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Microglial phagocytosis induced by fibrillar ?-amyloid is attenuated by oligomeric ?-amyloid: implications for Alzheimer's disease.



Reactive microglia are associated with ?-amyloid (A?) deposit and clearance in Alzhiemer's Disease (AD). Paradoxically, entocranial resident microglia fail to trigger an effective phagocytic response to clear A? deposits although they mainly exist in an "activated" state. Oligomeric A? (oA?), a recent target in the pathogenesis of AD, can induce more potent neurotoxicity when compared with fibrillar A? (fA?). However, the role of the different A? forms in microglial phagocytosis, induction of inflammation and oxidation, and subsequent regulation of phagocytic receptor system, remain unclear.


We demonstrated that A?(1-42) fibrils, not A?(1-42) oligomers, increased the microglial phagocytosis. Intriguingly, the pretreatment of microglia with oA?(1-42) not only attenuated fA?(1-42)-triggered classical phagocytic response to fluorescent microspheres but also significantly inhibited phagocytosis of fluorescent labeled fA?(1-42). Compared with the fA?(1-42) treatment, the oA?(1-42) treatment resulted in a rapid and transient increase in interleukin 1? (IL-1?) level and produced higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and intracellular superoxide anion (SOA). The further results demonstrated that microglial phagocytosis was negatively correlated with inflammatory mediators in this process and that the capacity of phagocytosis in fA?(1-42)-induced microglia was decreased by IL-1?, lippolysaccharide (LPS) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). The decreased phagocytosis could be relieved by pyrrolidone dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) inhibitor, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a free radical scavenger. These results suggest that the oA?-impaired phagocytosis is mediated through inflammation and oxidative stress-mediated mechanism in microglial cells. Furthermore, oA?(1-42) stimulation reduced the mRNA expression of CD36, integrin ?1 (Itgb1), and Ig receptor Fc?RIII, and significantly increased that of formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) and scavenger receptor class B1 (SRB1), compared with the basal level. Interestingly, the pre-stimulation with oA?(1-42) or the inflammatory and oxidative milieu (IL-1?, LPS or t-BHP) significantly downregulated the fA?(1-42)-induced mRNA over-expression of CD36, CD47 and Itgb1 receptors in microglial cells.


These results imply that A? oligomers induce a potent inflammatory response and subsequently disturb microglial phagocytosis and clearance of A? fibrils, thereby contributing to an initial neurodegenerative characteristic of AD. Antiinflammatory and antioxidative therapies may indeed prove beneficial to delay the progression of AD.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3149591 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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