Genomic and surface proteomic analysis of the canine pathogen Staphylococcus pseudintermedius reveals proteins that mediate adherence to the extracellular matrix.
ABSTRACT: Cell wall-associated (CWA) proteins made by Gram-positive pathogens play a fundamental role in pathogenesis. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major animal pathogen responsible for the canine skin disease bacterial pyoderma. Here, we describe the bioinformatic analysis of the family of 18 predicted CWA proteins encoded in the genome of S. pseudintermedius strain ED99 and determine their distribution among a phylogenetically diverse panel of S. pseudintermedius clinical isolates and closely related species of the Staphylococcus intermedius group. In parallel, we employed a proteomic approach to identify proteins presented on the surface of strain ED99 in vitro, revealing a total of 60 surface-localized proteins in one or more phases of growth, including 6 of the 18 genome-predicted CWA proteins. Based on these analyses, we selected two CWA proteins (SpsD and SpsL) encoded by all strains examined and investigated their capacity to mediate adherence to extracellular matrix proteins. We discovered that SpsD and SpsL mediated binding of a heterologous host, Lactococcus lactis, to fibrinogen and fibronectin and that SpsD mediated binding to cytokeratin 10, a major constituent of mammalian skin. Of note, the interaction with fibrinogen was host-species dependent, suggestive of a role for SpsD and SpsL in the host tropism of S. pseudintermedius. Finally, we identified IgG specific for SpsD and SpsL in sera from dogs with bacterial pyoderma, implying that both proteins are expressed during infection. The combined genomic and proteomic approach employed in the current study has revealed novel host-pathogen interactions which represent candidate therapeutic targets for the control of bacterial pyoderma.
Project description:<i>Staphylococcus pseudintermedius</i> is the leading cause of pyoderma in dogs and is often associated with recurrent skin infections that require prolonged antibiotic therapy. High levels of antibiotic use have led to multidrug resistance, including the emergence of epidemic methicillin-resistant clones. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of <i>S. pseudintermedius</i> skin infection is very limited, and the identification of the key host-pathogen interactions underpinning infection could lead to the design of novel therapeutic or vaccine-based approaches for controlling disease. Here, we employ a novel murine cutaneous-infection model of <i>S. pseudintermedius</i> and investigate the role of the two cell wall-associated proteins (SpsD and SpsL) in skin disease pathogenesis. Experimental infection with wild-type <i>S. pseudintermedius</i> strain ED99 or a gene-deletion derivative deficient in expression of SpsD led to a focal accumulation of neutrophils and necrotic debris in the dermis and deeper tissues of the skin characteristic of a classical cutaneous abscess. In contrast, mice infected with mutants deficient in SpsL or both SpsD and SpsL developed larger cutaneous lesions with distinct histopathological features of regionally extensive cellulitis rather than focal abscessation. Furthermore, comparison of the bacterial loads in <i>S. pseudintermedius-</i>induced cutaneous lesions revealed a significantly increased burden of bacteria in the mice infected with SpsL-deficient mutants. These findings reveal a key role for SpsL in murine skin abscess formation and highlight a novel function for a bacterial surface protein in determining the clinical outcome and pathology of infection caused by a major canine pathogen.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the cell wall-anchored fibronectin-binding proteins SpsD and SpsL from the canine commensal and pathogen Staphylococcus pseudintermedius for their role in promoting bacterial invasion of canine progenitor epidermal keratinocytes (CPEK). Invasion was examined by the gentamicin protection assay and fluorescence microscopy. An ?spsD ?spsL mutant of strain ED99 had a dramatically reduced capacity to invade CPEK monolayers, while no difference in the invasion level was observed with single mutants. Lactococcus lactis transformed with plasmids expressing SpsD and SpsL promoted invasion, showing that both proteins are important. Soluble fibronectin was required for invasion, and an RGD-containing peptide or antibodies recognizing the integrin ?5?1 markedly reduced invasion, suggesting an important role for the integrin in this process. Src kinase inhibitors effectively blocked internalization, suggesting a functional role for the kinase in invasion. In order to identify the minimal fibronectin-binding region of SpsD and SpsL involved in the internalization process, recombinant fragments of both proteins were produced. The SpsD520-846 and SpsL538-823 regions harboring the major fibronectin-binding sites inhibited S. pseudintermedius internalization. Finally, the effects of staphylococcal invasion on the integrity of different cell lines were examined. Because SpsD and SpsL are critical factors for adhesion and invasion, blocking these processes could provide a strategy for future approaches to treating infections.
