Orthopedic manifestations in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey.
ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) is a rare, inherited disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. As a result of this deficiency, glycosaminoglycans accumulate in lysosomes in many tissues, leading to progressive multisystemic disease. The cardiopulmonary and neurological problems associated with MPS II have received considerable attention. Orthopedic manifestations are common but not as well characterized. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and severity of orthopedic manifestations of MPS II and to determine the relationship of these signs and symptoms with cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system involvement.Orthopedic manifestations of MPS II were studied using cross-sectional data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS). The HOS is a global, physician-led, multicenter observational database that collects information on the natural history of MPS II and the long-term safety and effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy.As of January 2009, the HOS contained baseline data on joint range of motion in 124 males with MPS II. In total, 79% of patients had skeletal manifestations (median onset, 3.5 years) and 25% had abnormal gait (median onset, 5.4 years). Joint range of motion was restricted for all joints assessed (elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle). Extension was the most severely affected movement: the exception to this was the shoulder. Surgery for orthopedic problems was rare. The presence of orthopedic manifestations was associated with the presence of central nervous system and pulmonary involvement, but not so clearly with cardiovascular involvement.Orthopedic interventions should be considered on an individual-patient basis. Although some orthopedic manifestations associated with MPS II may be managed routinely, a good knowledge of other concurrent organ system involvement is essential. A multidisciplinary approach is required.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome; OMIM 309900) is a rare lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem manifestations caused by deficient activity of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. Disease-specific treatment is available in the form of enzyme replacement therapy with intravenous idursulfase (Elaprase®, Shire). Since 2005, the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS) has collected real-world, long-term data on the safety and effectiveness of this therapy, as well as the natural history of MPS II. Individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of MPS II who are untreated or who are receiving/have received treatment with idursulfase or bone marrow transplant can be enrolled in HOS. A broad range of disease- and treatment-related information is captured in the registry and, over the past decade, data from more than 1000 patients from 124 clinics in 29 countries have been collected. Evidence generated from HOS has helped to improve our understanding of disease progression in both treated and untreated patients and has extended findings from the formal clinical trials of idursulfase. As a long-term, global, observational registry, various challenges relating to data collection, entry, and analysis have been encountered. These have resulted in changes to the HOS database platform, and novel approaches to maximize the value of the information collected will also be needed in the future. The continued evolution of the registry should help to ensure that HOS provides further insights into the burden of the disease and patient care and management in the coming years.
Project description:There is a need to identify early disease markers to facilitate diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome). Mean birth weight and its association with disease severity was investigated in 609 patients enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS). This analysis indicated that birth weight is not an early marker of MPS II and is not associated with disease severity. It remains important to investigate the utility of other factors for early/pre-symptomatic diagnosis.
Project description:Several cases of phenotypic variability among family members with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) have been reported, but the data are limited. Data from patients enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS) were used to investigate intrafamilial variability in male siblings with MPS II. As of July 2015, data were available for 78 patients aged ≥5 years at last visit who had at least one affected sibling (39 sibling pairs). These patients were followed prospectively (i.e., they were alive at enrollment in HOS). The median age at the onset of signs and symptoms was the same for the elder and younger brothers (2.0 years); however, the younger brothers were typically diagnosed at a younger age than the elder brothers (median age, 2.5 and 5.1 years, respectively). Of the 39 pairs, eight pairs were classified as being discordant (the status of four or more signs and symptoms differed between the siblings); 21 pairs had one, two, or three signs and symptoms that differed between the siblings, and 10 pairs had none. Regression status of the majority of the developmental milestones studied was generally concordant among siblings. Functional classification, a measure of central nervous system involvement, was the same in 24/28 pairs, although four pairs were considered discordant as functional classification differed between the siblings. Overall, this analysis revealed similarity in the clinical manifestations of MPS II among siblings. This information should help to improve our understanding of the clinical presentation of the disease, including phenotype prediction in affected family members.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is the most frequently occurring MPS in Taiwan, with an incidence of 2.05 per 100,000 live male births, but little is known about clinical characteristics and surgical history in Taiwanese patients. METHODS:Medical history, demographics, signs and symptoms, and surgical history were analysed in all patients from Taiwanese centres in the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS; NCT 03292887), a global, multicentre registry that collects real-world data on patients with MPS II. RESULTS:As of January 2016, 61 male Taiwanese patients were enrolled; 49% (24/49) had received at least one infusion of idursulfase. Median (10th, 90th percentiles) ages at signs and symptom onset and at diagnosis were 2.5 (0.2, 5.5) years (n?=?55) and 3.5 (1.2, 11.9) years (n?=?56), respectively. Hernia, facial features consistent with MPS II and claw hands were the earliest presenting signs and symptoms (median ages of 3.2 [0.4, 12.0] years, 4.3 [1.1, 12.0] years and 4.7 [2.5, 12.2] years [n?=?45, 53 and 50], respectively). More than 75% of patients had undergone a surgical procedure, most commonly hernia repair (57% of patients). Median age at first surgery for hernia repair was 4.2 (0.5, 9.8) years (n?=?35). Almost one-third (31.1%) of patients had at least one surgical procedure before diagnosis, and of the 20 procedures before diagnosis, 16 were hernia repair. CONCLUSIONS:This information from patients in HOS highlights the importance of both medical and surgical history in diagnosing MPS II in Taiwanese patients.
