High chromosome number in hematological cancer cell lines is a negative predictor of response to the inhibition of Aurora B and C by GSK1070916.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Aurora kinases play critical roles in mitosis and are being evaluated as therapeutic targets in cancer. GSK1070916 is a potent, selective, ATP competitive inhibitor of Aurora kinase B and C. Translation of predictive biomarkers to the clinic can benefit patients by identifying the tumors that are more likely to respond to therapies, especially novel inhibitors such as GSK1070916. METHODS: 59 Hematological cancer-derived cell lines were used as models for response where in vitro sensitivity to GSK1070916 was based on both time and degree of cell death. The response data was analyzed along with karyotype, transcriptomics and somatic mutation profiles to determine predictors of response. RESULTS: 20 cell lines were sensitive and 39 were resistant to treatment with GSK1070916. High chromosome number was more prevalent in resistant cell lines (p-value = 0.0098, Fisher Exact Test). Greater resistance was also found in cell lines harboring polyploid subpopulations (p-value = 0.00014, Unpaired t-test). A review of NOTCH1 mutations in T-ALL cell lines showed an association between NOTCH1 mutation status and chromosome number (p-value = 0.0066, Fisher Exact Test). CONCLUSIONS: High chromosome number associated with resistance to the inhibition of Aurora B and C suggests cells with a mechanism to bypass the high ploidy checkpoint are resistant to GSK1070916. High chromosome number, a hallmark trait of many late stage hematological malignancies, varies in prevalence among hematological malignancy subtypes. The high frequency and relative ease of measurement make high chromosome number a viable negative predictive marker for GSK1070916.
Project description:Higher Notch signaling is known to be associated with hematological and solid cancers. We developed a potential immunotherapeutic monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for the Negative Regulatory Region of Notch1 (NRR). The MAb604.107 exhibited higher affinity for the "Gain-of-function" mutants of Notch1 NRR associated with T Acute lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL). Modeling of the mutant NRR with 12 amino-acid insertion demonstrated "opening" resulting in exposure of the S2-cleavage site leading to activated Notch1 signaling. The MAb, at low concentrations (1-2 μg/ml), inhibited elevated ligand-independent Notch1 signaling of NRR mutants, augmented effect of Thapsigargin, an inhibitor of mutant Notch1, but had no effect on the wild-type Notch1. The antibody decreased proliferation of the primary T-ALL cells and depleted leukemia initiating CD34/CD44 high population. At relatively high concentrations, (10-20 μg/ml), the MAb affected Notch1 signaling in the breast and colon cancer cell lines. The Notch-high cells sorted from solid-tumor cell lines exhibited characteristics of cancer stem cells, which were inhibited by the MAb. The antibody also increased the sensitivity to Doxorubucinirubicin. Further, the MAb impeded the growth of xenografts from breast and colon cancer cells potentiated regression of the tumors along with Doxorubucin. Thus, this antibody is potential immunotherapeutic tool for different cancers.
Project description:Development of anticancer drugs targeting Aurora B, an important member of the serine/threonine kinases family, has been extensively focused on in recent years. In this work, by applying an integrated computational method, including comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), homology modeling and molecular docking, we investigated the structural determinants of Aurora B inhibitors based on three different series of derivatives of 108 molecules. The resultant optimum 3D-QSAR models exhibited (q(2) = 0.605, r(2) (pred) = 0.826), (q(2) = 0.52, r(2) (pred) = 0.798) and (q(2) = 0.582, r(2) (pred) = 0.971) for MK-0457, GSK1070916 and SNS-314 classes, respectively, and the 3D contour maps generated from these models were analyzed individually. The contour map analysis for the MK-0457 model revealed the relative importance of steric and electrostatic effects for Aurora B inhibition, whereas, the electronegative groups with hydrogen bond donating capacity showed a great impact on the inhibitory activity for the derivatives of GSK1070916. Additionally, the predictive model of the SNS-314 class revealed the great importance of hydrophobic favorable contour, since hydrophobic favorable substituents added to this region bind to a deep and narrow hydrophobic pocket composed of residues that are hydrophobic in nature and thus enhanced the inhibitory activity. Moreover, based on the docking study, a further comparison of the binding modes was accomplished to identify a set of critical residues that play a key role in stabilizing the drug-target interactions. Overall, the high level of consistency between the 3D contour maps and the topographical features of binding sites led to our identification of several key structural requirements for more potency inhibitors. Taken together, the results will serve as a basis for future drug development of inhibitors against Aurora B kinase for various tumors.
