence traits of S. suis isolates.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine the capsular serotypes and potential virulence factors of Streptococcus suis isolated from pigs with polyserositis. Among the 24 isolates evaluated, serotype 3 [7 (29%) of the isolates] and serotype 4 [5 (21%)] were the most common. The isolates were also studied for the presence of the genes mrp, epf, and sly, which encode muramidase-released protein (MRP), extracellular factor (EF), and suilysin (SLY), respectively. Of the 24 isolates, 8 carried mrp: 4 of serotype 3, 2 of serotype 2, and 2 of serotype 4. One mrp(+) isolate (serotype 2) also carried the epf gene. All 24 isolates carried the sly gene. The serotype and genotype distribution greatly differed from that reported for isolates from pigs with other clinical manifestations of S. suis infection in other countries.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes septicemia, meningitis, arthritis, and pneumonia in swine and humans. The present study aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of S. suis serotype 2 isolated from pigs showing signs of illness in Brazil using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (SE-AFLP), and profiling of virulence-associated markers. A total of 110 isolates were studied, 62.7% of which were isolated from the central nervous system and 19.1% from the respiratory tract. Eight genotypes were obtained from the combination of virulence genes, with 43.6% and 5.5% frequencies for the mrp (+) /epf (+) /sly (+) and mrp (-) /epf (-) /sly (-) genotypes, respectively. The presence of isolates with epf gene variation with higher molecular weight also appears to be a characteristic of Brazilian S. suis serotype 2. The PFGE and SE-AFLP were able to type all isolates and, although they presented a slight tendency to cluster according to state and year of isolation, it was also evident the grouping of different herds in the same PFGE subtype and the existence of isolates originated from the same herd classified into distinct subtypes. No further correlation between the isolation sites and mrp/epf/sly genotypes was observed.
Project description:Invasive serotype 2 (cps2+) strains of Streptococcus suis cause meningitis in pigs and humans. Four case reports of S. suis meningitis in hunters suggest transmission of S. suis through the butchering of wild boars. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of potentially human-pathogenic S. suis strains in wild boars. S. suis was isolated from 92% of all tested tonsils (n=200) from wild boars. A total of 244 S. suis isolates were genotyped using PCR assays for the detection of serotype-specific genes, the hemolysin gene sly, and the virulence-associated genes mrp and epf. The prevalence of the cps2+ genotype among strains from wild boars was comparable to that of control strains from domestic pig carriers. Ninety-five percent of the cps2+ wild boar strains were positive for mrp, sly, and epf*, the large variant of epf. Interestingly, epf* was significantly more frequently detected in cps2+ strains from wild boars than in those from domestic pigs; epf* is also typically found in European S. suis isolates from humans, including a meningitis isolate from a German hunter. These results suggest that at least 10% of wild boars in Northwestern Germany carry S. suis strains that are potentially virulent in humans. Additional amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis supported this hypothesis, since homogeneous clustering of the epf* mrp+ sly+ cps2+ strains from wild boars with invasive human and porcine strains was observed.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent causing meningitis and septicemia/septic shock. Strains are usually virulent (Eurasia) or of intermediate/low virulence (North America). Very few data regarding human and swine isolates from South America are available. CASE PRESENTATION:Seventeen new human S. suis cases in Argentina (16 serotype 2 strains and a serotype 5 strain) are reported. Alongside, 14 isolates from pigs are analyzed: 12 from systemic disease, one from lungs and one from tonsils of a healthy animal. All human serotype 2 strains and most swine isolates are sequence type (ST) 1, as determined by multilocus sequence typing and present a mrp+/epf+/sly+ genotype typical of virulent Eurasian ST1 strains. The remaining two strains (recovered from swine lungs and tonsils) are ST28 and possess a mrp+/epf - /sly- genotype typical of low virulence North American strains. Representative human ST1 strains as well as one swine ST28 strain were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing and compared with genomes from GenBank. ST1 strains clustered together with three strains from Vietnam and this cluster is close to another one composed of 11 strains from the United Kingdom. CONCLUSION:Close contact with pigs/pork products, a good surveillance system, and the presence of potentially virulent Eurasian-like serotype 2 strains in Argentina may be an important factor contributing to the higher number of human cases observed. In fact, Argentina is now fifth among Western countries regarding the number of reported human cases after the Netherlands, France, the UK and Poland.