Project description:Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis II; MPS II) is caused by a defect of the iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) gene. Few studies have reported integrated mutation data of Taiwanese MPS II phenotypes. In this study, we summarized genotype and phenotype correlations of confirmed MPS II patients and asymptomatic MPS II infants in Taiwan. Regular polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to identify genetic abnormalities of 191 cases, including 51 unrelated patients with confirmed MPS II and 140 asymptomatic infants. IDS activity was analyzed in individual novel IDS variants using in vitro expression studies. Nineteen novel mutations were identified, in which the percentages of IDS activity of the novel missense mutations c.137A>C, c.311A>T, c.454A>C, c.797C>G, c.817C>T, c.998C>T, c.1106C>G, c.1400C>T, c.1402C>T, and c.1403G>A were significantly decreased (p < 0.001), c.254C>T and c.1025A>G were moderately decreased (p < 0.01), and c.851C>T was slightly decreased (p < 0.05) comparing with normal enzyme activity. The activities of the other six missense mutations were reduced but were insignificant. The results of genomic studies and their phenotypes were highly correlated. A greater understanding of the positive correlations may help to prevent the irreversible manifestations of Hunter syndrome, particularly in infants suspected of having asymptomatic MPS II. In addition, urinary glycosaminoglycan assay is important to diagnose Hunter syndrome since gene mutations are not definitive (could be non-pathogenic).
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome) is a rare X-linked recessive disease caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase, leading to progressive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in nearly all cell types, tissues and organs. Clinical manifestations include severe airway obstruction, skeletal deformities, cardiomyopathy and, in most patients, neurological decline. Death usually occurs in the second decade of life, although some patients with less severe disease have survived into their fifth or sixth decade. Until recently, there has been no effective therapy for MPS II, and care has been palliative. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human iduronate-2-sulphatase (idursulfase), however, has now been introduced. Weekly intravenous infusions of idursulfase have been shown to improve many of the signs and symptoms and overall wellbeing in patients with MPS II. This paper provides an overview of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and symptomatic management of patients with MPS II and provides recommendations for the use of ERT. The issue of treating very young patients and those with CNS involvement is also discussed. ERT with idursulfase has the potential to benefit many patients with MPS II, especially if started early in the course of the disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome) is a rare, X-linked disorder caused by deficient activity of the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S). Treatment is available in the form of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant I2S. Clinical outcomes following ?3 years of ERT with idursulfase were investigated in a broad population of patients with MPS II enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS). METHODS:As of January 2016, 639 patients (excluding female patients, individuals who had received a bone marrow transplant and those enrolled in the phase 1/2 [TKT018] or phase 2/3 [TKT024] clinical trial) followed prospectively in the registry had received idursulfase for ?6 months. These individuals all had data available for ?1 clinical parameter at baseline and ?1 additional time point following treatment initiation. Changes in clinical parameters were assessed in the subcohorts of patients with a measurement at baseline and at year 1, 2 or 3 of treatment. Safety data from patients who started treatment at or after enrollment in HOS (n = 233) were also assessed. RESULTS:Median (10th, 90th percentiles) age at first treatment was 6.2 (2.1, 18.2) years and median treatment duration was 56.3 (18.2, 97.6) months. Urinary glycosaminoglycan (uGAG) levels decreased from baseline to year 3 in patients with data available at this time point (median change from baseline: -201.0 [-591.4, -21.9] ?g/mg creatinine [n = 121]). Improvements in the following parameters were observed at year 3 in the subcohorts: 6-min walking test (6MWT) distance, 10.6 (-33.6, 50.8)% (n = 26); left ventricular mass index (LVMI), -9.3 (-31.5, 19.7)% (n = 52); absolute forced vital capacity (FVC), 29.7 (-13.4, 66.7)% (n = 23); absolute forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), 22.8 (-15.2, 62.1)% (n = 22); palpable liver size, -54.5 (-85.7, 50.0)% (n = 53); palpable spleen size, -33.3 (-80.0, 33.3)% (n = 17). No new or unexpected safety concerns were identified in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that idursulfase has a positive effect on uGAG levels, 6MWT results, LVMI, FVC, FEV1 and hepatosplenomegaly after 1, 2 and 3 years treatment.