Project description:Aurora kinases are essential for cell division and are frequently misregulated in human cancers. Based on their potential as cancer therapeutics, a plethora of small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors have been developed, with a subset having been adopted as tools in cell biology. Here, we fill a gap in the characterization of Aurora kinase inhibitors by using biochemical and cell-based assays to systematically profile a panel of 10 commercially available compounds with reported selectivity for Aurora A (MLN8054, MLN8237, MK-5108, MK-8745, Genentech Aurora Inhibitor 1), Aurora B (Hesperadin, ZM447439, AZD1152-HQPA, GSK1070916), or Aurora A/B (VX-680). We quantify the in vitro effect of each inhibitor on the activity of Aurora A alone, as well as Aurora A and Aurora B bound to fragments of their activators, TPX2 and INCENP, respectively. We also report kinome profiling results for a subset of these compounds to highlight potential off-target effects. In a cellular context, we demonstrate that immunofluorescence-based detection of LATS2 and histone H3 phospho-epitopes provides a facile and reliable means to assess potency and specificity of Aurora A versus Aurora B inhibition, and that G2 duration measured in a live imaging assay is a specific readout of Aurora A activity. Our analysis also highlights variation between HeLa, U2OS, and hTERT-RPE1 cells that impacts selective Aurora A inhibition. For Aurora B, all four tested compounds exhibit excellent selectivity and do not significantly inhibit Aurora A at effective doses. For Aurora A, MK-5108 and MK-8745 are significantly more selective than the commonly used inhibitors MLN8054 and MLN8237. A crystal structure of an Aurora A/MK-5108 complex that we determined suggests the chemical basis for this higher specificity. Taken together, our quantitative biochemical and cell-based analyses indicate that AZD1152-HQPA and MK-8745 are the best current tools for selectively inhibiting Aurora B and Aurora A, respectively. However, MK-8745 is not nearly as ideal as AZD1152-HQPA in that it requires high concentrations to achieve full inhibition in a cellular context, indicating a need for more potent Aurora A-selective inhibitors. We conclude with a set of "good practice" guidelines for the use of Aurora inhibitors in cell biology experiments.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Aurora kinases and loss of p53 function are implicated in the carcinogenesis of aneuploid esophageal cancers. Their association with occurrence of multipolar mitoses in the two main histotypes of aneuploid esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BAC) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the occurrence of multipolar mitoses, Aurora-A/-B gene copy numbers and expression/activation as well as p53 alterations in aneuploid ESCC and BAC cancer cell lines. RESULTS: A control esophageal epithelial cell line (EPC-hTERT) had normal Aurora-A and -B gene copy numbers and expression, was p53 wild type and displayed bipolar mitoses. In contrast, both ESCC (OE21, Kyse-410) and BAC (OE33, OE19) cell lines were aneuploid and displayed elevated gene copy numbers of Aurora-A (chromosome 20 polysomy: OE21, OE33, OE19; gene amplification: Kyse-410) and Aurora-B (chromosome 17 polysomy: OE21, Kyse-410). Aurora-B gene copy numbers were not elevated in OE19 and OE33 cells despite chromosome 17 polysomy. Aurora-A expression and activity (Aurora-A/phosphoT288) was not directly linked to gene copy numbers and was highest in Kyse-410 and OE33 cells. Aurora-B expression and activity (Aurora-B/phosphoT232) was higher in OE21 and Kyse-410 than in OE33 and OE19 cells. The mitotic index was highest in OE21, followed by OE33 > OE19 > Kyse-410 and EPC-hTERT cells. Multipolar mitoses occurred with high frequency in OE33 (13.8 ± 4.2%), followed by OE21 (7.7 ± 5.0%) and Kyse-410 (6.3 ± 2.0%) cells. Single multipolar mitoses occurred in OE19 (1.0 ± 1.0%) cells. Distinct p53 mutations and p53 protein expression patterns were found in all esophageal cancer cell lines, but complete functional p53 inactivation occurred in OE21 and OE33 only. CONCLUSIONS: High Aurora-A expression alone is not associated with overt multipolar mitoses in aneuploid ESCC and BAC cancer cells, as specifically shown here for OE21 and OE33 cells, respectively. Additional p53 loss of function mutations are necessary for this to occur, at least for invasive esophageal cancer cells. Further assessment of Aurora kinases and p53 interactions in cells or tissue specimens derived from non-invasive dysplasia (ESCC) or intestinal metaplasia (BAC) are necessary to disclose a potential causative role of Aurora kinases and p53 for development of aneuploid, invasive esophageal cancers.
