Impact of the E540V amino acid substitution in GyrB of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on quinolone resistance.
ABSTRACT: Amino acid substitutions conferring resistance to quinolones in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have generally been found within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in the A subunit of DNA gyrase (GyrA) rather than the B subunit of DNA gyrase (GyrB). To clarify the contribution of an amino acid substitution, E540V, in GyrB to quinolone resistance in M. tuberculosis, we expressed recombinant DNA gyrases in Escherichia coli and characterized them in vitro. Wild-type and GyrB-E540V DNA gyrases were reconstituted in vitro by mixing recombinant GyrA and GyrB. Correlation between the amino acid substitution and quinolone resistance was assessed by the ATP-dependent DNA supercoiling assay, quinolone-inhibited supercoiling assay, and DNA cleavage assay. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of eight quinolones against DNA gyrases bearing the E540V amino acid substitution in GyrB were 2.5- to 36-fold higher than those against the wild-type enzyme. Similarly, the 25% maximum DNA cleavage concentrations were 1.5- to 14-fold higher for the E540V gyrase than for the wild-type enzyme. We further demonstrated that the E540V amino acid substitution influenced the interaction between DNA gyrase and the substituent(s) at R-7, R-8, or both in quinolone structures. This is the first detailed study of the contribution of the E540V amino acid substitution in GyrB to quinolone resistance in M. tuberculosis.
Project description:Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is emerging in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The main mechanism of FQ resistance is amino acid substitution within the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase, the sole FQ target in M. tuberculosis. However, substitutions in GyrB whose implication in FQ resistance is unknown are increasingly being reported. The present study clarified the role of four GyrB substitutions identified in M. tuberculosis clinical strains, two located in the QRDR (D500A and N538T) and two outside the QRDR (T539P and E540V), in FQ resistance. We measured FQ MICs and also DNA gyrase inhibition by FQs in order to unequivocally clarify the role of these mutations in FQ resistance. Wild-type GyrA, wild-type GyrB, and mutant GyrB subunits produced from engineered gyrB alleles by mutagenesis were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and used to reconstitute highly active gyrase complexes. MICs and DNA gyrase inhibition were determined for moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and enoxacin. All these substitutions are clearly implicated in FQ resistance, underlining the presence of a hot spot region housing most of the GyrB substitutions implicated in FQ resistance (residues NTE, 538 to 540). These findings help us to refine the definition of GyrB QRDR, which is extended to positions 500 to 540.
Project description:The sugarcane pathogen Xanthomonas albilineans produces a family of antibiotics and phytotoxins termed albicidins, which inhibit plant and bacterial DNA gyrase supercoiling activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (50 nM) comparable to those of coumarins and quinolones. Here we show that X. albilineans has an unusual, antibiotic-resistant DNA gyrase. The X. albilineans gyrA and gyrB genes are not clustered with previously described albicidin biosynthesis and self-protection genes. The GyrA and GyrB products differ from Escherichia coli homologues through several insertions and through changes in several amino acid residues implicated in quinolone and coumarin resistance. Reconstituted X. albilineans DNA gyrase showed 20- to 25-fold-higher resistance than E. coli DNA gyrase to albicidin and ciprofloxacin and 8-fold-higher resistance to novobiocin in the supercoiling assay. The X. albilineans DNA gyrase is unusual in showing a high degree of distributive supercoiling and little DNA relaxation activity. X. albilineans GyrA (XaA) forms a functional gyrase heterotetramer with E. coli GyrB (EcB) and can account for albicidin and quinolone resistance and low levels of relaxation activity. XaB probably contributes to both coumarin resistance and the distributive supercoiling pattern. Although XaB shows fewer apparent changes relative to EcB, the EcA.XaB hybrid relaxed DNA in the presence or absence of ATP and was unable to supercoil. A fuller understanding of structural differences between albicidin-sensitive and -resistant gyrases may provide new clues into features of the enzyme amenable to interference by novel antibiotics.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone (FQ) used for the treatment of leprosy. FQs are known to interact with both A and B subunits of DNA gyrase and inhibit supercoiling activity of this enzyme. Mutations conferring FQ resistance have been reported to be found only in the gene encoding A subunit of this enzyme (gyrA) of M. leprae, although there are many reports on the FQ resistance-associated mutation in gyrB in other bacteria, including M. tuberculosis, a bacterial species in the same genus as M. leprae.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>To reveal the possible contribution of mutations in gyrB to FQ resistance in M. leprae, we examined the inhibitory activity of FQs against recombinant DNA gyrases with amino acid substitutions at position 464, 502 and 504, equivalent to position 461, 499 and 501 in M. tuberculosis, which are reported to contribute to reduced sensitivity to FQ. The FQ-inhibited supercoiling assay and FQ-induced cleavage assay demonstrated the important roles of these amino acid substitutions in reduced sensitivity to FQ with marked influence by amino acid substitution, especially at position 502. Additionally, effectiveness of sitafloxacin, a FQ, to mutant DNA gyrases was revealed by low inhibitory concentration of this FQ.<h4>Significance</h4>Data obtained in this study suggested the possible emergence of FQ-resistant M. leprae with mutations in gyrB and the necessity of analyzing both gyrA and gyrB for an FQ susceptibility test. In addition, potential use of sitafloxacin for the treatment of problematic cases of leprosy by FQ resistant M. leprae was suggested.