Project description:Hunter disease (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, MPS II) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). Two main therapies have been reported for MPS II patients: enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Both treatment modalities have been shown to improve some symptoms, but the results with regard to cognitive functioning have been poor. Early initiation of therapy, i.e., before neurological symptoms have manifested, may alter cognitive outcome. The need for early identification makes Hunter disease a candidate for newborn screening (NBS). Our objective was to explore the use of a fluorometric assay that could be applicable for high-throughput analysis of IDS activity in dried blood spots (DBS). The median IDS activity in DBS samples from 1,426 newborns was 377 pmol/punch/17 h (range 78-1111). The IDS activity in one sample was repeatedly under the cutoff value (set at 20% of the median value), which would imply a recall rate of 0.07%. A sample from a clinically diagnosed MPS II individual, included in each 96-well test plate, had IDS activities well below the 20% cutoff value. Coefficients of variation in quality control samples with low, medium, and high IDS activities (190, 304, and 430 pmol/punch/17 h, respectively) were 12% to 16%. This small-scale pilot study shows that newborn screening for Hunter disease using a fluorometric assay in DBS is technically feasible with a fairly low recall rate. NBS may allow for identification of infants with Hunter disease before clinical symptoms become evident enabling early intervention.
Project description:Hunter disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive storage of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and multi-organ impairment. The central nervous system (CNS) is involved in at least 50% of cases. Since 2006, the enzymatic replacement therapy (ERT) is available but with no effect on the cognitive impairment, as the present formulation does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Here we report the outcome of 17 Hunter patients treated in a single center. Most of them (11) started ERT in 2006, 3 had started it earlier in 2004, enrolled in the phase III trial, and 3 after 2006, as soon as the diagnosis was made. The liver and spleen sizes and urinary GAGs significantly decreased and normalized throughout the treatment. Heart parameters improved, in particular the left ventricular mass index/m(2) decreased significantly. Amelioration of hearing was seen in many patients. Joint range of motion improved in all patients. However, no improvement on respiratory function, eye, skeletal and CNS disease was found. The developmental quotient of patients with a CNS involvement showed a fast decline. These patients were no more testable after 6 years of age and, albeit the benefits drawn from ERT, their quality of life worsened throughout the years. The whole group of patients showed a consistent residual disease burden mainly represented by persistent skeletal disease and frequent need of surgery. This study suggests that early diagnosis and treatment and other different therapies which are able to cross the blood-brain barrier, might in the future improve the MPS II outcome.
Project description:Patients with Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis II) present with skeletal dysplasia including short stature as well as CNS and visceral organ involvement. A previous study on Hunter syndrome indicated an impact on brain and heart involvement after hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) at an early stage but little impact after enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) (Tanaka et al 2012). Meanwhile, impact on growth in patients with Hunter syndrome treated with ERT and HSCT has not been compared until now. We recently developed baseline growth charts for untreated patients with Hunter syndrome to evaluate the natural history of growth of these patients compared to unaffected controls (Patel et al, 2014). To assess impact of ERT and HSCT on growth, clinical data were obtained from 44 Japanese male patients with MPS II; 26 patients had been treated with ERT, 12 patients had been treated with HSCT, and 6 had been treated with both ERT and HSCT. Height and weight were compared to untreated patients and unaffected controls from the previous study. We demonstrated 1) that MPS II patients, who had been treated with either ERT or HSCT, had increased height and weight when compared to untreated patients, and 2) that HSCT and ERT were equally effective in restoring growth of MPS II patients. In conclusion, HSCT should be considered as one of the primary therapeutic options for early stage treatment of MPS II, as HSCT has also been reported to have a positive effect on brain and heart valve development (Tanaka et al 2012).