Project description:Glioma stem cells account for glioblastoma relapse and resistance to conventional therapies, and protein kinases, involved in the regulation of the mitotic machinery (i.e., Aurora kinases), have recently emerged as attractive therapeutic targets. In this study, we investigated the effect of Aurora kinases inhibition in five glioma stem cell lines isolated from glioblastoma patients. As expected, cell lines responded to the loss of Aurora kinases with cytokinesis failure and mitotic exit without cell division. Surprisingly, this resulted in a proliferative arrest in only two of the five cell lines. These sensitive cell lines entered a senescent/autophagic state following aberrant mitotic exit, while the non-sensitive cell lines continued to proliferate. This senescence response did not correlate with TP53 mutation status but only occurred in the cell lines with the highest chromosome content. Repeated rounds of Aurora kinases inhibition caused a gradual increase in chromosome content in the resistant cell lines and eventually caused a similar senescence response and proliferative arrest. Our results suggest that a ploidy threshold is the main determinant of Aurora kinases sensitivity in TP53 mutant glioma stem cells. Thus, ploidy could be used as a biomarker for treating glioma patients with Aurora kinases inhibitors.
Project description:The Aurora kinases are essential for cell mitosis, and the dysregulation of Aurora A and B have been linked to the etiology of human cancers. Investigational agents MLN8054 (8) and alisertib (MLN8237, 10) have been identified as high affinity, selective, orally bioavailable inhibitors of Aurora A that have advanced into human clinical trials. Alisertib (10) is currently being evaluated in multiple Phase II and III clinical trials in hematological malignancies and solid tumors.
Project description:Polo-like kinases (PLKs) and Aurora kinases (AKs) act as key cell cycle regulators in healthy human cells. In cancer, these protein kinases are often overexpressed and dysregulated, thus contributing to uncontrolled cell proliferation and growth. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a heterogeneous malignancy arising in the thymus from T-cell progenitors. Primary chemoresistant and relapsed T-ALL patients have yet a poor outcome, therefore novel therapies, targeting signaling pathways important for leukemic cell proliferation, are required. Here, we demonstrate the potential therapeutic effects of BI6727, MK-5108, and GSK1070916, three selective inhibitors of PLK1, AK-A, and AK-B/C, respectively, in a panel of T-ALL cell lines and primary cells from T-ALL patients. The drugs were both cytostatic and cytotoxic to T-ALL cells by inducing G2/M-phase arrest and apoptosis. The drugs retained part of their pro-apoptotic activity in the presence of MS-5 bone marrow stromal cells. Moreover, we document for the first time that BI6727 perturbed both the PI3K/Akt/mTORC2 and the MEK/ERK/mTORC1 signaling pathways, and that a combination of BI6727 with specific inhibitors of the aforementioned pathways (MK-2206, CCI-779) displayed significantly synergistic cytotoxic effects. Taken together, our findings indicate that PLK1 and AK inhibitors display the potential for being employed in innovative therapeutic strategies for improving T-ALL patient outcome.