Project description:The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is involved in canine otitis externa and pyoderma as well as in surgical wound and urinary tract infections. Invasion of canine epithelial cells is promoted by S. pseudintermedius fibronectin (Fn)-binding proteins SpsD and SpsL through molecular interactions that are currently unknown. By means of single-molecule experiments, we discover that both adhesins have distinct molecular mechanisms for binding to Fn. We show that the SpsD-Fn interaction has a strength equivalent to that of a covalent bond (?1.5 to 1.8 nN), which is an order of magnitude stronger than the binding force of classical receptor-ligand complexes. We suggest that this extreme mechanostability originates from the ?-sheet organization of a tandem ?-zipper. Upon binding to FnI modules, the intrinsically disordered binding sequences of SpsD would shift into an ordered structure by forming additional ?-strands along triple peptide ?-sheets in the Fn molecule. Dynamic force measurements reveal an unexpected behavior, i.e., that strong bonds are activated by mechanical tension as observed with catch bonds. By contrast, the SpsL-Fn interaction involves multiple weak bonds (?0.2 nN) that rupture sequentially under force. Together with the recently described dock, lock, and latch complex, the ultrastrong interaction unraveled here is among the strongest noncovalent biological interaction measured to date. Our findings may find applications for the identification of inhibitory compounds to treat infections triggered by pathogens engaged in tandem ?-zipper interactions.IMPORTANCE Binding of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius surface proteins SpsD and SpsL to fibronectin (Fn) plays a critical role in the invasion of canine epithelial cells. Here, we discover that both adhesins have different mechanisms for binding to Fn. The force required to separate SpsD from Fn is extremely strong, consistent with the unusual ?-sheet organization of a high-affinity tandem ?-zipper. By contrast, unbinding of the SpsL-Fn complex involves the sequential rupture of single weak bonds. Our findings may be of biological relevance as SpsD and SpsL are likely to play complementary roles during invasion. While the SpsD ?-zipper supports strong bacterial adhesion and triggers invasion, the weak SpsL interaction would favor fast detachment, enabling the pathogen to colonize new sites.
Project description:We report the first whole-genome sequence for a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (ED99), the major pathogen responsible for canine bacterial pyoderma. S. pseudintermedius contains numerous mobile genetic elements and encodes an array of putative virulence factors, including superantigenic, cytolytic, and exfoliative toxins and cell wall-associated surface proteins.
Project description:Fibrinogen is an essential part of the blood coagulation cascade and a major component of the extracellular matrix in mammals. The interface between fibrinogen and bacterial pathogens is an important determinant of the outcome of infection. Here, we demonstrate that a canine host-restricted skin pathogen, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, produces a cell wall-associated protein (SpsL) that has evolved the capacity for high strength binding to canine fibrinogen, with reduced binding to fibrinogen of other mammalian species including humans. Binding occurs via the surface-expressed N2N3 subdomains, of the SpsL A-domain, to multiple sites in the fibrinogen ?-chain C-domain by a mechanism analogous to the classical dock, lock, and latch binding model. Host-specific binding is dependent on a tandem repeat region of the fibrinogen ?-chain, a region highly divergent between mammals. Of note, we discovered that the tandem repeat region is also polymorphic in different canine breeds suggesting a potential influence on canine host susceptibility to S. pseudintermedius infection. Importantly, the strong host-specific fibrinogen-binding interaction of SpsL to canine fibrinogen is essential for bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation, and promotes resistance to neutrophil phagocytosis, suggesting a key role for the interaction during pathogenesis. Taken together, we have dissected a bacterial surface protein-ligand interaction resulting from the co-evolution of host and pathogen that promotes host-specific innate immune evasion and may contribute to its host-restricted ecology.
Project description:Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, a commensal and pathogen of dogs and occasionally of humans, expresses surface proteins potentially involved in host colonization and pathogenesis. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of SpsD, a surface protein of S. pseudintermedius reported as interacting with extracellular matrix proteins and corneocytes. A ligand screen and Western immunoblotting revealed that the N-terminal A domain of SpsD bound fibrinogen, fibronectin, elastin and cytokeratin 10. SpsD also interfered with thrombin-induced fibrinogen coagulation and blocked ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The binding site for SpsD was mapped to residues 395-411 in the fibrinogen ?-chain, while binding sites in fibronectin were localized to the N- and C-terminal regions. SpsD also bound to glycine- and serine-rich omega loops within the C-terminal tail region of cytokeratin 10. Ligand binding studies using SpsD variants lacking the C-terminal segment or containing an amino-acid substitution in the putative ligand binding site provided insights into interaction mechanism of SpsD with the different ligands. Together these data demonstrate the multi-ligand binding properties of SpsD and illustrate some interesting differences in the variety of ligands bound by SpsD and related proteins from S. aureus.
