Uncoordinated loss of chromatid cohesion is a common outcome of extended metaphase arrest.
ABSTRACT: Chromosome segregation requires coordinated separation of sister chromatids following biorientation of all chromosomes on the mitotic spindle. Chromatid separation at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition is accomplished by cleavage of the cohesin complex that holds chromatids together. Here we show using live-cell imaging that extending the metaphase bioriented state using five independent perturbations (expression of non-degradable Cyclin B, expression of a Spindly point mutant that prevents spindle checkpoint silencing, depletion of the anaphase inducer Cdc20, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, or treatment with an inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin CENP-E) leads to eventual scattering of chromosomes on the spindle. This scattering phenotype is characterized by uncoordinated loss of cohesion between some, but not all sister chromatids and subsequent spindle defects that include centriole separation. Cells with scattered chromosomes persist long-term in a mitotic state and eventually die or exit. Partial cohesion loss-associated scattering is observed in both transformed cells and in karyotypically normal human cells, albeit at lower penetrance. Suppressing microtubule dynamics reduces scattering, suggesting that cohesion at centromeres is unable to resist dynamic microtubule-dependent pulling forces on the kinetochores. Consistent with this view, strengthening cohesion by inhibiting the two pathways responsible for its removal significantly inhibits scattering. These results establish that chromosome scattering due to uncoordinated partial loss of chromatid cohesion is a common outcome following extended arrest with bioriented chromosomes in human cells. These findings have important implications for analysis of mitotic phenotypes in human cells and for development of anti-mitotic chemotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of cancer.
Project description:Chromosome instability is thought to be a major contributor to cancer malignancy and birth defects. For balanced chromosome segregation in mitosis, kinetochores on sister chromatids bind and pull on microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles. This tension contributes to the correction of improper kinetochore attachments and is opposed by the cohesin complex that holds the sister chromatids together. Normally, within minutes of alignment at the metaphase plate, chromatid cohesion is released, allowing each cohort of chromatids to move synchronously to opposite poles in anaphase, an event closely coordinated with mitotic exit.Here we show that during experimentally induced metaphase delay, spindle pulling forces can cause asynchronous chromatid separation, a phenomenon we term "cohesion fatigue." Cohesion fatigue is not blocked by inhibition of Plk1, a kinase essential for the "prophase pathway" of cohesin release from chromosomes, or by depletion of separase, the protease that normally drives chromatid separation at anaphase. Cohesion fatigue is inhibited by drug-induced depolymerization of mitotic spindle microtubules and by experimentally increasing the levels of cohesin on mitotic chromosomes. In cells undergoing cohesion fatigue, cohesin proteins remain associated with the separated chromatids.In cells arrested at metaphase, pulling forces originating from kinetochore-microtubule interactions can, with time, rupture normal sister chromatid cohesion. This cohesion fatigue, resulting in unscheduled chromatid separation in cells delayed at metaphase, constitutes a previously overlooked source for chromosome instability in mitosis and meiosis.
Project description:Cells delayed in metaphase with intact mitotic spindles undergo cohesion fatigue, where sister chromatids separate asynchronously, while cells remain in mitosis. Cohesion fatigue requires release of sister chromatid cohesion. However, the pathways that breach sister chromatid cohesion during cohesion fatigue remain unknown. Using moderate-salt buffers to remove loosely bound chromatin cohesin, we show that "cohesive" cohesin is not released during chromatid separation during cohesion fatigue. Using a regulated protein heterodimerization system to lock different cohesin ring interfaces at specific times in mitosis, we show that the Wapl-mediated pathway of cohesin release is not required for cohesion fatigue. By manipulating microtubule stability and cohesin complex integrity in cell lines with varying sensitivity to cohesion fatigue, we show that rates of cohesion fatigue reflect a dynamic balance between spindle pulling forces and resistance to separation by interchromatid cohesion. Finally, while massive separation of chromatids in cohesion fatigue likely produces inviable cell progeny, we find that short metaphase delays, leading to partial chromatid separation, predispose cells to chromosome missegregation. Thus, complete separation of one or a few chromosomes and/or partial separation of sister chromatids may be an unrecognized but common source of chromosome instability that perpetuates the evolution of malignant cells in cancer.