Project description:Plasmid-encoded protein QnrB1 protects DNA gyrase from ciprofloxacin inhibition. Using a bacterial two-hybrid system, we evaluated the physical interactions between wild-type and mutant QnrB1, the GyrA and GyrB gyrase subunits, and a GyrBA fusion protein. The interaction of QnrB1 with GyrB and GyrBA was approximately 10-fold higher than that with GyrA, suggesting that domains of GyrB are important for stabilizing QnrB1 interaction with the holoenzyme. Sub-MICs of ciprofloxacin or nalidixic acid reduced the interactions between QnrB1 and GyrA or GyrBA but produced no reduction in the interaction with GyrB or a quinolone-resistant GyrA:S83L (GyrA with S83L substitution) mutant, suggesting that quinolones and QnrB1 compete for binding to gyrase. Of QnrB1 mutants that reduced quinolone resistance, deletions in the C or N terminus of QnrB1 resulted in a marked decrease in interactions with GyrA but limited or no effect on interactions with GyrB and an intermediate effect on interactions with GyrBA. While deletion of loop B and both loops moderately reduced the interaction signal with GyrA, deletion of loop A resulted in only a small reduction in the interaction with GyrB. The loop A deletion also caused a substantial reduction in interaction with GyrBA, with little effect of loop B and dual-loop deletions. Single-amino-acid loop mutations had little effect on physical interactions except for a ?105I mutant. Therefore, loops A and B may play key roles in the proper positioning of QnrB1 rather than as determinants of the physical interaction of QnrB1 with gyrase.
Project description:Degenerate PCR primers, UP-1 and UP-2r, for the amplification of DNA gyrase subunit B genes (gyrB) were designed by using consensus amino acid sequences of gyrases from Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Bacillus subtilis. In addition to the degenerate sequences, these primers have sequences at the 5' end which allow direct sequencing of amplified PCR products. With these primers, DNA segments of the predicted size were amplified from a variety of gram-negative and gram-positive genera. The nucleotide sequences of the amplified gyrB DNA from three P. putida strains were determined directly from the amplified fragments. The base substitution frequency of gyrB between the strains of P. putida was much higher than that of the 16S rRNA gene. With a specific set of PCR primers, it was possible to amplify gyrB fragments selectively from P. putida or its subgroups. The direct sequencing method of gyrB developed in this study provides a rapid and convenient system for bacterial identification, taxonomic analysis, and monitoring of bacteria in the natural environment.
Project description:Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are among the most potent second-line drugs used for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB), and resistance to this class of antibiotics is one criterion for defining extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB). Fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been associated with modification of the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA. Recent studies suggest that amino acid substitutions in gyrB may also play a crucial role in resistance, but functional genetic studies of these mutations in M. tuberculosis are lacking. In this study, we examined twenty six mutations in gyrase genes gyrA (seven) and gyrB (nineteen) to determine the clinical relevance and role of these mutations in fluoroquinolone resistance. Transductants or clinical isolates harboring T80A, T80A+A90G, A90G, G247S and A384V gyrA mutations were susceptible to all fluoroquinolones tested. The A74S mutation conferred low-level resistance to moxifloxacin but susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin, and the A74S+D94G double mutation conferred cross resistance to all the fluoroquinolones tested. Functional genetic analysis and structural modeling of gyrB suggest that M330I, V340L, R485C, D500A, D533A, A543T, A543V and T546M mutations are not sufficient to confer resistance as determined by agar proportion. Only three mutations, N538D, E540V and R485C+T539N, conferred resistance to all four fluoroquinolones in at least one genetic background. The D500H and D500N mutations conferred resistance only to levofloxacin and ofloxacin while N538K and E540D consistently conferred resistance to moxifloxacin only. Transductants and clinical isolates harboring T539N, T539P or N538T+T546M mutations exhibited low-level resistance to moxifloxacin only but not consistently. These findings indicate that certain mutations in gyrB confer fluoroquinolone resistance, but the level and pattern of resistance varies among the different mutations. The results from this study provide support for the inclusion of the QRDR of gyrB in molecular assays used to detect fluoroquinolone resistance in M. tuberculosis.
Project description:The genes encoding the DNA gyrase A and B subunits of Bacteroides fragilis were cloned and sequenced. The gyrA and gyrB genes code for proteins of 845 and 653 amino acids, respectively. These proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the combination of GyrA and GyrB exhibited ATP-dependent supercoiling activity. To analyze the role of DNA gyrase in quinolone resistance of B. fragilis, we isolated mutant strains by stepwise selection for resistance to increasing concentrations of levofloxacin. We analyzed the resistant mutants and showed that Ser-82 of GyrA, equivalent to resistance hot spot Ser-83 of GyrA in E. coli, was in each case replaced with Phe. These results suggest that DNA gyrase is an important target for quinolones in B. fragilis.
