Topoisomerase II binds nucleosome-free DNA and acts redundantly with topoisomerase I to enhance recruitment of RNA Pol II in budding yeast.
ABSTRACT: DNA topoisomerases are believed to promote transcription by removing excessive DNA supercoils produced during elongation. However, it is unclear how topoisomerases in eukaryotes are recruited and function in the transcription pathway in the context of nucleosomes. To address this problem we present high-resolution genome-wide maps of one of the major eukaryotic topoisomerases, Topoisomerase II (Top2) and nucleosomes in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our data indicate that at promoters Top2 binds primarily to DNA that is nucleosome-free. However, although nucleosome loss enables Top2 occupancy, the opposite is not the case and the loss of Top2 has little effect on nucleosome density. We also find that Top2 is involved in transcription. Not only is Top2 enriched at highly transcribed genes, but Top2 is required redundantly with Top1 for optimal recruitment of RNA polymerase II at their promoters. These findings and the examination of candidate-activated genes suggest that nucleosome loss induced by nucleosome remodeling factors during gene activation enables Top2 binding, which in turn acts redundantly with Top1 to enhance recruitment of RNA polymerase II.
Project description:DNA topoisomerases are known to promote transcription in prokaryotes by removing excessive DNA supercoils produced during elongation. However, it is unclear how topoisomerases in eukaryotes are recruited and function in the transcription pathway in the context of nucleosomes. To address this problem we present high-resolution genome wide maps of one of the major eukaryotic topoisomerases, Topoisomerase II (Top2) and nucleosomes in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our data indicate that at promoters Top2 binds primarily to DNA that is nucleosome free. However, while nucleosome loss enables Top2 occupancy the opposite is not the case and the loss of Top2 has little effect on nucleosome density. We also find that Top2 is involved in transcription. Not only is Top2 enriched at highly transcribed genes but Top2 is required redundantly with Top1 for optimal recruitment of RNA polymerase II at their promoters. These findings and the examination of candidate activated genes suggest that nucleosome loss induced by nucleosome remodeling factors during gene activation enable Top2 binding which in turn acts redundantly with Top1 to enhance recruitment of RNA polymerase II. Overall design: For Agilent Data: Top2, Pol2 and H3 were ChIP'd from yeast strains and normalized to input or to each other. For Affymetrix Data: Top2 and H3 were ChIP'd from yeast strains and normalized to input.
Project description:Clinical topoisomerase I (Top1) and II (Top2) inhibitors trap topoisomerases on DNA, thereby inducing protein-linked DNA breaks. Cancer cells resist the drugs by removing topoisomerase-DNA complexes, and repairing the drug-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Because numerous enzymes and cofactors are involved in the removal of the topoisomerase-DNA complexes and DSB repair, it has been challenging to comprehensively analyze the relative contribution of multiple genetic pathways in vertebrate cells. Comprehending the relative contribution of individual repair factors would give insights into the lesions induced by the inhibitors and genetic determinants of response. Ultimately, this information would be useful to target specific pathways to augment the therapeutic activity of topoisomerase inhibitors. To this end, we put together 48 isogenic DT40 mutant cells deficient in DNA repair and generated one cell line deficient in autophagy (ATG5). Sensitivity profiles were established for three clinically relevant Top1 inhibitors (camptothecin and the indenoisoquinolines LMP400 and LMP776) and three Top2 inhibitors (etoposide, doxorubicin, and ICRF-193). Highly significant correlations were found among Top1 inhibitors as well as Top2 inhibitors, whereas the profiles of Top1 inhibitors were different from those of Top2 inhibitors. Most distinct repair pathways between Top1 and Top2 inhibitors include NHEJ, TDP1, TDP2, PARP1, and Fanconi Anemia genes, whereas homologous recombination seems relevant especially for Top1 and, to a lesser extent, for Top2 inhibitors. We also found and discuss differential pathways among Top1 inhibitors and Top2 inhibitors.
Project description:For a cancer cell to resist treatment with drugs that trap topoisomerases covalently on the DNA, the topoisomerase must be removed. In this study, we provide evidence that the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad32(Mre11) nuclease activity is involved in the removal of both Top2 from 5' DNA ends as well as Top1 from 3' ends in vivo. A ctp1(CtIP) deletion is defective for Top2 removal but overproficient for Top1 removal, suggesting that Ctp1(CtIP) plays distinct roles in removing topoisomerases from 5' and 3' DNA ends. Analysis of separation of function mutants suggests that MRN-dependent topoisomerase removal contributes significantly to resistance against topoisomerase-trapping drugs. This study has important implications for our understanding of the role of the MRN complex and CtIP in resistance of cells to a clinically important group of anticancer drugs.
