Lte1 promotes mitotic exit by controlling the localization of the spindle position checkpoint kinase Kin4.
ABSTRACT: For a daughter cell to receive a complete genomic complement, it is essential that the mitotic spindle be positioned accurately within the cell. In budding yeast, a signaling system known as the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) monitors spindle position and regulates the activity of the mitotic exit network (MEN), a GTPase signaling pathway that promotes exit from mitosis. The protein kinase Kin4 is a central component of the spindle position checkpoint. Kin4 primarily localizes to the mother cell and associates with spindle pole bodies (SPBs) located in the mother cell to inhibit MEN signaling. In contrast, the kinase does not associate with the SPB in the bud. Thus, only when a MEN bearing SPB leaves the mother cell and the spindle is accurately positioned along the mother-bud axis can MEN signaling occur and cell division proceed. Here, we describe a mechanism ensuring that Kin4 only associates with mother cell-located SPBs. The bud-localized MEN regulator Lte1, whose molecular function has long been unclear, prevents Kin4 that escapes into the bud from associating with SPBs in the daughter cell.
Project description:Components of the mitotic exit network (MEN), a signaling pathway that triggers exit from mitosis, localize to the spindle pole body (SPB) that migrates into the daughter cell during anaphase but are largely absent from the SPB that remains in the mother cell. Through the analysis of one of the determinants of this asymmetry, Bfa1, we find that the machinery responsible for establishing cell polarity and cytoplasmic microtubules collaborate to establish MEN asymmetry. In cells defective in the Cdc42 signaling pathway or the formin Bni1, Bfa1 localizes to both SPBs. The quantitative analysis of Bfa1 localization further shows that Bfa1 can associate with both SPBs in a transient and highly dynamic fashion, but the protein is stabilized on the SPB that migrates into the daughter cell during anaphase through microtubule-bud cortex interactions. Our results indicate that mother-daughter cell asymmetry determinants establish MEN signaling asymmetry through microtubule-bud cortex interactions.
Project description:The Mitotic Exit Network (MEN), a budding yeast Ras-like signal transduction cascade, translates nuclear position into a signal to exit from mitosis. Here we describe how scaffolding the MEN onto spindle pole bodies (SPB-centrosome equivalent) allows the MEN to couple the final stages of mitosis to spindle position. Through the quantitative analysis of the localization of MEN components, we determined the relative importance of MEN signaling from the SPB that is delivered into the daughter cell (dSPB) during anaphase and the SPB that remains in the mother cell. Movement of half of the nucleus into the bud during anaphase causes the active form of the MEN GTPase Tem1 to accumulate at the dSPB. In response to Tem1's activity at the dSPB, the MEN kinase cascade, which functions downstream of Tem1, accumulates at both SPBs. This localization to both SPBs serves an important role in promoting efficient exit from mitosis. Cells that harbor only one SPB delay exit from mitosis. We propose that MEN signaling is initiated by Tem1 at the dSPB and that association of the downstream MEN kinases with both SPBs serves to amplify MEN signaling, enabling the timely exit from mitosis.
Project description:How spatial information is translated into a chemical signal is a fundamental problem in all organisms. The spindle position checkpoint is a prime example of this problem. This checkpoint senses spindle position and, in budding yeast, inhibits the mitotic exit network (MEN), a signaling pathway that promotes exit from mitosis. We find that spindle position is sensed by a system composed of MEN-inhibitory and -activating zones and a sensor that moves between them. The MEN inhibitory zone is located in the mother cell, the MEN-activating zone in the bud, and the spindle pole body (SPB), where the components of the MEN reside, functions as the sensor. Only when an SPB escapes the MEN inhibitor Kin4 in the mother cell and moves into the bud where the MEN activator Lte1 resides can exit from mitosis occur. In this manner, spatial information is sensed and translated into a chemical signal.
Project description:The spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) is a spindle pole body (SPB, equivalent of mammalian centrosome) associated surveillance mechanism that halts mitotic exit upon spindle mis-orientation. Here, we monitored the interaction between SPB proteins and the SPOC component Bfa1 by FRET microscopy. We show that Bfa1 binds to the scaffold-protein Nud1 and the ?-tubulin receptor Spc72. Spindle misalignment specifically disrupts Bfa1-Spc72 interaction by a mechanism that requires the 14-3-3-family protein Bmh1 and the MARK/PAR-kinase Kin4. Dissociation of Bfa1 from Spc72 prevents the inhibitory phosphorylation of Bfa1 by the polo-like kinase Cdc5. We propose Spc72 as a regulatory hub that coordinates the activity of Kin4 and Cdc5 towards Bfa1. In addition, analysis of spc72? cells shows that a mitotic-exit-promoting dominant signal, which is triggered upon elongation of the spindle into the bud, overrides the SPOC. Our data reinforce the importance of daughter-cell-associated factors and centrosome-based regulations in mitotic exit and SPOC control.