Project description:Aurora kinases regulate key stages of mitosis including centrosome maturation, spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. Aurora A and B kinase overexpression has also been associated with various human cancers, and as such, they have been extensively studied as novel antimitotic drug targets. Here, we characterize the Aurora kinase inhibitor CCT137690, a highly selective, orally bioavailable imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine derivative that inhibits Aurora A and B kinases with low nanomolar IC(50) values in both biochemical and cellular assays and exhibits antiproliferative activity against a wide range of human solid tumor cell lines. CCT137690 efficiently inhibits histone H3 and transforming acidic coiled-coil 3 phosphorylation (Aurora B and Aurora A substrates, respectively) in HCT116 and HeLa cells. Continuous exposure of tumor cells to the inhibitor causes multipolar spindle formation, chromosome misalignment, polyploidy, and apoptosis. This is accompanied by p53/p21/BAX induction, thymidine kinase 1 downregulation, and PARP cleavage. Furthermore, CCT137690 treatment of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines inhibits cell proliferation and decreases MYCN protein expression. Importantly, in a transgenic mouse model of neuroblastoma that overexpresses MYCN protein and is predisposed to spontaneous neuroblastoma formation, this compound significantly inhibits tumor growth. The potent preclinical activity of CCT137690 suggests that this inhibitor may benefit patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma.
Project description:We characterized a panel of cancer cells and found that they exhibited chromosome instability (CIN) that was associated with high frequencies of aberrant kinetochore:microtubule attachments. Failure to resolve these defective attachments before anaphase onset can lead to missegregation of chromosomes. Aurora B kinase is concentrated at the inner centromere where it contributes to multiple kinetochore functions, one of which is in error-correction. Analysis of several CIN cell lines showed that many aspects of Aurora B kinase functions were normal. Furthermore, the amount and activity of Aurora B kinase was not reduced at the kinetochores of CIN cells that were examined. However, phosphorylation of a centromeric biosensor for Aurora B in OVCAR10, MCF7 and U2OS cells was consistently reduced relative to non CIN cells. This suggested a localized problem with Aurora B's ability to phosphorylate substrates important for error correction. This possibility was supported by our ability to improve error correction and reduce the frequency of lagging chromosome in CIN cells by directing endogenous Aurora B to the region of centromere that was tested by the biosensor. Our studies suggest that the kinetochores of CIN cells have a defect that limits accessibility of Aurora B to substrates that are important for error-correction.
Project description:Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A) is known to regulate genomic instability and tumorigenesis in multiple human cancers. The underlying mechanism, however, is not fully understood. We examined the molecular mechanism of Aurora-A regulation in human ovarian cancer.Retrovirus-mediated small hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to silence the expression of Aurora-A in the ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3, OVCA432, and OVCA433. Immunofluorescence, Western blotting, flow cytometry, cytogenetic analysis, and animal assay were used to test centrosome amplification, cell cycle alteration, apoptosis, DNA damage response, tumor growth, and genomic instability. Immunostaining of BRCA2 and Aurora-A was done in ovarian, pancreatic, breast, and colon cancer samples.Knockdown of Aurora-A reduced centrosome amplification, malformation of mitotic spindles, and chromosome aberration, leading to decreased tumor growth. Silencing Aurora-A attenuated cell cycle progression and enhanced apoptosis and DNA damage response by restoring p21, pRb, and BRCA2 expression. Aurora-A was inversely correlated with BRCA2 in high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma, breast cancer, and pancreatic cancer. In high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma, positive expression of BRCA2 predicted increased overall and disease-free survival, whereas positive expression of Aurora-A predicted poor overall and disease-free survival (P < 0.05). Moreover, an increased Aurora-A to BRCA2 expression ratio predicted poor overall survival (P = 0.047) compared with a decreased Aurora-A to BRCA2 expression ratio.Aurora-A regulates genomic instability and tumorigenesis through cell cycle dysregulation and BRCA2 suppression. The negative correlation between Aurora-A and BRCA2 exists in multiple cancers, whereas the expression ratio of Aurora-A to BRCA2 predicts ovarian cancer patient outcome.