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There is limited information on the distribution of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) in U.S. Streptococcus suis isolates, resulting in little understanding of the pathogenic potential of these isolates. This lack also reduces our understanding of the epidemiology associated with S. suis in the United States and thus affects the efficiency of control and prevention strategies. In this study we applied whole genome sequencing (WGS)-based approaches for the characterization of S. suis and identification of VAGs.<h4>Results</h4>Of 208?S. suis isolates classified as pathogenic, possibly opportunistic, and commensal pathotypes, the genotype based on the classical VAGs (epf, mrp, and sly encoding the extracellular protein factor, muramidase-release protein, and suilysin, respectively) was identified in 9% (epf+/mrp+/sly+) of the pathogenic pathotype. Using the chi-square test and LASSO regression model, the VAGs ofs (encoding the serum opacity factor) and srtF (encoding sortase F) were selected out of 71 published VAGs as having a significant association with pathotype, and both genes were found in 95% of the pathogenic pathotype. The ofs+/srtF+ genotype was also present in 74% of 'pathogenic' isolates from a separate validation set of isolates. Pan-genome clustering resulted in the differentiation of a group of isolates from five swine production companies into clusters corresponding to clonal complex (CC) and virulence-associated (VA) genotypes. The same CC-VA genotype patterns were identified in multiple production companies, suggesting a lack of association between production company, CC, or VA genotype.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The proposed ofs and srtF genes were stronger predictors for differentiating pathogenic and commensal S. suis isolates compared to the classical VAGs in two sets of U.S. isolates. Pan-genome analysis in combination with metadata (serotype, ST/CC, VA genotype) was illustrated to be a valuable subtyping tool to describe the genetic diversity of S. suis.
Project description:<i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a major pig pathogen causing severe economic losses to the swine industry. This study aimed to analyze the genome of <i>S. suis</i> strain INT-01 isolated from a domestic pig in Korea. We found that the genome of strain INT-01 contains 2,092,054 bp, with a guanine (G) + cytosine (C) content of 41.3%, and the capsular polysaccharide synthesis locus of this strain is almost identical to that of serotype 3 <i>S. suis</i> strain 4961 isolated from China, suggesting that these isolates can be classified as serotype 3. Genomic analyses revealed that strain INT-01 is an extracellular protein factor (<i>epf</i>)<sup>-</sup>/ muraminidase-released protein (<i>mrp</i>)<sup>+</sup>/ suilysin (<i>sly</i>)<sup>-</sup> <i>S. suis</i>, which is the most prevalent genotype in Korea, and several virulence-related genes associated with the pathogenicity of <i>S. suis</i> were also detected. The genomic information of strain INT-01 may provide important insights into the development of control strategies against <i>S. suis</i> infections in Korea.
Project description:Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is the main cause of zoonotic S. suis infection despite the fact that other serotypes are frequently isolated from diseased pigs. Studies comparing concurrent invasive human and pig isolates from a single geographical location are lacking. We compared the population structures of invasive S. suis strains isolated between 1986 and 2008 from human patients (N?=?24) and from pigs with invasive disease (N?=?124) in The Netherlands by serotyping and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Fifty-six percent of pig isolates were of serotype 9 belonging to 15 clonal complexes (CCs) or singleton sequence types (ST). In contrast, all human isolates were of serotype 2 and belonged to two non-overlapping clonal complexes CC1 (58%) and CC20 (42%). The proportion of serotype 2 isolates among S. suis strains isolated from humans was significantly higher than among strains isolated from pigs (24/24 vs. 29/124; P<0.0001). This difference remained significant when only strains within CC1 and CC20 were considered (24/24 vs. 27/37,P?=?0.004). The Simpson diversity index of the S. suis population isolated from humans (0.598) was smaller than of the population isolated from pigs (0.765, P?=?0.05) indicating that the S. suis population isolated from infected pigs was more diverse than the S. suis population isolated from human patients. S. suis serotype 2 strains of CC20 were all negative in a PCR for detection of genes encoding extracellular protein factor (EF) variants. These data indicate that the polysaccharide capsule is an important correlate of human S. suis infection, irrespective of the ST and EF encoding gene type of S. suis strains.
