Benzothiophene piperazine and piperidine urea inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH).
ABSTRACT: The synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a series of benzothiophene piperazine and piperidine urea FAAH inhibitors is described. These compounds inhibit FAAH by covalently modifying the enzyme's active site serine nucleophile. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) revealed that these urea inhibitors were completely selective for FAAH relative to other mammalian serine hydrolases. Several compounds showed in vivo activity in a rat complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammatory pain.
Project description:Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a membrane anchored serine hydrolase that has a principle role in the metabolism of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Docking studies using representative FAAH crystal structures revealed that compounds containing a novel piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline core fit within the ligand binding domains. New potential FAAH inhibitors were designed and synthesized incorporating urea, carbamate, alkyldione and thiourea reactive centers as potential pharmacophores. A small library of candidate compounds (75) was then screened against human FAAH leading to the identification of new carbamate and urea based inhibitors (Ki=pM and nM, respectively). Representative carbamate and urea based chemotypes displayed slow, time dependent inhibition kinetics leading to enzyme inactivation which was slowly reversible. However, evidence indicated that features of the mechanism of inactivation differ between the two pharmacophore types. Selected compounds were also evaluated for analgesic activity in the mouse-tail flick test.
Project description:A summary of the initial discovery and characterization of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and the subsequent advancement of an important class of competitive, reversible, potent and selective inhibitors is presented. Initially explored using substrate-inspired inhibitors bearing electrophilic carbonyls, the examination of α-ketoheterocyle-based inhibitors of FAAH with the benefit of a unique activity-based protein-profiling (ABPP)-based proteome-wide selectivity assay, a powerful in vivo biomarker-based in vivo screen, and subsequent retrospective X-ray co-crystal structures with the enzyme, is summarized. These efforts defined the impact of the central activating heterocycle and its key substituents, provided key simplifications in the C2 acyl side chain and clear interpretations for the unique role and subsequent optimization of the central activating heterocycle, and established the basis for the recent further conformational constraints in the C2 acyl side chain, providing potent, long-acting, orally-active FAAH inhibitors.
Project description:Fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) catalyzes the intracellular hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid anandamide and other bioactive lipid amides. In the present study, we conducted a comparative characterization of the effects of the newly identified brain-impermeant FAAH inhibitor, URB937 ([3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-phenyl] N-cyclohexylcarbamate), in various rodent models of acute and persistent pain. When administered by the oral route in mice, URB937 was highly active (median effective dose, ED(50), to inhibit liver FAAH activity: 0.3mgkg(-1)) and had a bioavailability of 5.3%. The antinociceptive effects of oral URB937 were investigated in mouse models of acute inflammation (carrageenan), peripheral nerve injury (chronic sciatic nerve ligation) and arthritis (complete Freund's adjuvant). In all models, URB937 was as effective or more effective than standard analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin, gabapentin, dexamethasone) and reversed pain-related responses (mechanical hyperalgesia, thermal hyperalgesia, and mechanical allodynia) in a dose-dependent manner. ED(50) values ranged from 0.2 to 10mgkg(-1), depending on model and readout. Importantly, URB937 was significantly more effective than two global FAAH inhibitors, URB597 and PF-04457845, in the complete Freund's adjuvant model. The effects of a combination of URB937 with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin, were examined in the carrageenan and chronic sciatic nerve ligation models. Isobolographic analyses showed that the two compounds interacted synergistically to attenuate pain-related behaviors. Furthermore, URB937 reduced the number and severity of gastric lesions produced by indomethacin, while exerting no ulcerogenic effect when administered alone. The results indicate that the peripheral FAAH inhibitor URB937 is more effective than globally active FAAH inhibitors at inhibiting inflammatory pain. Our findings further suggest that FAAH and cyclooxygenase inhibitors interact functionally in peripheral tissues, to either enhance or hinder each other's actions.
Project description:In migraine pain, cannabis has a promising analgesic action, which, however, is associated with side psychotropic effects. To overcome these adverse effects of exogenous cannabinoids, we propose migraine pain relief via activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) by inhibiting enzymes degrading endocannabinoids. To provide a functional platform for such purpose in the peripheral and central parts of the rat nociceptive system relevant to migraine, we measured by activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) the activity of the main endocannabinoid-hydrolases, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We found that in trigeminal ganglia, the MAGL activity was nine-fold higher than that of FAAH. MAGL activity exceeded FAAH activity also in DRG, spinal cord and brainstem. However, activities of MAGL and FAAH were comparably high in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex implicated in migraine aura. MAGL and FAAH activities were identified and blocked by the selective and potent inhibitors JJKK-048/KML29 and JZP327A, respectively. The high MAGL activity in trigeminal ganglia implicated in the generation of nociceptive signals suggests this part of ECS as a priority target for blocking peripheral mechanisms of migraine pain. In the CNS, both MAGL and FAAH represent potential targets for attenuation of migraine-related enhanced cortical excitability and pain transmission.
