Double mutant MBP refolds at same rate in free solution as inside the GroEL/GroES chaperonin chamber when aggregation in free solution is prevented.
ABSTRACT: Under "permissive" conditions at 25°C, the chaperonin substrate protein DM-MBP refolds 5-10 times more rapidly in the GroEL/GroES folding chamber than in free solution. This has been suggested to indicate that the chaperonin accelerates polypeptide folding by entropic effects of close confinement. Here, using native-purified DM-MBP, we show that the different rates of refolding are due to reversible aggregation of DM-MBP while folding free in solution, slowing its kinetics of renaturation: the protein exhibited concentration-dependent refolding in solution, with aggregation directly observed by dynamic light scattering. When refolded in chloride-free buffer, however, dynamic light scattering was eliminated, refolding became concentration-independent, and the rate of refolding became the same as that in GroEL/GroES. The GroEL/GroES chamber thus appears to function passively toward DM-MBP.
Project description:The original experiments reconstituting GroEL-GroES-mediated protein folding were carried out under "nonpermissive" conditions, where the chaperonin system was absolutely required and substrate proteins could not achieve the native state if diluted directly from denaturant into solution. Under "permissive" conditions, however, employing lower substrate concentration and lower temperature, some substrate proteins can be refolded both by the chaperonin system and while free in solution. For several of these, the protein refolds more rapidly inside the GroEL-GroES cis chamber than free in solution, suggesting that the chamber may have an active role in assisting protein folding. Here, we observe that the difference is caused by reversible multimolecular association while folding in solution, an avenue of kinetic partitioning that slows the overall rate of renaturation relative to the chaperonin chamber, where such associations cannot occur. For Rubisco, reversible aggregation during folding in solution was observed by gel filtration. For a mutant of maltose-binding protein (DM-MBP), the rate of folding in solution declined with increasing concentration, and the folding reaction produced light scattering. Under solution conditions where chloride was absent, however, light scattering no longer occurred, and DM-MBP folded at the same rate as in the cis cavity. In a further test, dihydrofolate reductase, thermally inactivated in the cis cavity or in solution, was substantially reactivated upon temperature downshift in the cis cavity but not in solution, where aggregation occurred. We conclude that the GroEL-GroES chamber behaves as a passive "Anfinsen cage" whose primary role is to prevent multimolecular association during folding.
Project description:A recent hydrogen-deuterium exchange study of folding of the GroEL/GroES-dependent bacterial enzyme DapA has suggested that the DapA folding pathway when free in solution may differ from the folding pathway used in the presence of the GroEL/GroES chaperonin. Here, we have investigated whether DapA aggregation might be occurring in free solution under the conditions of the exchange experiment, as this would confound interpretation of the pathway predictions. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data, sedimentation analysis and refolding yield indicate that significant aggregation occurs upon dilution of DapA from denaturant, bringing into question the earlier conclusion that different folding pathways occur in the absence and presence of the chaperonin system.
Project description:The chaperonin GroEL binds non-native polypeptides in an open ring via hydrophobic contacts and then, after ATP and GroES binding to the same ring as polypeptide, mediates productive folding in the now hydrophilic, encapsulated cis chamber. The nature of the folding reaction in the cis cavity remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether polypeptides take the same route to the native state in this cavity as they do when folding spontaneously free in solution. Here, we have addressed this question by using NMR measurements of the time course of acquisition of amide proton exchange protection of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) during folding in the presence of methotrexate and ATP either free in solution or inside the stable cavity formed between a single ring variant of GroEL, SR1, and GroES. Recovery of DHFR refolded by the SR1/GroES-mediated reaction is 2-fold higher than in the spontaneous reaction. Nevertheless, DHFR folding was found to proceed by the same trajectories inside the cis folding chamber and free in solution. These observations are consistent with the description of the chaperonin chamber as an "Anfinsen cage" where polypeptide folding is determined solely by the amino acid sequence, as it is in solution. However, if misfolding occurs in the confinement of the chaperonin cavity, the polypeptide chain cannot undergo aggregation but rather finds its way back to a productive pathway in a manner that cannot be accomplished in solution, resulting in the observed high overall recovery.
Project description:In mediating protein folding, chaperonin GroEL and cochaperonin GroES form an enclosed chamber for substrate proteins in an ATP-dependent manner. The essential role of the double ring assembly of GroEL is demonstrated by the functional deficiency of the single ring GroEL(SR). The GroEL(SR)-GroES is highly stable with minimal ATPase activity. To restore the ATP cycle and the turnover of the folding chamber, we sought to weaken the GroEL(SR)-GroES interaction systematically by concatenating seven copies of groES to generate groES(7). GroES Ile-25, Val-26, and Leu-27, residues on the GroEL-GroES interface, were substituted with Asp on different groES modules of groES(7). GroES(7) variants activate ATP activity of GroEL(SR), but only some restore the substrate folding function of GroEL(SR), indicating a direct role of GroES in facilitating substrate folding through its dynamics with GroEL. Active GroEL(SR)-GroES(7) systems may resemble mammalian mitochondrial chaperonin systems.
Project description:The molecular chaperones are a diverse set of protein families required for the correct folding, transport and degradation of other proteins in vivo. There has been great progress in understanding the structure and mechanism of action of the chaperonin family, exemplified by Escherichia coli GroEL. The chaperonins are large, double-ring oligomeric proteins that act as containers for the folding of other protein subunits. Together with its co-protein GroES, GroEL binds non-native polypeptides and facilitates their refolding in an ATP-dependent manner. The action of the ATPase cycle causes the substrate-binding surface of GroEL to alternate in character between hydrophobic (binding/unfolding) and hydrophilic (release/folding). ATP binding initiates a series of dramatic conformational changes that bury the substrate-binding sites, lowering the affinity for non-native polypeptide. In the presence of ATP, GroES binds to GroEL, forming a large chamber that encapsulates substrate proteins for folding. For proteins whose folding is absolutely dependent on the full GroE system, ATP binding (but not hydrolysis) in the encapsulating ring is needed to initiate protein folding. Similarly, ATP binding, but not hydrolysis, in the opposite GroEL ring is needed to release GroES, thus opening the chamber. If the released substrate protein is still not correctly folded, it will go through another round of interaction with GroEL.