Project description:DNA gyrase mutations are a major cause of quinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis We therefore conducted the first comprehensive study to determine the diversity of gyrase mutations in pre-extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR) (n = 71) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) (n = 30) Thai clinical tuberculosis (TB) isolates. All pre-XDR-TB and XDR-TB isolates carried at least one mutation within the quinolone resistance-determining region of GyrA (G88A [1.1%], A90V [17.4%], S91P [1.1%], or D94A/G/H/N/V/Y [72.7%]) or GyrB (D533A [1.1%], N538D [1.1%], or E540D [2.2%]). MIC and DNA gyrase supercoiling inhibition assays were performed to determine the role of gyrase mutations in quinolone resistance. Compared to the MICs against M. tuberculosis H37Rv, the levels of resistance to all quinolones tested in the isolates that carried GyrA-D94G or GyrB-N538D (8- to 32-fold increase) were significantly higher than those in isolates bearing GyrA-D94A or GyrA-A90V (2- to 8-fold increase) (P < 0.01). Intriguingly, GyrB-E540D led to a dramatic resistance to later-generation quinolones, including moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and sparfloxacin (8- to 16-fold increases in MICs and 8.3- to 11.2-fold increases in 50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s]). However, GyrB-E540D caused low-level resistance to early-generation quinolones, including ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin (2- to 4-fold increases in MICs and 1.5- to 2.0-fold increases in IC50s). In the present study, DC-159a was the most active antituberculosis agent and was little affected by the gyrase mutations described above. Our findings suggest that although they are rare, gyrB mutations have a notable role in quinolone resistance, which may provide clues to the molecular basis of estimating quinolone resistance levels for drug and dose selection.
Project description:DNA topoisomerases manage chromosome supercoiling and organization in all forms of life. Gyrase, a prokaryotic heterotetrameric type IIA topo, introduces negative supercoils into DNA by an ATP-dependent strand passage mechanism. All gyrase orthologs rely on a homologous set of catalytic domains for function; however, these enzymes also can possess species-specific auxiliary regions. The gyrases of many gram-negative bacteria harbor a 170-amino acid insertion of unknown architecture and function in the metal- and DNA-binding TOPRIM domain of the GyrB subunit. We have determined the structure of the 212?kDa Escherichia coli gyrase DNA binding and cleavage core containing this insert to 3.1?Å resolution. We find that the insert adopts a novel, extended fold that braces the GyrB TOPRIM domain against the coiled-coil arms of its partner GyrA subunit. Structure-guided deletion of the insert greatly reduces the DNA binding, supercoiling and DNA-stimulated ATPase activities of gyrase. Mutation of a single amino acid at the contact point between the insert and GyrA more modestly impairs supercoiling and ATP turnover, and does not affect DNA binding. Our data indicate that the insert has two functions, acting as a steric buttress to pre-configure the primary DNA-binding site, and serving as a relay that may help coordinate communication between different functional domains.
Project description:DNA gyrase is a bacterial DNA topoisomerase that catalyzes ATP-dependent negative DNA supercoiling and DNA decatenation. The enzyme is a heterotetramer comprising two GyrA and two GyrB subunits. Its overall architecture is conserved, but species-specific elements in the two subunits are thought to optimize subunit interaction and enzyme function. Toward understanding the roles of these different elements, we compared the activities of <i>Bacillus subtilis</i>, <i>Escherichia coli</i>, and <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> gyrases and of heterologous enzymes reconstituted from subunits of two different species. We show that <i>B. subtilis</i> and <i>E. coli</i> gyrases are proficient DNA-stimulated ATPases and efficiently supercoil and decatenate DNA. In contrast, <i>M. tuberculosis</i> gyrase hydrolyzes ATP only slowly and is a poor supercoiling enzyme and decatenase. The heterologous enzymes are generally less active than their homologous counterparts. The only exception is a gyrase reconstituted from mycobacterial GyrA and <i>B. subtilis</i> GyrB, which exceeds the activity of <i>M. tuberculosis</i> gyrase and reaches the activity of the <i>B. subtilis</i> gyrase, indicating that the activities of enzymes containing mycobacterial GyrB are limited by ATP hydrolysis. The activity pattern of heterologous gyrases is in agreement with structural features present: <i>B. subtilis</i> gyrase is a minimal enzyme, and its subunits can functionally interact with subunits from other bacteria. In contrast, the specific insertions in <i>E. coli</i> and mycobacterial gyrase subunits appear to prevent efficient functional interactions with heterologous subunits. Understanding the molecular details of gyrase adaptations to the specific physiological requirements of the respective organism might aid in the development of species-specific gyrase inhibitors.