Project description:Clinical investigation of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor BIA 10-2474 resulted in serious adverse neurological events. Structurally unrelated FAAH inhibitors tested in humans have not presented safety concerns, suggesting that BIA 10-2474 has off-target activities. A recent activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) study revealed that BIA 10-2474 and one of its major metabolites inhibit multiple members of the serine hydrolase class to which FAAH belongs. Here, we extend these studies by performing a proteome-wide analysis of covalent targets of BIA 10-2474 metabolites. Using alkynylated probes for click chemistry-ABPP in human cells, we show that des-methylated metabolites of BIA 10-2474 covalently modify the conserved catalytic cysteine in aldehyde dehydrogenases, including ALDH2, which has been implicated in protecting the brain from oxidative stress-related damage. These findings indicate that BIA 10-2474 and its metabolites have the potential to inhibit multiple mechanistically distinct enzyme classes involved in nervous system function.
Project description:The pre-clinical characterization of the aryl piperazinyl urea inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) JNJ-42165279 is described. JNJ-42165279 covalently inactivates the FAAH enzyme, but is highly selective with regard to other enzymes, ion channels, transporters, and receptors. JNJ-42165279 exhibited excellent ADME and pharmacodynamic properties as evidenced by its ability to block FAAH in the brain and periphery of rats and thereby cause an elevation of the concentrations of anandamide (AEA), oleoyl ethanolamide (OEA), and palmitoyl ethanolamide (PEA). The compound was also efficacious in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain. The combination of good physical, ADME, and PD properties of JNJ-42165279 supported it entering the clinical portfolio.
Project description:Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an integral membrane serine hydrolase that degrades the fatty acid amide family of signaling lipids, including the endocannabinoid anandamide. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of FAAH leads to analgesic and anti-inflammatory phenotypes in rodents without showing the undesirable side effects observed with direct cannabinoid receptor agonists, indicating that FAAH may represent an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory pain and other nervous system disorders. Herein, we report the discovery and characterization of a highly efficacious and selective FAAH inhibitor PF-04457845 (23). Compound 23 inhibits FAAH by a covalent, irreversible mechanism involving carbamylation of the active-site serine nucleophile of FAAH with high in vitro potency (k(inact)/K(i) and IC(50) values of 40300 M(-1) s(-1) and 7.2 nM, respectively, for human FAAH). Compound 23 has exquisite selectivity for FAAH relative to other members of the serine hydrolase superfamily as demonstrated by competitive activity-based protein profiling. Oral administration of 23 at 0.1 mg/kg results in efficacy comparable to that of naproxen at 10 mg/kg in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Compound 23 is being evaluated in human clinical trials.
Project description:A long-standing literature linking endocannabinoids (ECBs) to stress, fear, and anxiety has led to growing interest in developing novel anxiolytics targeting the ECB system. Following rapid on-demand biosynthesis and degradation upon neuronal activation, the ECB N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA) is actively degraded by the serine hydrolase enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Exposure to stress rapidly mobilizes FAAH to deplete the signaling pool of AEA and increase neuronal excitability in a key anxiety-mediating region--the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition of FAAH prevents stress-induced reductions in AEA and associated increases in BLA dendritic hypertrophy and anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, inhibition of FAAH facilitates long-term fear extinction and rescues deficient fear extinction in rodent models by enhancing AEA-CB1 (cannabinoid type 1) receptor signaling and synaptic plasticity in the BLA. These preclinical findings propose restoring deficient BLA AEA levels by pharmacologically inhibiting FAAH as a mechanism to therapeutically mitigate the effects of traumatic stress.
Project description:Recently, covalent drugs have attracted great interest in the drug discovery community, with successful examples that have demonstrated their therapeutic effects. Here, we focus on the covalent inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which is a promising strategy in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Among the most recent and potent FAAH inhibitors (FAAHi), there are the cyclic piperidine and piperazine aryl ureas. FAAH hydrolyzes efficiently the amide bond of these compounds, forming a covalent enzyme-inhibitor adduct. To rationalize this experimental evidence, we performed an extensive computational analysis centered on piperidine-based PF750 (1) and piperazine-based JNJ1661010 (2), two potent lead compounds used to generate covalent inhibitors as clinical candidates. We found that FAAH induces a distortion of the amide bond of the piperidine and piperazine aryl ureas. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics ?E(LUMO-HOMO) energies indicate that the observed enzyme-induced distortion of the amide bond favors the formation of a covalent FAAH-inhibitor adduct. These findings could help in the rational structure-based design of novel covalent FAAHi.
Project description:A series of phenyl 4-[(indol-1-yl)alkyl]piperidine carbamates was synthesized and tested for inhibition of the endocannabinoid degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and for metabolic stability in rat liver S9 fractions and porcine blood plasma. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that variation of the length of the alkyl spacer connecting the indole and the piperidine heterocycle, introduction of substituents into the indole ring, replacement of the piperidine by a piperazine scaffold as well as opening of the piperidine ring system affect activity significantly. The metabolic stability of this compound class proved to be significantly higher than that of corresponding phenyl N-(indol-1-ylalkyl)carbamates.