Monoubiquitinated Fanconi anemia D2 (FANCD2-Ub) is required for BCR-ABL1 kinase-induced leukemogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Fanconi D2 (FANCD2) is monoubiquitinated on K561 (FANCD2-Ub) in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to stimulate repair of these potentially lethal DNA lesions. FANCD2-Ub was upregulated in CD34+ chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells and in BCR-ABL1 kinase-positive cell lines in response to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C. Downregulation of FANCD2 and inhibition of FANCD2-Ub reduced the clonogenic potential of CD34+ CML cells and delayed BCR-ABL1 leukemogenesis in mice. Retarded proliferation of BCR-ABL1 positive FANCD2-/- leukemia cells could be rescued by FANCD2 expression. BCR-ABL1 positive FANCD2-/- cells accumulated more ROS-induced DSBs in comparison with BCR-ABL1 positive FANCD2+/+ cells. Antioxidants diminished the number of DSBs and enhanced proliferation of BCR-ABL1 positive FANCD2-/- cells. Expression of wild-type FANCD2 and FANCD2(S222A) phosphorylation-defective mutant (deficient in stimulation of intra-S phase checkpoint, but proficient in DSB repair), but not FANCD2(K561R) monoubiquitination-defective mutant (proficient in stimulation of intra-S phase checkpoint, but deficient in DSB repair) reduced the number of DSBs and facilitated proliferation of BCR-ABL1 positive FANCD2-/- cells. We hypothesize that FANCD2-Ub has an important role in BCR-ABL1 leukemogenesis because of its ability to facilitate the repair of numerous ROS-induced DSBs.
Project description:BCR-ABL1-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) hematologic neoplasms. Nevertheless, acquired TKI resistance remains a major problem in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and TKIs are less effective against Ph+ B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). GAB2, a scaffolding adaptor that binds and activates SHP2, is essential for leukemogenesis by BCR-ABL1, and a GAB2 mutant lacking SHP2 binding cannot mediate leukemogenesis. Using a genetic loss-of-function approach and bone marrow transplantation models for CML and BCR-ABL1+ B-ALL, we show that SHP2 is required for BCR-ABL1-evoked myeloid and lymphoid neoplasia. Ptpn11 deletion impairs initiation and maintenance of CML-like myeloproliferative neoplasm, and compromises induction of BCR-ABL1+ B-ALL. SHP2, and specifically, its SH2 domains, PTP activity and C-terminal tyrosines, are essential for BCR-ABL1+, but not WT, pre-B-cell proliferation. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) / extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is regulated by SHP2 in WT and BCR-ABL1+ pre-B cells, but is only required for the proliferation of BCR-ABL1+ cells. SHP2 is required for SRC family kinase (SFK) activation only in BCR-ABL1+ pre-B cells. RNAseq reveals distinct SHP2-dependent transcriptional programs in BCR-ABL1+ and WT pre-B cells. Our results suggest that SHP2, via SFKs and ERK, represses MXD3/4 to facilitate a MYC-dependent proliferation program in BCR-ABL1-transformed pre-B cells.
Project description:The product of the Ph chromosome, the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase activates diverse signaling pathways in leukemic cells from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Ph(+) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Previous studies showed that nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) is activated in BCR-ABL1-expressing cells, but the mechanism of activation and importance of NF-?B to the pathogenesis of BCR-ABL1-positive myeloid and lymphoid leukemias are unknown. Coexpression of BCR-ABL1 and a superrepressor mutant of inhibitory NF-?B ? (I?B?SR) blocked nuclear p65/RelA expression and inhibited the proliferation of Ba/F3 cells and primary BCR-ABL1-transformed B lymphoblasts without affecting cell survival. In retroviral mouse models of CML and B-ALL, coexpression of I?B?SR attenuated leukemogenesis, prolonged survival, and reduced myeloid leukemic stem cells. Coexpression of dominant-negative mutants of I?B kinase ? (IKK?)/IKK1 or IKK?/IKK2 also inhibited lymphoid and myeloid leukemogenesis by BCR-ABL1. Blockade of NF-?B decreased expression of the NF-?B targets c-MYC and BCL-X and increased the sensitivity of BCR-ABL1-transformed lymphoblasts to ABL1 kinase inhibitors. These results demonstrate that NF-?B is activated through the canonical IKK pathway and plays distinct roles in the pathogenesis of myeloid and lymphoid leukemias induced by BCR-ABL1, validating NF-?B and IKKs as targets for therapy of Ph(+) leukemias.