Project description:Topoisomerases are essential for DNA replication in dividing cells, but their genomic targets and function in postmitotic cells remain poorly understood. Here we show that a switch in the expression from Topoisomerases II? (Top2?) to II? (Top2?) occurs during neuronal differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Genome-scale location analysis in stem cell-derived postmitotic neurons reveals Top2? binding to chromosomal sites that are methylated at lysine 4 of histone H3, a feature of regulatory regions. Indeed Top2?-bound sites are preferentially promoters and become targets during the transition from neuronal progenitors to neurons, at a time when cells exit the cell cycle. Absence of Top2? protein or its activity leads to changes in transcription and chromatin accessibility at many target genes. Top2? deficiency does not impair stem cell properties and early steps of neuronal differentiation but causes premature death of postmitotic neurons. This neuronal degeneration is caused by up-regulation of Ngfr p75, a gene bound and repressed by Top2?. These findings suggest a chromatin-based targeting of Top2? to regulatory regions in the genome to govern the transcriptional program associated with neuronal differentiation and longevity.
Project description:Centromeres are specialized chromatin regions marked by the presence of nucleosomes containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, which is essential for chromosome segregation. Assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes is intimately linked to DNA topology, and DNA topoisomerases have previously been implicated in the dynamics of canonical H3 nucleosomes. Here we show that Schizosaccharomyces pombe Top3 and its partner Rqh1 are involved in controlling the levels of CENP-A(Cnp1) at centromeres. Both top3 and rqh1 mutants display defects in chromosome segregation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and tiling microarrays, we show that Top3, unlike Top1 and Top2, is highly enriched at centromeric central domains, demonstrating that Top3 is the major topoisomerase in this region. Moreover, centromeric Top3 occupancy positively correlates with CENP-A(Cnp1) occupancy. Intriguingly, both top3 and rqh1 mutants display increased relative enrichment of CENP-A(Cnp1) at centromeric central domains. Thus, Top3 and Rqh1 normally limit the levels of CENP-A(Cnp1) in this region. This new role is independent of the established function of Top3 and Rqh1 in homologous recombination downstream of Rad51. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Top3-Rqh1 complex has an important role in controlling centromere DNA topology, which in turn affects the dynamics of CENP-A(Cnp1) nucleosomes.
Project description:During meiotic prophase, concurrent transcription, recombination, and chromosome synapsis place substantial topological strain on chromosomal DNA, but the role of topoisomerases in this context remains poorly defined. Here, we analyzed the roles topoisomerases I and II (Top1 and Top2) during meiotic prophase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that both topoisomerases accumulate primarily in promoter-containing intergenic regions of actively transcribing genes, including many meiotic double-strand break (DSB) hotspots. Despite the comparable binding patterns, top1 and top2 mutations have different effects on meiotic recombination. TOP1 disruption delays DSB induction and shortens the window of DSB accumulation by an unknown mechanism. By contrast, temperature-sensitive top2-1 mutants exhibit a marked delay in meiotic chromosome remodeling and elevated DSB signals on synapsed chromosomes. The problems in chromosome remodeling were linked to altered Top2 binding patterns rather than a loss of Top2 catalytic activity and stemmed from a defect in recruiting the chromosome remodeler Pch2/TRIP13 to synapsed chromosomes. No chromosomal defects were observed in the absence of TOP1. Our results imply independent roles for topoisomerases I and II in modulating meiotic chromosome structure and recombination. Overall design: ChIP-seq analysis of Top1 and Top2, Mnase-seq, and RNA-seq in S. cerevisiae in meiosis. Each bedgraph file is the combined results from two biological replicates (each with a paired Input and ChIP sample).
