Filamin A protein interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein and contributes to productive particle assembly.
ABSTRACT: HIV-1 Gag precursor directs virus particle assembly and release. In a search for Gag-interacting proteins that are involved in late stages of the HIV-1 replication cycle, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening against a human cDNA library and identified the non-muscle actin filament cross-linking protein filamin A as a novel Gag binding partner. The 280-kDa filamin A regulates cortical actin network dynamics and participates in the anchoring of membrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton. Recent studies have shown that filamin A facilitates HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission by binding to HIV receptors and coreceptors and regulating their clustering on the target cell surface. Here we report a novel role for filamin A in HIV-1 Gag intracellular trafficking. We demonstrate that filamin A interacts with the capsid domain of HIV-1 Gag and that this interaction is involved in particle release in a productive manner. Disruption of this interaction eliminated Gag localization at the plasma membrane and induced Gag accumulation within internal compartments. Moreover, blocking clathrin-dependent endocytic pathways did not relieve the restriction to particle release induced by filamin A depletion. These results suggest that filamin A is involved in the distinct step of the Gag trafficking pathway. The discovery of the Gag-filamin A interaction may provide a new therapeutic target for the treatment of HIV infection.
Project description:Transcytosis via caveolae is critical for maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating the tissue delivery of macromolecules, hormones, and lipids. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that interactions between F-actin cross-linking protein filamin A and caveolin-1 facilitate the internalization and trafficking of caveolae. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of filamin A, but not filamin B, reduced the uptake and transcytosis of albumin by approximately 35 and 60%, respectively, without altering the actin cytoskeletal structure or cell-cell adherens junctions. Mobility of both intracellular caveolin-1-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled vesicles measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and membrane-associated vesicles measured by total internal reflection-fluorescence microscopy was decreased in cells with reduced filamin A expression. In addition, in melanoma cells that lack filamin A (M2 cells), the majority of caveolin-1-GFP was localized on the plasma membrane, whereas in cells in which filamin A expression was reconstituted (A7 cells and M2 cells transfected with filamin A-RFP), caveolin-1-GFP was concentrated in intracellular vesicles. Filamin A association with caveolin-1 in endothelial cells was confirmed by cofractionation of these proteins in density gradients, as well as by coimmunoprecipitation. Moreover, this interaction was enhanced by Src activation, associated with increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation, and blocked by Src inhibition. Taken together, these data suggest that filamin A association with caveolin-1 promotes caveolae-mediated transport by regulating vesicle internalization, clustering, and trafficking.
Project description:Epithin is a type II transmembrane serine protease that exists in a soluble and membrane-bound form. Shedding is thought to be important in regulating its action, but little is known regarding the intracellular events that trigger such shedding. Here, we show that phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) causes the release of epithin. It also causes accumulation of the protein at the site of cell-cell contacts, and this accumulation is dependent on the formation of cortical actin. In addition, we have identified the actin-binding protein, filamin, as the linker between epithin and the actin cytoskeleton. The interaction of epithin and filamin was enhanced by PMA, and epithin was not released from filamin-deficient M2 cells. We also show that the release of epithin does not require its own activity and is blocked by a metalloprotease inhibitor, GM6001. These results show that filamin has an essential role in shedding by linking epithin to the as yet unidentified metalloprotease-shedding enzyme(s).
Project description:Ubiquitination appears to be involved in virus particle release from infected cells. Free ubiquitin (Ub), as well as Ub covalently bound to a small fraction of p6 Gag, is detected in mature HIV particles. Here we report that the p6 region in the Pr55(Gag) structural precursor polyprotein binds to Tsg101, a putative Ub regulator that is involved in trafficking of plasma membrane-associated proteins. Tsg101 was found to interact with Gag in (i) a yeast two-hybrid assay, (ii) in vitro coimmunoprecipitation by using purified Pr55(Gag) and rabbit reticulocyte lysate-synthesized Tsg101, and (iii) in vivo in the cytoplasm of COS cells transfected with gag. The PTAPP motif [or late (L) domain] within p6, which is required for release of mature virus from the plasma membrane, was the determinant for binding Pr55(Gag). The N-terminal region in Tsg101, which is homologous to the Ubc4 class of Ub-conjugating (E2) enzymes, was the determinant of interaction with p6. Mutation of Tyr-110 in Tsg101, present in place of the active-site Cys that binds Ub in E2 enzymes, and other residues unique to Tsg101, impaired p6 interaction, indicating that features that distinguish Tsg101 from active E2 enzymes were important for binding the viral protein. The results link L-domain function in HIV to the Ub machinery and a specific component of the cellular trafficking apparatus.
Project description:Interleukin 2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) influences T cell signaling by coordinating actin polymerization and polarization as well as recruitment of kinases and adapter proteins. ITK regulates multiple steps of HIV-1 replication, including virion assembly and release. Fluorescent microscopy was used to examine the functional interactions between ITK and HIV-1 Gag during viral particle release. ITK and Gag colocalized at the plasma membrane and were concentrated at sites of F-actin accumulation and membrane lipid rafts in HIV-1 infected T cells. There was polarized staining of ITK, Gag, and actin towards sites of T cell conjugates. Small molecule inhibitors of ITK disrupted F-actin capping, perturbed Gag-ITK colocalization, inhibited virus like particle release, and reduced HIV replication in primary human CD4+ T cells. These data provide insight as to how ITK influences HIV-1 replication and suggest that targeting host factors that regulate HIV-1 egress provides an innovative strategy for controlling HIV infection.
