Survival impact of rituximab combined with ACVBP and upfront consolidation autotransplantation in high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma for GELA.
ABSTRACT: As rituximab combined with CHOP improves complete remission and overall survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, intensified chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation has also been advocated for high-risk patients. The aim of this study was to establish whether or not combining rituximab with high-dose chemotherapy and auto-transplantation also benefits patient survival.The LNH2003-3 study was a phase II trial including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with 2 or 3 International Prognostic Index factors. They received four cycles of intensive biweekly chemotherapy with rituximab, doxorubicine, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycine, prednisolone (R-ACVBP) followed by auto-transplantation in responding patients. Two hundred and nine patients under 60 years of age were included in the study and 155 responding patients underwent auto-transplantation. In addition, a case-control study was performed by matching (1:1) 181 patients treated with R-ACVBP with ACVBP patients not given rituximab but submitted to auto-transplantation from the previous LNH1998-3 trial.With a median follow up of 45 months, 4-year progression-free survival and overall survival were estimated at 76% (CI: 69-81) and 78% (CI: 72-83), respectively. There was no difference between patients with 2 or 3 International Prognostic Index factors. Four year progression-free survival was significantly higher in R-ACVBP than ACVBP patients (74% vs. 58%; P=0.0005). There was also a significant increase in 4-year overall survival (76% vs. 68%; P=0.0494).In high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients, treatment with R-ACVBP followed by auto-transplantation results in a 78% 4-year overall survival which should be compared to other approaches.
Project description:Limited comparative data exist for the treatment of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We analyzed pooled individual patient data for 1546 patients from 19 prospective clinical trials to assess treatment-specific factors (type of chemotherapy, rituximab, and concurrent combination antiretroviral [cART] use) and their influence on the outcomes complete response (CR), progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). In our analysis, rituximab was associated with a higher CR rate (odds ratio [OR] 2.89; P < .001), improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.50; P < .001), and OS (HR 0.51; P < .0001). Compared with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP), initial therapy with more dose-intense regimens resulted in better CR rates (ACVBP [doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin and prednisolone]: OR 1.70; P < .04), PFS (ACVBP: HR 0.72; P = .049; "intensive regimens": HR 0.35; P < .001) and OS ("intensive regimens": HR 0.54; P < .001). Infusional etoposide, prednisone, infusional vincristine, infusional doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (EPOCH) was associated with significantly better OS in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (HR 0.33; P = .03). Concurrent use of cART was associated with improved CR rates (OR 1.89; P = .005) and trended toward improved OS (HR 0.78; P = .07). These findings provide supporting evidence for current patterns of care where definitive evidence is unavailable.
Project description:We investigated the addition of rituximab to dose-dense and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with untreated poor-prognosis diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Ninety-four young patients (age, 18-60) with stage III-IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at intermediate/high or high risk according to the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index were enrolled into a phase II trial. The treatment was as follows: four courses of bi-weekly rituximab-cyclophosphamide-epirubicin-vincristine-prednisone (R-MegaCEOP14), two courses of rituximab-mitoxantrone-cytarabine-dexamethasone (R-MAD) and carmustine-etoposide-cytarabine-melphalan (BEAM) with autologous stem cell transplantation.The complete response and toxic death rates were 82% and 5%, respectively. Failure-free survival and overall survival rates at 4 years were 73% and 80%, respectively. The outcomes of these patients were retrospectively compared to those of 41 patients with similar characteristics enrolled into a previous phase II trial of high-dose chemotherapy without rituximab. This historical group was treated with eight weekly infusions of methotrexate-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-vincristine-prednisone-bleomycin (MACOP-B), two courses of MAD and BEAM with autologous stem cell transplantation. The 4-year failure-free survival rates for the rituximab and historical groups were 73% versus 44%, respectively (p=0.001); the 4-year overall survival rates were 80% and 54%, respectively (p=0.002). A Cox's multivariable model was applied to adjust the effect of treatment for unbalanced or important prognostic factors: failure and death risks were significantly reduced in the rituximab group compared to the historical group, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.44 (p=0.01) for failure-free survival and 0.46 (p=0.02) for overall survival.These results suggest that the addition of rituximab to high-dose chemotherapy is effective and safe in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a poor-prognosis and such regimens need to be compared to dose-dense chemoimmunotherapy without autologous stem cell transplantation in randomized trials.
