Metabolic deficiences revealed in the biotechnologically important model bacterium Escherichia coli BL21(DE3).
ABSTRACT: The Escherichia coli B strain BL21(DE3) has had a profound impact on biotechnology through its use in the production of recombinant proteins. Little is understood, however, regarding the physiology of this important E. coli strain. We show here that BL21(DE3) totally lacks activity of the four [NiFe]-hydrogenases, the three molybdenum- and selenium-containing formate dehydrogenases and molybdenum-dependent nitrate reductase. Nevertheless, all of the structural genes necessary for the synthesis of the respective anaerobic metalloenzymes are present in the genome. However, the genes encoding the high-affinity molybdate transport system and the molybdenum-responsive transcriptional regulator ModE are absent from the genome. Moreover, BL21(DE3) has a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the global oxygen-responsive transcriptional regulator FNR. The activities of the two hydrogen-oxidizing hydrogenases, therefore, could be restored to BL21(DE3) by supplementing the growth medium with high concentrations of Ni²? (Ni²?-transport is FNR-dependent) or by introducing a wild-type copy of the fnr gene. Only combined addition of plasmid-encoded fnr and high concentrations of MoO?²? ions could restore hydrogen production to BL21(DE3); however, to only 25-30% of a K-12 wildtype. We could show that limited hydrogen production from the enzyme complex responsible for formate-dependent hydrogen evolution was due solely to reduced activity of the formate dehydrogenase (FDH-H), not the hydrogenase component. The activity of the FNR-dependent formate dehydrogenase, FDH-N, could not be restored, even when the fnr gene and MoO?²? were supplied; however, nitrate reductase activity could be recovered by combined addition of MoO?²? and the fnr gene. This suggested that a further component specific for biosynthesis or activity of formate dehydrogenases H and N was missing. Re-introduction of the gene encoding ModE could only partially restore the activities of both enzymes. Taken together these results demonstrate that BL21(DE3) has major defects in anaerobic metabolism, metal ion transport and metalloprotein biosynthesis.
Project description:Escherichia coli synthesizes three selenocysteine-dependent formate dehydrogenases (Fdh) that also have a molybdenum cofactor. Fdh-H couples formate oxidation with proton reduction in the formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) complex. The activity of Fdh-H in solution can be measured with artificial redox dyes but, unlike Fdh-O and Fdh-N, it has never been observed by chromogenic activity staining after non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Here, we demonstrate that Fdh-H activity is present in extracts of cells from stationary phase cultures and forms a single, fast-migrating species. The activity is oxygen labile during electrophoresis explaining why it has not been previously observed as a discreet activity band. The appearance of Fdh-H activity was dependent on an active selenocysteine incorporation system, but was independent of the [NiFe]-hydrogenases (Hyd), 1, 2 or 3. We also identified new active complexes of Fdh-N and Fdh-O during fermentative growth. The findings of this study indicate that Fdh-H does not form a strong complex with other Fdh or Hyd enzymes, which is in line with it being able to deliver electrons to more than one redox-active enzyme complex.
Project description:Metal-containing formate dehydrogenases (FDH) catalyse the reversible oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide at their molybdenum or tungsten active site. They display a diverse subunit and cofactor composition, but structural information on these enzymes is limited. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopic structures of the soluble Rhodobacter capsulatus FDH (RcFDH) as isolated and in the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). RcFDH assembles into a 360?kDa dimer of heterotetramers revealing a putative interconnection of electron pathway chains. In the presence of NADH, the RcFDH structure shows charging of cofactors, indicative of an increased electron load.
Project description:The ultimate goal of this research is to construct a new direct CO2 fixation system using photosystems in living algae. Here, we report light-driven formate production from CO2 by using cyanobacterial photosystem I (PS I). Formate, a chemical hydrogen carrier and important industrial material, can be produced from CO2 by using the reducing power and the catalytic function of formate dehydrogenase (FDH). We created a bacterial FDH mutant that experimentally switched the cofactor specificity from NADH to NADPH, and combined it with an in vitro-reconstituted cyanobacterial light-driven NADPH production system consisting of PS I, ferredoxin (Fd), and ferredoxin-NADP(+)-reductase (FNR). Consequently, light-dependent formate production under a CO2 atmosphere was successfully achieved. In addition, we introduced the NADPH-dependent FDH mutant into heterocysts of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and demonstrated an increased formate concentration in the cells. These results provide a new possibility for photo-biological CO2 fixation.