Project description:Filamin and Cortexillin are F-actin crosslinking proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum allowing actin filaments to form three-dimensional networks. GAPA, an IQGAP related protein, is required for cytokinesis and localizes to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Here we describe a novel interaction with Filamin which is required for cytokinesis and regulation of the F-actin content. The interaction occurs through the actin binding domain of Filamin and the GRD domain of GAPA. A similar interaction takes place with Cortexillin I. We further report that Filamin associates with Rac1a implying that filamin might act as a scaffold for small GTPases. Filamin and activated Rac associate with GAPA to regulate actin remodelling. Overexpression of filamin and GAPA in the various strains suggests that GAPA regulates the actin cytoskeleton through interaction with Filamin and that it controls cytokinesis through association with Filamin and Cortexillin.
Project description:The Gag protein is the major structural determinant of retrovirus assembly. Although a number of cellular factors have been reported to facilitate retrovirus release, little is known about the cellular machinery that directs Gag to the site of virus assembly. Here, we report roles for the Golgi-localized gamma-ear containing Arf-binding (GGA) and ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) proteins in retrovirus particle assembly and release. Whereas siRNA-mediated depletion of GGA2 and GGA3 led to a significant increase in particle release in a late domain-dependent manner, GGA overexpression severely reduced retrovirus particle production by impairing Gag trafficking to the membrane. GGA overexpression inhibited retroviral assembly and release by disrupting Arf protein activity. Furthermore, disruption of endogenous Arf activity inhibited particle production by decreasing Gag-membrane binding. These findings identify the GGA proteins as modulators of HIV-1 release and the Arf proteins as critical cellular cofactors in retroviral Gag trafficking to the plasma membrane.
Project description:HIV-1 particle production is driven by the Gag precursor protein Pr55(Gag). Despite significant progress in defining both the viral and cellular determinants of HIV-1 assembly and release, the trafficking pathway used by Gag to reach its site of assembly in the infected cell remains to be elucidated. The Gag trafficking itinerary in primary monocyte-derived macrophages is especially poorly understood. To define the site of assembly and characterize the Gag trafficking pathway in this physiologically relevant cell type, we have made use of the biarsenical-tetracysteine system. A small tetracysteine tag was introduced near the C-terminus of the matrix domain of Gag. The insertion of the tag at this position did not interfere with Gag trafficking, virus assembly or release, particle infectivity, or the kinetics of virus replication. By using this in vivo detection system to visualize Gag trafficking in living macrophages, Gag was observed to accumulate both at the plasma membrane and in an apparently internal compartment that bears markers characteristic of late endosomes or multivesicular bodies. Significantly, the internal Gag rapidly translocated to the junction between the infected macrophages and uninfected T cells following macrophage/T-cell synapse formation. These data indicate that a population of Gag in infected macrophages remains sequestered internally and is presented to uninfected target cells at a virological synapse.
Project description:Although interaction of a few G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with Filamin A, a key actin cross-linking and biomechanical signal transducer protein, has been observed, a comprehensive structure-function analysis of this interaction is lacking. Through a systematic sequence-based analysis, we found that a conserved filamin binding motif is present in the cytoplasmic domains of >20% of the 824 GPCRs encoded in the human genome. Direct high-affinity interaction of filamin binding motif peptides of select GPCRs with the Ig domain of Filamin A was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetric experiments. Engagement of the filamin binding motif with the Filamin A Ig domain induced the phosphorylation of filamin by protein kinase A in vitro. In transfected cells, agonist activation as well as constitutive activation of representative GPCRs dramatically elicited recruitment and phosphorylation of cellular Filamin A, a phenomenon long known to be crucial for regulating the structure and dynamics of the cytoskeleton. Our data suggest a molecular mechanism for direct GPCR-cytoskeleton coupling via filamin. Until now, GPCR signaling to the cytoskeleton was predominantly thought to be indirect, through canonical G protein-mediated signaling cascades involving GTPases, adenylyl cyclases, phospholipases, ion channels, and protein kinases. We propose that the GPCR-induced filamin phosphorylation pathway is a conserved, novel biochemical signaling paradigm.
Project description:Many proteins contribute to the contractile properties of muscles, most notably myosin thick filaments, which are anchored at the M-line, and actin thin filaments, which are anchored at the Z-discs that border each sarcomere. In humans, mutations in the actin-binding protein Filamin-C result in myopathies, but the underlying molecular function is not well understood. Here we show using Drosophila indirect flight muscle that the filamin ortholog Cheerio in conjunction with the giant elastic protein titin plays a crucial role in keeping thin filaments stably anchored at the Z-disc. We identify the filamin domains required for interaction with the titin ortholog Sallimus, and we demonstrate a genetic interaction of filamin with titin and actin. Filamin mutants disrupting the actin- or the titin-binding domain display distinct phenotypes, with Z-discs breaking up in parallel or perpendicularly to the myofibril, respectively. Thus, Z-discs require filamin to withstand the strong contractile forces acting on them.
Project description:Reports on the ultrastructure of cells as well as biochemical data have, for several years, been indicating a connection between caveolae and the actin cytoskeleton. Here, using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we have identified the F-actin cross-linking protein filamin as a ligand for the caveolae-associated protein caveolin-1. Binding of caveolin-1 to filamin involved the N-terminal region of caveolin-1 and the C terminus of filamin close to the filamin-dimerization domain. In in vitro binding assays, recombinant caveolin-1 bound to both nonmuscle and muscle filamin, indicating that the interaction might not be cell type specific. With the use of confocal microscopy, colocalization of caveolin-1 and filamin was observed in elongated patches at the plasma membrane. Remarkably, when stress fiber formation was induced with Rho-stimulating Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1, the caveolin-1-positive structures became coaligned with stress fibers, indicating that there was a physical link connecting them. Immunogold double-labeling electron microscopy confirmed that caveolin-1-labeled racemose caveolae clusters were positive for filamin. The actin network, therefore, seems to be directly involved in the spatial organization of caveolin-1-associated membrane domains.