Project description:A subset of essential cellular proteins requires the assistance of chaperonins (in Escherichia coli, GroEL and GroES), double-ring complexes in which the two rings act alternately to bind, encapsulate and fold a wide range of nascent or stress-denatured proteins. This process starts by the trapping of a substrate protein on hydrophobic surfaces in the central cavity of a GroEL ring. Then, binding of ATP and co-chaperonin GroES to that ring ejects the non-native protein from its binding sites, through forced unfolding or other major conformational changes, and encloses it in a hydrophilic chamber for folding. ATP hydrolysis and subsequent ATP binding to the opposite ring trigger dissociation of the chamber and release of the substrate protein. The bacteriophage T4 requires its own version of GroES, gp31, which forms a taller folding chamber, to fold the major viral capsid protein gp23 (refs 16-20). Polypeptides are known to fold inside the chaperonin complex, but the conformation of an encapsulated protein has not previously been visualized. Here we present structures of gp23-chaperonin complexes, showing both the initial captured state and the final, close-to-native state with gp23 encapsulated in the folding chamber. Although the chamber is expanded, it is still barely large enough to contain the elongated gp23 monomer, explaining why the GroEL-GroES complex is not able to fold gp23 and showing how the chaperonin structure distorts to enclose a large, physiological substrate protein.
Project description:Chaperonin action is controlled by cycles of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis. Here, we examine the effects of nucleotide binding on an archaeal group 2 chaperonin. In contrast to the ordered apo state of the group 1 chaperonin GroEL, the unliganded form of the homo-16-mer Methanococcus maripaludis group 2 chaperonin is very open and flexible, with intersubunit contacts only in the central double belt of equatorial domains. The intermediate and apical domains are free of contacts and deviate significantly from the overall 8-fold symmetry. Nucleotide binding results in three distinct, ordered 8-fold symmetric conformations--open, partially closed, and fully closed. The partially closed ring encloses a 40% larger volume than does the GroEL-GroES folding chamber, enabling it to encapsulate proteins up to 80 kDa, in contrast to the fully closed form, whose cavities are 20% smaller than those of the GroEL-GroES chamber.
Project description:In vitro refolding of pig mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase is investigated in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli chaperonins cpn60 (groEL) and cpn10 (groES). The refolded yields of active malate dehydrogenase are increased almost 3-fold in the presence of groEL, groES, Mg2+/ATP and K+ ions. Chaperonin-assisted refolding of malate dehydrogenase does not have an absolute requirement for K+ ions but Mg2+/ATP is obligatory. When ATP is replaced by other nucleoside triphosphates, or by non-hydrolysable ATP analogues, assisted refolding is prevented. Optimal chaperonin-assisted refolding requires both groEL and groES homo-oligomers in molar excess over malate dehydrogenase. Kinetic analysis shows that the chaperonins do not catalyse the refolding of malate dehydrogenase but increase the flux of unfolded enzyme through the productive refolding pathway without altering and/or accelerating that pathway. Although not acting as refolding catalysts, the chaperonins are able to assist at least six consecutive cycles of malate dehydrogenase refolding.
Project description:A key constraint on the growth of most organisms is the slow and inefficient folding of many essential proteins. To deal with this problem, several diverse families of protein folding machines, known collectively as molecular chaperones, developed early in evolutionary history. The functional role and operational steps of these remarkably complex nanomachines remain subjects of active debate. Here we present evidence that, for the GroEL-GroES chaperonin system, the non-native substrate protein enters the folding cycle on the trans ring of the double-ring GroEL-ATP-GroES complex rather than the ADP-bound complex. The properties of this ATP complex are designed to ensure that non-native substrate protein binds first, followed by ATP and finally GroES. This binding order ensures efficient occupancy of the open GroEL ring and allows for disruption of misfolded structures through two phases of multiaxis unfolding. In this model, repeated cycles of partial unfolding, followed by confinement within the GroEL-GroES chamber, provide the most effective overall mechanism for facilitating the folding of the most stringently dependent GroEL substrate proteins.
Project description:The biological function of chaperone complexes is to assist the folding of non-native proteins. The widely studied GroEL chaperonin is a double-barreled complex that can trap non-native proteins in one of its two barrels. The ATP-driven binding of a GroES cap then results in a major structural change of the chamber where the substrate is trapped and initiates a refolding attempt. The two barrels operate anti-synchronously. The central region between the two barrels contains a high concentration of disordered protein chains, the role of which was thus far unclear. In this work we report a combination of atomistic and coarse-grained simulations that probe the structure and dynamics of the equatorial region of the GroEL/GroES chaperonin complex. Surprisingly, our simulations show that the equatorial region provides a translocation channel that will block the passage of folded proteins but allows the passage of secondary units with the diameter of an alpha-helix. We compute the free-energy barrier that has to be overcome during translocation and find that it can easily be crossed under the influence of thermal fluctuations. Hence, strongly non-native proteins can be squeezed like toothpaste from one barrel to the next where they will refold. Proteins that are already fairly close to the native state will not translocate but can refold in the chamber where they were trapped. Several experimental results are compatible with this scenario, and in the case of the experiments of Martin and Hartl, intra chaperonin translocation could explain why under physiological crowding conditions the chaperonin does not release the substrate protein.