Project description:Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is often associated with pyoderma, which can turn into a life-threatening disease. The dissemination of highly resistant isolates has occurred in the last 10 years and has challenged antimicrobial treatment of these infections considerably. We have compared the carriage of virulence genes and biofilm formation between methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MRSP and MSSP, respectively) isolates and their in vitro gene expression profiles by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). Isolates were relatively unevenly distributed among the four agr groups, and agr type III predominated in MRSP. Five virulence genes were detected in all isolates. Only the spsO gene was significantly associated with MSSP isolates (P = 0.04). All isolates produced biofilm in brain heart infusion broth (BHIB)-4% NaCl. MSSP isolates produced more biofilm on BHIB and BHIB-1% glucose media than MRSP isolates (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively). Virulence genes encoding surface proteins and toxins (spsA, spsB, spsD, spsK, spsL, spsN, nucC, coa, and luk-I) and also prophage genes (encoding phage capsid protein, phage infection protein, two phage portal proteins, and a phage-like protein) were highly expressed in the MRSP isolate (compared with the MSSP isolate), suggesting they may play a role in the rapid and widespread dissemination of MRSP. This study indicates that MRSP may upregulate surface proteins, which may increase the adherence of MRSP isolates (especially sequence type 71 [ST71]) to corneocytes. MSSP isolates may have an increased ability to form biofilm under acidic circumstances, through upregulation of the entire arc operon. Complete understanding of S. pseudintermedius pathogenesis and host-pathogen signal interaction during infections is critical for the treatment and prevention of S. pseudintermedius infections.
Project description:The Staphylococcus intermedius group consists of three closely related coagulase-positive bacterial species including S. intermedius, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, and Staphylococcus delphini. S. pseudintermedius is a major skin pathogen of dogs, which occasionally causes severe zoonotic infections of humans. S. delphini has been isolated from an array of different animals including horses, mink, and pigeons, whereas S. intermedius has been isolated only from pigeons to date. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the S. pseudintermedius whole genome sequence in comparison to high quality draft S. intermedius and S. delphini genomes, and to other sequenced staphylococcal species. The core genome of the SIG was highly conserved with average nucleotide identity (ANI) between the three species of 93.61%, which is very close to the threshold of species delineation (95% ANI), highlighting the close-relatedness of the SIG species. However, considerable variation was identified in the content of mobile genetic elements, cell wall-associated proteins, and iron and sugar transporters, reflecting the distinct ecological niches inhabited. Of note, S. pseudintermedius ED99 contained a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus of the Nmeni subtype and S. intermedius contained both Nmeni and Mtube subtypes. In contrast to S. intermedius and S. delphini and most other staphylococci examined to date, S. pseudintermedius contained at least nine predicted reverse transcriptase Group II introns. Furthermore, S. pseudintermedius ED99 encoded several transposons which were largely responsible for its multi-resistant phenotype. Overall, the study highlights extensive differences in accessory genome content between closely related staphylococcal species inhabiting distinct host niches, providing new avenues for research into pathogenesis and bacterial host-adaptation.
Project description:Gram-positive bacterial pathogens have an array of proteins on their cell surface that mediate interactions with the host environment. In particular, bacterial cell wall-associated (CWA) proteins play key roles in both colonization and pathogenesis. Furthermore, some CWA proteins promote specialization for host-species or mediate colonization of specific anatomical niches within a host. In this mini review, we provide examples of the many ways by which major pathogens, such as Staphylococci, Streptococci and Listeria monocytogenes, utilize CWA proteins for both host- and niche-specialization. We describe different biological mechanisms mediated by CWA proteins including: the acquisition of iron from hemoglobin in the bloodstream, adherence to and invasion of host cells, and innate immune evasion through binding to the plasma proteins fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G, and complement. We also discuss the limitations of using animal models for understanding the role of specific CWA proteins in host-specialization and how transformative technologies, such as CRISPR-Cas, offer tremendous potential for developing transgenic models that simulate the host environment of interest. Improved understanding of the role of CWA proteins in niche- or host-specificity will allow the design of new therapeutic approaches which target key host-pathogen interactions underpinning Gram-positive bacterial infections.
Project description:Although Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is considered the major pathogen associated with superficial canine pyoderma, no study has investigated the entire bacterial community in these lesions with molecular techniques. The objectives of this study were to characterize the bacterial microbiota in two forms of superficial canine pyoderma lesions, superficial bacterial folliculitis (SBF) and epidermal collarette (EC), especially in terms of the staphylococcal community. Swabs from 12 SBF and 9 EC lesions were obtained from eight and six atopic dogs, respectively. Eight samples from the axilla and groin of four healthy dogs served as controls. DNA was extracted for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction of Staphylococcus spp. and S. pseudintermedius. Healthy skin samples harbored significantly more diverse bacterial communities than pyoderma samples. Healthy samples had communities that were more similar to each other, and were distinct from pyoderma samples. Staphylococcus spp. abundance was increased in pyoderma samples, especially those from EC samples. Although determining species-level identities of staphylococcal sequences revealed many species, S. pseudintermedius was the primary staphylococcal species found in all sample types. As expected, there are many differences in the microbiota when comparing healthy and canine pyoderma lesions samples. These lesions do not seem to be associated with a change in the relative abundance of specific Staphylococcus species, but simply an overall increase in Staphylococcus spp. abundance. The results of this study provide a starting point for future studies investigating how antimicrobial treatments may further change the microbiota associated with these lesions.