Project description:Sustained spindle tension applied to sister centromeres during mitosis eventually leads to uncoordinated loss of sister chromatid cohesion, a phenomenon known as "cohesion fatigue." We report that Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of serine 7 of the centromere histone variant CENP-A (p-CENP-AS7) protects bioriented chromosomes against cohesion fatigue. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable version of CENP-A (CENP-AS7A) weakens sister chromatid cohesion only when sister centromeres are under tension, providing the first evidence of a regulated mechanism involved in protection against passive cohesion loss. Consistent with this observation, p-CENP-AS7 is detected at the inner centromere where it forms a discrete domain. The depletion or inhibition of Aurora A phenocopies the expression of CENP-AS7A and we show that Aurora A is recruited to centromeres in a Bub1-dependent manner. We propose that Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of CENP-A at the inner centromere protects chromosomes against tension-induced cohesion fatigue until the last kinetochore is attached to spindle microtubules.
Project description:The fidelity of mitosis depends on cohesive forces that keep sister chromatids together. This is mediated by cohesin that embraces sister chromatid fibers from the time of their replication until the subsequent mitosis [1-3]. Cleavage of cohesin marks anaphase onset, where single chromatids are dragged to the poles by the mitotic spindle [4-6]. Cohesin cleavage should only occur when all chromosomes are properly bio-oriented to ensure equal genome distribution and prevent random chromosome segregation. Unscheduled loss of sister chromatid cohesion is prevented by a safeguard mechanism known as the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) [7, 8]. To identify specific conditions capable of restoring defects associated with cohesion loss, we screened for genes whose depletion modulates Drosophila wing development when sister chromatid cohesion is impaired. Cohesion deficiency was induced by knockdown of the acetyltransferase separation anxiety (San)/Naa50, a cohesin complex stabilizer [9-12]. Several genes whose function impacts wing development upon cohesion loss were identified. Surprisingly, knockdown of key SAC proteins, Mad2 and Mps1, suppressed developmental defects associated with San depletion. SAC impairment upon cohesin removal, triggered by San depletion or artificial removal of the cohesin complex, prevented extensive genome shuffling, reduced segregation defects, and restored cell survival. This counterintuitive phenotypic suppression was caused by an intrinsic bias for efficient chromosome biorientation at mitotic entry, coupled with slow engagement of error-correction reactions. Thus, in contrast to SAC's role as a safeguard mechanism for mitotic fidelity, removal of this checkpoint alleviates mitotic errors when sister chromatid cohesion is compromised.
Project description:Spindle disruption or DNA damage prevents sister chromatid separation through the activation of checkpoint pathways that inhibit anaphase entry by stabilizing the anaphase inhibitor Pds1. Mutation of CDC55, which encodes a B regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), results in precocious sister chromatid separation when spindle is disrupted. Here we report that decreased Pds1 levels in Deltacdc55 mutants contribute to sister chromatid separation in the presence of nocodazole, a microtubule-depolymerizing drug. However, in the presence of DNA damage, Deltacdc55 mutant cells separate sister chromatids without noticeable decrease of Pds1 or cohesin Mcd1/Scc1 levels. Further analysis demonstrates that Deltacdc55 mutants lose cohesion along the entire chromosomes when the spindle is disrupted. In contrast, separation of sister chromatids is limited to the centromeric regions in Deltacdc55 cells after DNA damage. Moreover, mutation of TPD3, which encodes the A regulatory subunit of PP2A, also results in sister chromatid separation in DNA- or spindle-damage-arrested cells. These data suggest that PP2A regulates sister chromatid cohesion in Pds1-dependent and -independent manners.
Project description:Since the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion by separase and cyclin B destruction is irreversible, it is essential to delay both until all chromosomes have bioriented on the mitotic spindle. Kinetochores that are not correctly attached to the spindle generate the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and blocks anaphase onset. This process is known as the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). The SAC is especially important in meiosis I, where bivalents consisting of homologous chromosomes held together by chiasmata biorient. Since the first meiotic division is unaffected by rare achiasmatic chromosomes or misaligned bivalents, it is thought that several tensionless kinetochores are required to produce sufficient MCC for APC/C inhibition. Consistent with this, univalents lacking chiasmata elicit a SAC-mediated arrest in Mlh1(-/-) oocytes. In contrast, chromatids generated by TEV protease-induced cohesin cleavage in Rec8(TEV/TEV) oocytes merely delay APC/C activation. Since the arrest of Mlh1(-/-)Rec8(TEV/TEV) oocytes is alleviated by TEV protease, even when targeted to kinetochores, we conclude that their SAC depends on cohesin as well as dedicated kinetochore proteins. This has important implications for aging oocytes, where cohesin deterioration will induce sister kinetochore biorientation and compromise MCC production, leading to chromosome missegregation and aneuploid fetuses.