Project description:We recently reported that chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients harbour high levels of STAT5 when they progress to advanced phases of disease. Advanced disease is characterized by an increased incidence of BCR-ABL1 mutations. We now describe a highly significant correlation between STAT5 expression and the incidence of BCR-ABL1 mutations in primary CML. Forced expression of STAT5 in murine BCR-ABL1 transformed cells sufficed to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to trigger DNA damage. STAT5-mediated ROS production is independent of JAK2 but requires concomitant BCR-ABL1 signalling as forced STAT5 expression in untransformed BCR-ABL1 negative cells has no impact on ROS levels. Only within the context of a BCR-ABL1 positive cell does STAT5 transcriptionally regulate a target gene or set of genes that causes the enhanced ROS production. Our study suggests the existence of a feed-forward loop accelerating disease progression, in which BCR-ABL1 enhances its own mutation rate in a STAT5-ROS dependent manner. This model explains the increased occurrence of inhibitor-resistant BCR-ABL1 mutations in advanced disease stages driven and characterized by high STAT5 expression.
Project description:Expression of oncogenic BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) results in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) that in turn cause increased DNA damage, including DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We have previously shown increased error-prone repair of DSBs by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) in CML cells. Recent reports have identified alternative NHEJ pathways that are highly error prone, prompting us to examine the role of the alternative NHEJ pathways in BCR-ABL-positive CML. Importantly, we show that key proteins in the major NHEJ pathway, Artemis and DNA ligase IV, are down-regulated, whereas DNA ligase IIIalpha, and the protein deleted in Werner syndrome, WRN, are up-regulated. DNA ligase IIIalpha and WRN form a complex that is recruited to DSBs in CML cells. Furthermore, "knockdown" of either DNA ligase IIIalpha or WRN leads to increased accumulation of unrepaired DSBs, demonstrating that they contribute to the repair of DSBs. These results indicate that altered DSB repair in CML cells is caused by the increased activity of an alternative NHEJ repair pathway, involving DNA ligase IIIalpha and WRN. We suggest that, although the repair of ROS-induced DSBs by this pathway contributes to the survival of CML cells, the resultant genomic instability drives disease progression.
Project description:To cope with ultraviolet C (UVC)-stalled replication forks and restart DNA synthesis, cells either undergo DNA translesion synthesis (TLS) by specialised DNA polymerases or tolerate the lesions using homologous recombination (HR)-based mechanisms. To gain insight into how cells manage UVC-induced stalled replication forks, we analysed the molecular crosstalk between the TLS DNA polymerases Pol? and Rev1, the double-strand break repair (DSB)-associated protein MDC1 and the FANC pathway. We describe three novel functional interactions that occur in response to UVC-induced DNA lesions. First, Pol? and Rev1, whose optimal expression and/or relocalisation depend on the FANC core complex, act upstream of FANCD2 and are required for the proper relocalisation of monoubiquitinylated FANCD2 (Ub-FANCD2) to subnuclear foci. Second, during S-phase, Ub-FANCD2 and MDC1 relocalise to UVC-damaged nuclear areas or foci simultaneously but independently of each other. Third, Ub-FANCD2 and MDC1 are independently required for optimal BRCA1 relocalisation. While RPA32 phosphorylation (p-RPA32) and RPA foci formation were reduced in parallel with increasing levels of H2AX phosphorylation and MDC1 foci in UVC-irradiated FANC pathway-depleted cells, MDC1 depletion was associated with increased UVC-induced Ub-FANCD2 and FANCD2 foci as well as p-RPA32 levels and p-RPA32 foci. On the basis of the previous observations, we propose that the FANC pathway participates in the rescue of UVC-stalled replication forks in association with TLS by maintaining the integrity of ssDNA regions and by preserving genome stability and preventing the formation of DSBs, the resolution of which would require the intervention of MDC1.
Project description:We investigated adhesion pathways that contribute to engraftment of breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (BCR-ABL1)-induced chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)-like myeloproliferative neoplasia in a mouse retroviral transduction/transplantation model. Compared with normal stem/progenitor cells, BCR-ABL1(+) progenitors had similar expression of very late antigen-4 (VLA4), VLA5, leukocyte functional antigen-1, and CXCR4 but lower expression of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and of L-selectin. Whereas vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin were not required, deficiency of E-selectin in the recipient bone marrow endothelium significantly reduced engraftment by BCR-ABL1-expressing stem cells following intravenous injection, with leukemogenesis restored by direct intrafemoral injection. BCR-ABL1-expressing cells deficient for PSGL-1 or the selectin ligand-synthesizing enzymes core-2 ?1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase or fucosyltransferases IV/VII were impaired for engraftment, and destruction of selectin ligands on leukemic progenitors by neuraminidase reduced engraftment. BCR-ABL1-expressing L-selectin-deficient progenitors were also defective in homing and engraftment, with leukemogenesis rescued by coexpression of chimeric E/L-selectin. Antibody to L-selectin decreased the engraftment of BCR-ABL1-transduced stem cells. These results establish that BCR-ABL1(+) leukemic stem cells rely to a greater extent on selectins and their ligands for homing and engraftment than do normal stem cells. Selectin blockade is a novel strategy to exploit differences between normal and leukemic stem cells that may be beneficial in autologous transplantation for CML and perhaps other leukemias.