Project description:The abortive activity of topoisomerases can result in clastogenic and/or lethal DNA damage in which the topoisomerase is covalently linked to the 3'- or 5'-terminus of a DNA strand break. This type of DNA damage is implicated in chromosome translocations and neurological disease and underlies the clinical efficacy of an important class of anticancer topoisomerase 'poisons'. Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase-1 protects cells from abortive topoisomerase I (Top1) activity by hydrolyzing the 3'-phosphotyrosyl bond that links Top1 to a DNA strand break and is currently the only known human enzyme that displays this activity in cells. Recently, we identified a second tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP2; aka TTRAP/EAPII) that possesses weak 3'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (3'-TDP) activity, in vitro. Herein, we have examined whether TDP2 contributes to the repair of Top1-mediated DNA breaks by deleting Tdp1 and Tdp2 separately and together in murine and avian cells. We show that while deletion of Tdp1 in wild-type DT40 cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts decreases DNA strand break repair rates and cellular survival in response to Top1-induced DNA damage, deletion of Tdp2 does not. However, deletion of both Tdp1 and Tdp2 reduces rates of DNA strand break repair and cell survival below that observed in Tdp1-/- cells, suggesting that Tdp2 contributes to cellular 3'-TDP activity in the absence of Tdp1. Consistent with this idea, over-expression of human TDP2 in Tdp1-/-/Tdp2-/-/- DT40 cells increases DNA strand break repair rates and cell survival above that observed in Tdp1-/- DT40 cells, suggesting that Tdp2 over-expression can partially complement the defect imposed by loss of Tdp1. Finally, mice lacking both Tdp1 and Tdp2 exhibit greater sensitivity to Top1 poisons than do mice lacking Tdp1 alone, further suggesting that Tdp2 contributes to the repair of Top1-mediated DNA damage in the absence of Tdp1. In contrast, we failed to detect a contribution for Tdp1 to repair Top2-mediated damage. Together, our data suggest that Tdp1 and Tdp2 fulfil overlapping roles following Top1-induced DNA damage, but not following Top2-induced DNA damage, in vivo.
Project description:Topoisomerases are necessary for the expression of neurodevelopmental genes, and are mutated in some patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We have studied the effects of inhibitors of Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) and Topoisomerase 2 (Top2) enzymes on mouse cortical neurons. We find that topoisomerases selectively inhibit long genes (>100kb), with little effect on all other gene expression. Using ChIPseq against RNA Polymerase II (Pol2) we show that the Top1 inhibitor topotecan blocks transcriptional elongation of long genes specifically. Many of the genes inhibited by topotecan are candidate ASD genes, leading us to propose that topoisomerase inhibition might contribute to ASD pathology. [Mouse] 5 biological replicates of transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) from topotecan treated neurons and vehicle treated controls; Pol2 ChIPseq of topotecan and vehicle treated neurons [Human] Transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) from topotecan treated neurons and vehicle treated control.
Project description:DNA topoisomerases regulate the topological state of the DNA double helix and are key enzymes in the processes of DNA replication, transcription and genome stability. Using the fission yeast model Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we investigate genome wide how DNA topoisomerases I and II affect chromatin dynamics and gene expression in vivo. We show that topoisomerase I activity is directly required for efficient nucleosome disassembly at gene promoter regions. Lack of topoisomerase activity results in increased nucleosome occupancy, perturbed histone modifications and reduced transcription from these promoters. Strong correlative evidence suggests that topoisomerase I cooperates with the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller Hrp1 in nucleosome disassembly. Our study links topoisomerase activity to the maintenance of open chromatin and regulating transcription in vivo.
Project description:Type II topoisomerases are essential ATP-dependent homodimeric enzymes required for transcription, replication, and chromosome segregation. These proteins alter DNA topology by generating transient enzyme-linked double-strand breaks for passage of one DNA strand through another. The central role of type II topoisomerases in DNA metabolism has made these enzymes targets for anticancer drugs. Here, we describe a genetic screen that generated novel alleles of Drosophila Topoisomerase 2 (Top2). Fifteen alleles were obtained, resulting from nonsense and missense mutations. Among these, 14 demonstrated recessive lethality, with one displaying temperature-sensitive lethality. Several newly generated missense alleles carry amino acid substitutions in conserved residues within the ATPase, Topoisomerase/Primase, and Winged helix domains, including four that encode proteins with alterations in residues associated with resistance to cancer chemotherapeutics. Animals lacking zygotic Top2 function can survive to pupation and display reduced cell division and altered polytene chromosome structure. Inter se crosses between six strains carrying Top2 missense alleles generated morphologically normal trans-heterozygous adults, which showed delayed development and were female sterile. Complementation occurred between alleles encoding Top2 proteins with amino acid substitutions in the same functional domain and between alleles encoding proteins with substitutions in different functional domains. Two complementing alleles encode proteins with amino acid substitutions associated with drug resistance. These observations suggest that dimerization of mutant Top2 monomers can restore enzymatic function. Our studies establish the first series of Top2 alleles in a multicellular organism. Future analyses of these alleles will enhance our knowledge about the contributions made by type II topoisomerases to development.