Project description:Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) has long been a standard treatment for lymphoma. Improvements to the efficacy of this regimen can be made by increasing the doses of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, as in the chemotherapeutic regimen of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, and prednisone (ACVBP), and by reducing the standard dosing interval, as seen with the CHOP-14 regimen. Adding the immunotherapeutic agent rituximab (R) to either CHOP or ACVBP has been shown to improve outcomes significantly, such that six cycles of R-CHOP plus two cycles of ritux-imab are as effective as eight cycles of R-CHOP, and R-CHOP-21 appears to be at least as effective as the more dose-intense R-CHOP-14. In patients who have several adverse prognostic factors, R-ACVBP plus autologous stem-cell transplantation has been shown to produce good treatment outcomes. The use of positron emission tomography scanning before and early in treatment should allow prediction of long-term outcomes, and therefore the adaptation of treatment to individual prognosis and treatment needs. In patients with follicular lymphoma, rituximab has been shown to improve the efficacy of conventional chemotherapies. In addition, rituximab alone or yttrium-90-ibritumomab tiuxetan are effective maintenance therapies in this condition.
Project description:Lymphomas constitute the second most common indication for high dose therapy (HDT) followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT). The intent of administering HDT in these heterogeneous disorders varies from cure (e.g., in relapsed aggressive lymphomas) to disease control (e.g., most indolent lymphomas). Regardless of the underlying histology or remission status at transplantation, disease relapse remains the number one cause of post auto-HCT therapy failure and mortality. The last decade has seen a proliferation of clinical studies looking at prevention of post auto-HCT therapy failure with various maintenance strategies. The benefit of such therapies is in turn dependent on disease histology and timing of transplantation. In relapsed, chemosensitive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), although post auto-HCT maintenance rituximab seems to be safe and feasible, it does not provide improved survival outcomes and is not recommended. The preliminary results with anti- programmed death -1 (PD-1) antibody therapy as post auto-HCT maintenance in DLBCL is promising but requires randomized validation. Similarly in follicular lymphoma, maintenance therapies including rituximab following auto-HCT should be considered investigational and offered only on a clinical trial. Rituximab maintenance results in improved progression-free survival but has not yet shown to improve overall survival in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), but given the poor prognosis with post auto-HCT failure in MCL, maintenance rituximab can be considered on a case-by-case basis. Ongoing trials evaluating the efficacy of post auto-HCT maintenance with novel compounds (e.g., immunomodulators, PD-1 inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors and bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors) will likely change the practice landscape in the near future for B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas patients following HDT and auto-HCT.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive and incurable lymphoma. Standard of care for younger patients with MCL is induction chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT). Rituximab maintenance after auto-HCT has been shown to improve progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MCL. Bortezomib maintenance therapy has also been shown to be tolerable and feasible in this setting. However, the combination of bortezomib and rituximab as maintenance therapy post-auto-HCT has not been studied. METHODS:We conducted a multicenter, phase II trial of bortezomib given in combination with rituximab as maintenance in MCL patients after consolidative auto-HCT. Enrolled patients (n?=?23) received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 subcutaneously weekly for 4 weeks every 3 months (up to 24 months) and rituximab 375 mg/m2 intravenously weekly for 4 weeks every 6 months (up to 24 months) for a total duration of 2 years. The primary study endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS:With a median follow-up of 35.9 months, the 2-year DFS probability was 90.2% (95% CI 66-97), and 2-year OS was 94.7% (95% CI 68-99). The most frequent grade 3/4 toxic events were neutropenia (in 74% of patients) and lymphopenia (in 35%). The incidence of peripheral neuropathy was 48% for grade 1, 9% for grade 2, and 0% for grade 3/4. We also examined the role of quantitative cyclin D1 (CCND1) mRNA in monitoring minimal residual disease. CONCLUSION:Combined bortezomib and rituximab as maintenance therapy in MCL patients following auto-HCT is an active and well-tolerated regimen. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01267812 , registered Dec 29, 2010.