Project description:The membrane-bound respiratory particle complex of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which reduces nitrate to nitrite using formate as the electron donor, was prepared and characterized by e.p.r. and low-temperature magnetic c.d. (m.c.d.) spectroscopy. The particle complex has two enzymic components, namely nitrate reductase (NiR) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH), which are multi-centred proteins containing molybdenum, iron-sulphur clusters and cytochrome. By using results from work on the purified extracted enzymes NiR and FDH to aid in the assignment, it has been possible to observe spectroscopically all the components of the electron-transfer chain in the intact particle. This led to a proposal for the organization of the metal components of the FDH-NiR chain. Molybdenum ions are at opposite ends of the chain and interact with, respectively, the formate-CO2 couple and the nitrate-nitrite couple. The molybdenum ion at the low-potential end of the chain passes electrons to cytochrome b of FDH, a bishistidine-co-ordinated haem with unusual steric restraint at the iron. The next component is a [4Fe-4S] cluster. This comprises all the components of FDH. Electrons are passed to the molybdenum of NiR via a number, probably two, of [4Fe-4S] clusters. No evidence has been found in this work for the presence of a quinone to mediate electron transfer between FDH and NiR. Cytochrome c appears to be able to feed electrons into the chain at the level of one of the [4Fe-4S] centres of NiR.
Project description:l-Cysteine desulfurases provide sulfur to several metabolic pathways in the form of persulfides on specific cysteine residues of an acceptor protein for the eventual incorporation of sulfur into an end product. IscS is one of the three Escherichia coli l-cysteine desulfurases. It interacts with FdhD, a protein essential for the activity of formate dehydrogenases (FDHs), which are iron/molybdenum/selenium-containing enzymes. Here, we address the role played by this interaction in the activity of FDH-H (FdhF) in E. coli. The interaction of IscS with FdhD results in a sulfur transfer between IscS and FdhD in the form of persulfides. Substitution of the strictly conserved residue Cys-121 of FdhD impairs both sulfur transfer from IscS to FdhD and FdhF activity. Furthermore, inactive FdhF produced in the absence of FdhD contains both metal centers, albeit the molybdenum cofactor is at a reduced level. Finally, FdhF activity is sulfur-dependent, as it shows reversible sensitivity to cyanide treatment. Conclusively, FdhD is a sulfurtransferase between IscS and FdhF and is thereby essential to yield FDH activity.
Project description:NAD(P)+ dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH) is an oxidoreductase used as a biocatalyst to regenerate NAD(P)H in reductase-mediated chiral synthesis reactions. Solvent stability and the need to reduce NADP+ to NADPH, due to the high cost of NADPH, are required features in the industrial usage of FDHs. Therefore, we aimed to identify a novel, robust NADP+ dependent FDH and evaluate the effect of N- and C- terminus His tag extensions on protein solubility and activity. Herein, we report a novel, DMSO tolerant formate dehydrogenase (BdFDH), which has dual coenzyme specificity and tolerance to acidic pH, from Burkholderia dolosa PC543. N- and C-terminus His-tagged BdFDHs were expressed separately in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The C-terminal His-tagged BdFDH was soluble and active whereas the N-terminal version was not. The enzyme displays dual coenzyme specificity and resistance to some organic solvents, particularly DMSO, and is able to tolerate acidic pH conditions. The apparent KM values for NADP+, NAD+ and sodium formate (with NADP+), are 1.17, 14.7 and 5.66 mM, respectively. As a result, due to its DMSO tolerance and coenzyme preference, this enzyme can be utilized as an NAD(P)H recycler in several biotransformations particularly when carried out under acidic conditions. Moreover, it can be said that the position of the His tag extension may affect the enzyme solubility and functionality.
Project description:Mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs) kill bacteria through induction of synergistic oxidative, thiol, and metal stress. PGRPs induce oxidative stress in bacteria through a block in the respiratory chain, which results in decreased respiration and incomplete reduction of oxygen (O2) to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study we identify the site of PGRP-induced generation of H2O2 in Escherichia coli. Tn-seq screening of E. coli Tn10 insertion library revealed that mutants in formate dehydrogenase (FDH) genes had the highest survival following PGRP treatment. Mutants lacking functional FDH-O had abolished PGRP-induced H2O2 production and the highest resistance to PGRP-induced killing, and formate enhanced PGRP-induced killing and H2O2 production in an FDH-dependent manner. Mutants in ubiquinone synthesis (but not menaquinone and demethylmenaquinone) and cytochrome bd-I (but not cytochromes bo3 and bd-II) also had completely abolished PGRP-induced H2O2 production and high resistance to PGRP-induced killing. Because electrons in the respiratory chain flow from dehydrogenases' substrates through quinones and then cytochromes to O2, these results imply that the site of PGRP-induced incomplete reduction of O2 to H2O2 is downstream from dehydrogenases and ubiquinone at the level of cytochrome bd-I, which results in oxidative stress. These results reveal several essential steps in PGRP-induced bacterial killing.