Project description:Mono-ubiquitination of Fancd2 is essential for repairing DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The Fan1 nuclease, also required for ICL repair, is recruited to ICLs by ubiquitinated (Ub) Fancd2. This could in principle explain how Ub-Fancd2 promotes ICL repair, but we show that recruitment of Fan1 by Ub-Fancd2 is dispensable for ICL repair. Instead, Fan1 recruitment--and activity--restrains DNA replication fork progression and prevents chromosome abnormalities from occurring when DNA replication forks stall, even in the absence of ICLs. Accordingly, Fan1 nuclease-defective knockin mice are cancer-prone. Moreover, we show that a Fan1 variant in high-risk pancreatic cancers abolishes recruitment by Ub-Fancd2 and causes genetic instability without affecting ICL repair. Therefore, Fan1 recruitment enables processing of stalled forks that is essential for genome stability and health.
Project description:A reciprocal translocation of the ABL1 gene to the BCR gene results in the expression of the oncogenic BCR-ABL1 fusion protein, which characterizes human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a myeloproliferative disorder considered invariably fatal until the introduction of the imatinib family of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Nonetheless, insensitivity of CML stem cells to TKI treatment and intrinsic or acquired resistance are still frequent causes for disease persistence and blastic phase progression experienced in patients after initial successful therapies. Here, we investigated a possible role for the MAPK15/ERK8 kinase in BCR-ABL1-dependent autophagy, a key process for oncogene-induced leukemogenesis. In this context, we showed the ability of MAPK15 to physically recruit the oncogene to autophagic vesicles, confirming our hypothesis of a biologically relevant role for this MAP kinase in signal transduction by this oncogene. Indeed, by modeling BCR-ABL1 signaling in HeLa cells and taking advantage of a physiologically relevant model for human CML, i.e. K562 cells, we demonstrated that BCR-ABL1-induced autophagy is mediated by MAPK15 through its ability to interact with LC3-family proteins, in a LIR-dependent manner. Interestingly, we were also able to interfere with BCR-ABL1-induced autophagy by a pharmacological approach aimed at inhibiting MAPK15, opening the possibility of acting on this kinase to affect autophagy and diseases depending on this cellular function. Indeed, to support the feasibility of this approach, we demonstrated that depletion of endogenous MAPK15 expression inhibited BCR-ABL1-dependent cell proliferation, in vitro, and tumor formation, in vivo, therefore providing a novel "druggable" link between BCR-ABL1 and human CML.
Project description:BCR/ABL-transformed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells accumulate numerous DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and genotoxic agents. To repair these lesions BCR/ABL stimulate unfaithful DSB repair pathways, homologous recombination repair (HRR), nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), and single-strand annealing (SSA). Here, we show that BCR/ABL enhances the expression and increase nuclear localization of WRN (mutated in Werner syndrome), which is required for processing DSB ends during the repair. Other fusion tyrosine kinases (FTK), such as TEL/ABL, TEL/JAK2, TEL/PDGF?R, and NPM/ALK also elevate WRN. BCR/ABL induces WRN mRNA and protein expression in part by c-MYC-mediated activation of transcription and Bcl-xL-dependent inhibition of caspase-dependent cleavage, respectively. WRN is in complex with BCR/ABL resulting in WRN tyrosine phosphorylation and stimulation of its helicase and exonuclease activities. Activated WRN protects BCR/ABL-positive cells from the lethal effect of oxidative and genotoxic stresses, which causes DSBs. In addition, WRN promotes unfaithful recombination-dependent repair mechanisms HRR and SSA, and enhances the loss of DNA bases during NHEJ in leukemia cells. In summary, we postulate that BCR/ABL-mediated stimulation of WRN modulates the efficiency and fidelity of major DSB repair mechanisms to protect leukemia cells from apoptosis and to facilitate genomic instability.