Project description:The efficacy of autologous stem-cell transplantation during the first remission in patients with diffuse, aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma classified as high-intermediate risk or high risk on the International Prognostic Index remains controversial and is untested in the rituximab era.We treated 397 patients who had disease with an age-adjusted classification of high risk or high-intermediate risk with five cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP plus rituximab. Patients with a response were randomly assigned to receive three additional cycles of induction chemotherapy (control group) or one additional cycle of induction chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation (transplantation group). The primary efficacy end points were 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival.Of 370 induction-eligible patients, 253 were randomly assigned to the transplantation group (125) or the control group (128). Forty-six patients in the transplantation group and 68 in the control group had disease progression or died, with 2-year progression-free survival rates of 69 and 55%, respectively (hazard ratio in the control group vs. the transplantation group, 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 2.51; P=0.005). Thirty-seven patients in the transplantation group and 47 in the control group died, with 2-year overall survival rates of 74 and 71%, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.94; P=0.30). Exploratory analyses showed a differential treatment effect according to risk level for both progression-free survival (P=0.04 for interaction) and overall survival (P=0.01 for interaction). Among high-risk patients, the 2-year overall survival rate was 82% in the transplantation group and 64% in the control group.Early autologous stem-cell transplantation improved progression-free survival among patients with high-intermediate-risk or high-risk disease who had a response to induction therapy. Overall survival after transplantation was not improved, probably because of the effectiveness of salvage transplantation. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, and others; SWOG-9704 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00004031.).
Project description:Importance:Maintenance therapies are often considered as a therapeutic strategy in patients with lymphoma following autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) to mitigate the risk of disease relapse. With an evolving therapeutic landscape, where novel drugs are moving earlier in therapy lines, evidence relevant to contemporary practice is increasingly limited. The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT), Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), and European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) jointly convened an expert panel with diverse expertise and geographical representation to formulate consensus recommendations regarding the use of maintenance and/or consolidation therapies after auto-HCT in patients with lymphoma. Observations:The RAND-modified Delphi method was used to generate consensus statements where at least 75% vote in favor of a recommendation was considered as consensus. The process included 3 online surveys moderated by an independent methodological expert to ensure anonymity and an in-person meeting. The panel recommended restricting the histologic categories covered in this project to Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and follicular lymphoma. On completion of the voting process, the panel generated 22 consensus statements regarding post auto-HCT maintenance and/or consolidation therapies. The grade A recommendations included endorsement of: (1) brentuximab vedotin (BV) maintenance and/or consolidation in BV-naïve high-risk HL, (2) rituximab maintenance in MCL undergoing auto-HCT after first-line therapy, (3) rituximab maintenance in rituximab-naïve FL, and (4) No post auto-HCT maintenance was recommended in DLBCL. The panel also developed consensus statements for important real-world clinical scenarios, where randomized data are lacking to guide clinical practice. Conclusions and Relevance:In the absence of contemporary evidence-based data, the panel found RAND-modified Delphi methodology effective in providing a rigorous framework for developing consensus recommendations for post auto-HCT maintenance and/or consolidation therapies in lymphoma.