Project description:NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 220.127.116.11) widely occurs in nature. FDH consists of two identical subunits and contains neither prosthetic groups nor metal ions. This type of FDH was found in different microorganisms (including pathogenic ones), such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants. As opposed to microbiological FDHs functioning in cytoplasm, plant FDHs localize in mitochondria. Formate dehydrogenase activity was first discovered as early as in 1921 in plant; however, until the past decade FDHs from plants had been considerably less studied than the enzymes from microorganisms. This review summarizes the recent results on studying the physiological role, properties, structure, and protein engineering of plant formate dehydrogenases.
Project description:Hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea are defined by an H2 requirement for growth. Despite this requirement, many hydrogenotrophs are also capable of growth with formate as an electron donor for methanogenesis. While certain responses of these organisms to hydrogen availability have been characterized, responses to formate starvation have not been reported. Here we report that during continuous culture of Methanococcus maripaludis under defined nutrient conditions, growth yields relative to methane production decreased markedly with either H2 excess or formate excess. Analysis of the growth yields of several mutants suggests that this phenomenon occurs independently of the storage of intracellular carbon or a transcriptional response to methanogenesis. Using microarray analysis, we found that the expression of genes encoding coenzyme F420-dependent steps of methanogenesis, including one of two formate dehydrogenases, increased with H2 starvation but with formate occurred at high levels regardless of limitation or excess. One gene, encoding H2-dependent methylene-tetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase, decreased in expression with either H2 limitation or formate limitation. Expression of genes for the second formate dehydrogenase, molybdenum-dependent formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase, and molybdenum transport increased specifically with formate limitation. Of the two formate dehydrogenases, only the first could support growth on formate in batch culture where formate was in excess.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Enzymatic NADH or NADPH-dependent reduction is a widely applied approach for the synthesis of optically active organic compounds. The overall biocatalytic conversion usually involves in situ regeneration of the expensive NAD(P)H. Oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (EC 18.104.22.168; FDH), presents an almost ideal process solution for coenzyme regeneration that has been well established for NADH. Because isolated FDH is relatively unstable under a range of process conditions, whole cells often constitute the preferred form of the biocatalyst, combining the advantage of enzyme protection in the cellular environment with ease of enzyme production. However, the most prominent FDH used in biotransformations, the enzyme from the yeast Candida boidinii, is usually expressed in limiting amounts of activity in the prime host for whole cell biocatalysis, Escherichia coli. We therefore performed expression engineering with the aim of enhancing FDH activity in an E. coli ketoreductase catalyst. The benefit resulting from improved NADH regeneration capacity is demonstrated in two transformations of technological relevance: xylose conversion into xylitol, and synthesis of (S)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol from o-chloroacetophenone.<h4>Results</h4>As compared to individual expression of C. boidinii FDH in E. coli BL21 (DE3) that gave an intracellular enzyme activity of 400 units/g(CDW), co-expression of the FDH with the ketoreductase (Candida tenuis xylose reductase; XR) resulted in a substantial decline in FDH activity. The remaining FDH activity of only 85 U/g(CDW) was strongly limiting the overall catalytic activity of the whole cell system. Combined effects from increase in FDH gene copy number, supply of rare tRNAs in a Rosetta strain of E. coli, dampened expression of the ketoreductase, and induction at low temperature (18°C) brought up the FDH activity threefold to a level of 250 U/g(CDW) while reducing the XR activity by just 19% (1140 U/g(CDW)). The E. coli whole-cell catalyst optimized for intracellular FDH activity showed improved performance in the synthesis of (S)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol, reflected in a substantial, up to 5-fold enhancement of productivity (0.37 g/g(CDW)) and yield (95% based on 100 mM ketone used) as compared to the reference catalyst. For xylitol production, the benefit of enhanced FDH expression was observed on productivity only after elimination of the mass transfer resistance caused by the cell membrane.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Expression engineering of C. boidinii FDH is an important strategy to optimize E. coli whole-cell reductase catalysts that employ intracellular formate oxidation for regeneration of NADH. Increased FDH-activity was reflected by higher reduction yields of D-xylose and o-chloroacetophenone conversions provided that mass transfer limitations were overcome.