Project description:Pili have been shown to contribute to the virulence of different Gram-positive pathogenic species. Among other critical steps of bacterial pathogenesis, these structures participate in adherence to host cells, colonization and systemic virulence. Recently, the presence of at least four discrete gene clusters encoding putative pili has been revealed in the major swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis. However, pili production by this species has not yet been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the functionality of one of these pili clusters, known as the srtF pilus cluster, by the construction of mutant strains for each of the four genes of the cluster as well as by the generation of antibodies against the putative pilin subunits. Results revealed that the S. suis serotype 2 strain P1/7, as well as several other highly virulent invasive S. suis serotype 2 isolates express pili from this cluster. However, in most cases tested, and as a result of nonsense mutations at the 5' end of the gene encoding the minor pilin subunit (a putative adhesin), pili were formed by the major pilin subunit only. We then evaluated the role these pili play in S. suis virulence. Abolishment of the expression of srtF cluster-encoded pili did not result in impaired interactions of S. suis with porcine brain microvascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, non-piliated mutants were as virulent as the wild type strain when evaluated in a murine model of S. suis sepsis. Our results show that srtF cluster-encoded, S. suis pili are atypical compared to other Gram-positive pili. In addition, since the highly virulent strains under investigation are unlikely to produce other pili, our results suggest that pili might be dispensable for critical steps of the S. suis pathogenesis of infection.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is a porcine pathogen, causing severe invasive infections. S. suis serotype 9 is increasingly causing disease in Dutch and Chinese pig herds, but it is unknown whether all serotype 9 isolates are equally virulent and markers that can identify virulent strains are not available. Therefore, discrimination between virulent isolates and carriage isolates typically not associated with disease, is currently not possible. We collected tonsillar S. suis isolates from 6 herds not previously diagnosed with S. suis infections, and clinical S. suis isolates of previously diseased pigs. We confirmed the virulence of a virulent type strain and one representative clinical isolate, and the lack of virulence of two carriage isolates, in a pig infection model. Phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences of 124 isolates resulted in 10 groups, of which two were almost uniquely populated by clinical isolates. The population structure of S. suis serotype 9 appears highly diverse. However, analysis of the capsule loci sequences showed variation in a single region which fully correlated with a virulent genotype. Transmission electron microscopy suggested differences in capsule thickness between carriage and clinical genotypes. In conclusion, we found that that the S. suis serotype 9 population in the Netherlands is diverse. A distinct virulence-associated lineage was identified and could be discriminated based on the capsule locus sequence. Whilst the difference in virulence cannot be directly attributed to the DNA sequence, the correlation of capsule locus sequence with virulence could be used in the development of diagnostic tests to identify potential virulent S. suis serotype 9 in pigs.
Project description:<i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a zoonotic pathogen that causes invasive infections in humans and pigs. Although <i>S. suis</i> serotype 2 is prevalent among patient and swine infections, other serotypes are occasionally detected in humans. Of these, serotype 24 clonal complex (CC) 221/234 are recognized as emerging clones of human infection. Genomic exploration of three <i>S. suis</i> serotype 24 CC221/234 strains revealed antimicrobial resistance genes, pathotyping, virulence-associated gene (VAG) profiles, minimum core genome (MCG) typing, and comparison of the genomes. Based on these analyzes, all three serotype 24 strains were MCG7-3 and should be classified in the intermediate/weakly virulent (I/WV) group. All selected serotype 24 strains were susceptible to several antibiotics including β-lactam, fluoroquinolone, and chloramphenicol. Resistance to tetracycline, macrolide, and clindamycin was observed and attributed to the genes <i>tet(O)</i> and <i>erm(B)</i>. Genomic comparison revealed the strains S12X, LSS66, LS0L, LS0E, 92-4,172, and IMT40201 that had phylogenetic affinity with serotype 24 CC221/234. Analysis of 80 virulence-associated genes (VAG) showed that all three serotype 24 strains lacked 24 genes consisting of adhesin P, <i>epf, hyl, ihk, irr, mrp, nadR, neuB, NisK/R, ofs</i>, permease <i>(SSU0835), rgg, revS, salK/R, sao, sly, spyM3_0908, srtBCD, srtF, srtG, SSU05_0473, virA, virB4</i>, and <i>virD4.</i> Eleven specific sequences were identified in the 3 serotype 24 genomes that differed from the genomes of the representative strains of epidemic (E; SC84), highly virulent (HV; P1/7), I/WV (89-1,591), and avirulent (T15 and 05HAS68).