Project description:At the metaphase to anaphase transition, chromosome segregation is initiated by the splitting of sister chromatids. Subsequently, spindles elongate, separating the sister chromosomes into two sets. Here, we investigate the cell cycle requirements for spindle elongation in budding yeast using mutants affecting sister chromatid cohesion or DNA replication. We show that separation of sister chromatids is not sufficient for proper spindle integrity during elongation. Rather, successful spindle elongation and stability require both sister chromatid separation and anaphase-promoting complex activation. Spindle integrity during elongation is dependent on proteolysis of the securin Pds1 but not on the activity of the separase Esp1. Our data suggest that stabilization of the elongating spindle at the metaphase to anaphase transition involves Pds1-dependent targets other than Esp1.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is the major surveillance system that ensures that sister chromatids do not separate until all chromosomes are correctly bioriented during mitosis. Components of the checkpoint include Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 (BubR1), Bub3, and the kinases Bub1, Mph1 (Mps1), and Aurora B. Checkpoint proteins are recruited to kinetochores when individual kinetochores are not bound to spindle microtubules or not under tension. Kinetochore association of Mad2 causes it to undergo a conformational change, which promotes its association to Mad3 and Cdc20 to form the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). The MCC inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) until the checkpoint is satisfied. SAC silencing derepresses Cdc20-APC/C activity. This triggers the polyubiquitination of securin and cyclin, which promotes the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion and mitotic progression. We, and others, recently showed that association of PP1 to the Spc7/Spc105/KNL1 family of kinetochore proteins is necessary to stabilize microtubule-kinetochore attachments and silence the SAC. We now report that phosphorylation of the conserved MELT motifs in Spc7 by Mph1 (Mps1) recruits Bub1 and Bub3 to the kinetochore and that this is required to maintain the SAC signal.
Project description:Cohesion between sister chromatids is essential for their bi-orientation on mitotic spindles. It is mediated by a multisubunit complex called cohesin. In yeast, proteolytic cleavage of cohesin's alpha kleisin subunit at the onset of anaphase removes cohesin from both centromeres and chromosome arms and thus triggers sister chromatid separation. In animal cells, most cohesin is removed from chromosome arms during prophase via a separase-independent pathway involving phosphorylation of its Scc3-SA1/2 subunits. Cohesin at centromeres is refractory to this process and persists until metaphase, whereupon its alpha kleisin subunit is cleaved by separase, which is thought to trigger anaphase. What protects centromeric cohesin from the prophase pathway? Potential candidates are proteins, known as shugoshins, that are homologous to Drosophila MEI-S332 and yeast Sgo1 proteins, which prevent removal of meiotic cohesin complexes from centromeres at the first meiotic division. A vertebrate shugoshin-like protein associates with centromeres during prophase and disappears at the onset of anaphase. Its depletion by RNA interference causes HeLa cells to arrest in mitosis. Most chromosomes bi-orient on a metaphase plate, but precocious loss of centromeric cohesin from chromosomes is accompanied by loss of all sister chromatid cohesion, the departure of individual chromatids from the metaphase plate, and a permanent cell cycle arrest, presumably due to activation of the spindle checkpoint. Remarkably, expression of a version of Scc3-SA2 whose mitotic phosphorylation sites have been mutated to alanine alleviates the precocious loss of sister chromatid cohesion and the mitotic arrest of cells lacking shugoshin. These data suggest that shugoshin prevents phosphorylation of cohesin's Scc3-SA2 subunit at centromeres during mitosis. This ensures that cohesin persists at centromeres until activation of separase causes cleavage of its alpha kleisin subunit. Centromeric cohesion is one of the hallmarks of mitotic chromosomes. Our results imply that it is not an intrinsically stable property, because it can easily be destroyed by mitotic kinases, which are kept in check by shugoshin.
Project description:Faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis requires that the kinetochores of all sister chromatids become stably connected to microtubules derived from opposite spindle poles. How stable chromosome bi-orientation is accomplished and coordinated with anaphase onset remains incompletely understood. Here we show that stable chromosome bi-orientation requires inner centromere localization of the non-enzymatic subunits of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) to maintain centromeric cohesion. Precise inner centromere localization of the CPC appears less relevant for Aurora B-dependent resolution of erroneous kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachments and for the stabilization of bi-oriented KT-MT attachments once sister chromatid cohesion is preserved via knock-down of WAPL. However, Aurora B inner centromere localization is essential for mitotic checkpoint silencing to allow spatial separation from its kinetochore substrate KNL1. Our data infer that the CPC is localized at the inner centromere to sustain centromere cohesion on bi-oriented chromosomes and to coordinate mitotic checkpoint silencing with chromosome bi-orientation.