Project description:In budding yeast, alignment of the anaphase spindle along the mother-bud axis is crucial for maintaining genome integrity. If the anaphase spindle becomes misaligned in the mother cell compartment, cells arrest in anaphase because the mitotic exit network (MEN), an essential Ras-like GTPase signaling cascade, is inhibited by the spindle position checkpoint (SPoC). Distinct localization patterns of MEN and SPoC components mediate MEN inhibition. Most components of the MEN localize to spindle pole bodies. If the spindle becomes mispositioned in the mother cell compartment, cells arrest in anaphase due to inhibition of the MEN by the mother cell-restricted SPoC kinase Kin4. Here we show that a bud-localized activating signal is necessary for full MEN activation. We identify Lte1 as this signal and show that Lte1 activates the MEN in at least two ways. It inhibits small amounts of Kin4 that are present in the bud via its central domain. An additional MEN-activating function of Lte1 is mediated by its N- and C-terminal GEF domains, which, we propose, directly activate the MEN GTPase Tem1. We conclude that control of the MEN by spindle position is exerted by both negative and positive regulatory elements that control the pathway's GTPase activity.
Project description:In budding yeast, if the spindle becomes mispositioned, cells prevent exit from mitosis by inhibiting the mitotic exit network (MEN). The MEN is a signaling cascade that localizes to spindle pole bodies (SPBs) and activates the phosphatase Cdc14. There are two competing models that explain MEN regulation by spindle position. In the 'zone model', exit from mitosis occurs when a MEN-bearing SPB enters the bud. The 'cMT-bud neck model' posits that cytoplasmic microtubule (cMT)-bud neck interactions prevent MEN activity. Here we find that 1) eliminating cMT- bud neck interactions does not trigger exit from mitosis and 2) loss of these interactions does not precede Cdc14 activation. Furthermore, using binucleate cells, we show that exit from mitosis occurs when one SPB enters the bud despite the presence of a mispositioned spindle. We conclude that exit from mitosis is triggered by a correctly positioned spindle rather than inhibited by improper spindle position.
Project description:The orientation of the mitotic spindle with respect to the polarity axis is crucial for the accuracy of asymmetric cell division. In budding yeast, a surveillance mechanism called the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) prevents exit from mitosis when the mitotic spindle fails to align along the mother-to-daughter polarity axis. SPOC arrest relies upon inhibition of the GTPase Tem1 by the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) complex Bfa1-Bub2. Importantly, reactions signaling mitotic exit take place at yeast centrosomes (named spindle pole bodies, SPBs) and the GAP complex also promotes SPB localization of Tem1. Yet, whether the regulation of Tem1 by Bfa1-Bub2 takes place only at the SPBs remains elusive. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of Bfa1-Bub2 and Tem1 localization at the SPBs. Based on the measured SPB-bound protein levels, we introduce a dynamical model of the SPOC that describes the regulation of Bfa1 and Tem1. Our model suggests that Bfa1 interacts with Tem1 in the cytoplasm as well as at the SPBs to provide efficient Tem1 inhibition.
Project description:Budding yeast spindle position checkpoint is engaged by misoriented spindles and prevents mitotic exit by inhibiting the G protein Tem1 through the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) Bub2/Bfa1. Bub2 and Bfa1 are found on both duplicated spindle pole bodies until anaphase onset, when they disappear from the mother-bound spindle pole under unperturbed conditions. In contrast, when spindles are misoriented they remain symmetrically localized at both SPBs. Thus, symmetric localization of Bub2/Bfa1 might lead to inhibition of Tem1, which is also present at SPBs. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that a Bub2 version symmetrically localized on both SPBs throughout the cell cycle prevents mitotic exit in mutant backgrounds that partially impair it. This effect is Bfa1 dependent and can be suppressed by high Tem1 levels. Bub2 removal from the mother-bound SPB requires its GAP activity, which in contrast appears to be dispensable for Tem1 inhibition. Moreover, it correlates with the passage of one spindle pole through the bud neck because it needs septin ring formation and bud neck kinases.
Project description:The spindle orientation checkpoint (SPOC) of budding yeast delays mitotic exit when cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs) are defective, causing the spindle to become misaligned. Delay is achieved by maintaining the activity of the Bfa1-Bub2 guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein complex, an inhibitor of mitotic exit. In this study, we show that the spindle pole body (SPB) component Spc72, a transforming acidic coiled coil-like molecule that interacts with the gamma-tubulin complex, recruits Kin4 kinase to both SPBs when cytoplasmic MTs are defective. This allows Kin4 to phosphorylate the SPB-associated Bfa1, rendering it resistant to inactivation by Cdc5 polo kinase. Consistently, forced targeting of Kin4 to both SPBs delays mitotic exit even when the anaphase spindle is correctly aligned. Moreover, we present evidence that Spc72 has an additional function in SPOC regulation that is independent of the recruitment of Kin4. Thus, Spc72 provides a missing link between cytoplasmic MT function and components of the SPOC.
Project description:An increasing number of cellular activities can be regulated by reversible lysine acetylation. Targeting the enzymes responsible for such posttranslational modifications is instrumental in defining their substrates and functions in vivo. Here we show that a Saccharomyces cerevisiae lysine deacetylase, Hos3, is asymmetrically targeted to the daughter side of the bud neck and to the daughter spindle pole body (SPB). The morphogenesis checkpoint member Hsl7 recruits Hos3 to the neck region. Cells with a defect in spindle orientation trigger Hos3 to load onto both SPBs. When associated symmetrically with both SPBs, Hos3 functions as a spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) component to inhibit mitotic exit. Neck localization of Hos3 is essential for its symmetric association with SPBs in cells with misaligned spindles. Our data suggest that Hos3 facilitates cross-talk between the morphogenesis checkpoint and the SPOC as a component of the intricate monitoring of spindle orientation after mitotic entry and before commitment to mitotic exit.