Project description:The standard treatment for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). The impact of maintenance rituximab after ASCT is not known.In total, 477 patients with CD20(+) DLBCL who were in their first relapse or refractory to initial therapy were randomly assigned to one of two salvage regimens. After three cycles of salvage chemotherapy, the responding patients received high-dose chemotherapy followed by ASCT. Then, 242 patients were randomly assigned to either rituximab every 2 months for 1 year or observation.After ASCT, 122 patients received rituximab, and 120 patients were observed only. The median follow-up time was 44 months. The 4-year event-free survival (EFS) rates after ASCT were 52% and 53% for the rituximab and observation groups, respectively (P = .7). Treatment with rituximab was associated with a 15% attributable risk of serious adverse events after day 100, with more deaths (six deaths v three deaths in the observation arm). Several factors affected EFS after ASCT (P < .05), including relapsed disease within 12 months (EFS: 46% v 56% for relapsed disease after 12 months), secondary age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (saaIPI) more than 1 (EFS: 37% v 61% for saaIPI < 1), and prior treatment with rituximab (EFS: 47% v 59% for no prior rituximab). A significant difference in EFS between women (63%) and men (46%) was also observed in the rituximab group. In the Cox model for maintenance, the saaIPI was a significant prognostic factor (P < .001), as was male sex (P = .01).In relapsed DLBCL, we observed no difference between the control group and the rituximab maintenance group and do not recommend rituximab after ASCT.
Project description:Salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard treatment for relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Salvage regimens have never been compared; their efficacy in the rituximab era is unknown.Patients with CD20(+) DLBCL in first relapse or who were refractory after first-line therapy were randomly assigned to either rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and carboplatin (R-ICE) or rituximab, dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP). Responding patients received high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT.The median age of the 396 patients enrolled (R-ICE, n = 202; R-DHAP, n = 194) was 55 years. Similar response rates were observed after three cycles of R-ICE (63.5%; 95% CI, 56% to 70%) and R-DHAP (62.8%; 95 CI, 55% to 69%). Factors affecting response rates (P < .001) were refractory disease/relapse less than versus more than 12 months after diagnosis (46% v 88%, respectively), International Prognostic Index (IPI) of more than 1 versus 0 to 1 (52% v 71%, respectively), and prior rituximab treatment versus no prior rituximab (51% v 83%, respectively). There was no significant difference between R-ICE and R-DHAP for 3-year event-free survival (EFS) or overall survival. Three-year EFS was affected by prior rituximab treatment versus no rituximab (21% v 47%, respectively), relapse less than versus more than 12 months after diagnosis (20% v 45%, respectively), and IPI of 2 to 3 versus 0 to 1 (18% v 40%, respectively). In the Cox model, these parameters were significant (P < .001).In patients who experience relapse more than 12 months after diagnosis, prior rituximab treatment does not affect EFS. Patients with early relapses after rituximab-containing first-line therapy have a poor prognosis, with no difference between the effects of R-ICE and R-DHAP.
Project description:PURPOSE:This clinical trial evaluated standard-dose radioimmunotherapy with a chemotherapy-based transplantation regimen followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation versus rituximab with the same regimen in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with chemotherapy-sensitive persistent or relapsed DLBCL were randomly assigned to receive iodine-131 tositumomab (dosimetric dose of 5 mCi on day -19 and therapeutic dose of 0.75 Gy on day -12), carmustine 300 mg/m(2) (day -6), etoposide 100 mg/m(2) twice daily (days -5 to -2), cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) twice daily (days -5 to -2), and melphalan 140 mg/m(2) (day -1; B-BEAM) or rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on days -19 and -12 and the same chemotherapy regimen (R-BEAM). RESULTS:Two hundred twenty-four patients were enrolled, with 113 patients randomly assigned to R-BEAM and 111 patients assigned to B-BEAM. Two-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates, the primary end point, were 48.6% (95% CI, 38.6% to 57.8%) for R-BEAM and 47.9% (95% CI, 38.2% to 57%; P = .94) for B-BEAM, and the 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 65.6% (95% CI, 55.3% to 74.1%) for R-BEAM and 61% (95% CI, 50.9% to 69.9%; P = .38) for B-BEAM. The 100-day treatment-related mortality rates were 4.1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 8.0%) for R-BEAM and 4.9% (95% CI, 0.8% to 9.0%; P = .97) for B-BEAM. The maximum mucositis score was higher in the B-BEAM arm (0.72) compared with the R-BEAM arm (0.31; P < .001). CONCLUSION:The B-BEAM and R-BEAM regimens produced similar 2-year PFS and OS rates for patients with chemotherapy-sensitive relapsed DLBCL. No differences in toxicities other than mucositis were noted.