TNF-alpha mediates diabetes-enhanced chondrocyte apoptosis during fracture healing and stimulates chondrocyte apoptosis through FOXO1.
ABSTRACT: To gain insight into the effect of diabetes on fracture healing, experiments were carried out focusing on chondrocyte apoptosis during the transition from cartilage to bone. Type 1 diabetes was induced in mice by multiple low-dose streptozotocin injections, and simple transverse fractures of the tibia or femur was carried out. Large-scale transcriptional profiling and gene set enrichment analysis were performed to examine apoptotic pathways on total RNA isolated from fracture calluses on days 12, 16, and 22, a period of endochondral bone formation when cartilage is resorbed and chondrocyte numbers decrease. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) protein levels were assessed by ELISA and caspase-3 by bioactivity assay. The role of TNF was examined by treating mice with the TNF-specific inhibitor pegsunercept. In vitro studies investigated the proapoptotic transcription factor FOXO1 in regulating TNF-induced apoptosis of chondrogenic ATDC5 and C3H10T1/2 cells as representative of differentiated chondrocytes, which are important during endochondral ossification. mRNA profiling revealed an upregulation of gene sets related to apoptosis in the diabetic group on day 16 when cartilage resorption is active but not day 12 or day 22. This coincided with elevated TNF-alpha protein levels, chondrocyte apoptosis, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and increased FOXO1 nuclear translocation (p < .05). Inhibition of TNF significantly reduced these parameters in the diabetic mice but not in normoglycemic control mice (p < .05). Silencing FOXO1 using siRNA in vitro significantly reduced TNF-induced apoptosis and caspase activity in differentiated chondrocytes. The mRNA levels of the proapoptotic genes caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and TRAIL were significantly reduced with silencing of FOXO1 in chondrocytic cells. Inhibiting caspase-8 and caspase-9 significantly reduced TNF-induced apoptosis in chondrogenic cells. These results suggest that diabetes causes an upregulation of proapoptotic genes during the transition from cartilage to bone in fracture healing. Diabetes increased chondrocyte apoptosis through a mechanism that involved enhanced production of TNF-alpha, which stimulates chondrocyte apoptosis and upregulates mRNA levels of apoptotic genes through FOXO1 activation.
Project description:Diabetes interferes with fracture repair; therefore, we investigated mechanisms of impaired fracture healing in a model of multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Microarray and gene set enrichment analysis revealed an up-regulation of gene sets related to inflammation, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling in the diabetic group, when cartilage is being replaced by bone on day 16, but not on days 12 or 22. This change coincided with elevated osteoclast numbers and accelerated removal of cartilage in the diabetic group (P < 0.05), which was reflected by smaller callus size. When diabetic mice were treated with the TNF-specific inhibitor, pegsunercept, the number of osteoclasts, cartilage loss, and number of TNF-alpha and receptor activator for nuclear factor kB ligand positive chondrocytes were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The transcription factor forkhead box 01 (FOXO1) was tested for mediating TNF stimulation of osteoclastogenic and inflammatory factors in bone morphogenetic protein 2 pretreated ATDC5 and C3H10T1/2 chondrogenic cells. FOXO1 knockdown by small-interfering RNA significantly reduced TNF-alpha, receptor activator for nuclear factor kB ligand, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-1alpha, and interleukin-6 mRNA compared with scrambled small-interfering RNA. An association between FOXO1 and the TNF-alpha promoter was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, diabetes increased FOXO1 nuclear translocation in chondrocytes in vivo and increased FOXO1 DNA binding activity in diabetic fracture calluses (P < 0.05). These results suggest that diabetes-enhanced TNF-alpha increases the expression of resorptive factors in chondrocytes through a process that involves activation of FOXO1 and that TNF-alpha dysregulation leads to enhanced osteoclast formation and accelerated loss of cartilage.
Project description:Previous studies showed that loss of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) signaling delayed fracture healing by delaying chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage resorption. Mechanistic studies showed that TNF? induced Fas expression within chondrocytes; however, the degree to which chondrocyte apoptosis is mediated by TNF? alone or dependent on the induction of Fas is unclear. This question was addressed by assessing fracture healing in Fas-deficient B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J mice. Loss of Fas delayed cartilage resorption but also lowered bone fraction in the calluses. The reduced bone fraction was related to elevated rates of coupled bone turnover in the B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J calluses, as evidenced by higher osteoclast numbers and increased osteogenesis. Analysis of the apoptotic marker caspase 3 showed fewer positive chondrocytes and osteoclasts in calluses of B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J mice. To determine if an active autoimmune state contributed to increased bone turnover, the levels of activated T cells and Treg cells were assessed. B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J mice had elevated Treg cells in both spleens and bones of B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J but decreased percentage of activated T cells in bone tissues. Fracture led to ?30% to 60% systemic increase in Treg cells in both wild-type and B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J bone tissues during the period of cartilage formation and resorption but either decreased (wild type) or left unchanged (B6.MRL/Fas(lpr) /J) the numbers of activated T cells in bone. These results show that an active autoimmune state is inhibited during the period of cartilage resorption and suggest that iTreg cells play a functional role in this process. These data show that loss of Fas activity specifically in chondrocytes prolonged the life span of chondrocytes and that Fas synergized with TNF? signaling to mediate chondrocyte apoptosis. Conversely, loss of Fas systemically led to increased osteoclast numbers during later periods of fracture healing and increased osteogenesis. These findings suggest that retention of viable chondrocytes locally inhibits osteoclast activity or matrix proteolysis during cartilage resorption.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Apoptosis of chondrocytes in articular cartilage has been observed in rheumatoid arthritis patients. However, molecules involved in such chondrocyte apoptosis in arthritic joints have not been fully understood. We previously observed that apoptosis of chondrocytes is enhanced in a murine arthritis model induced by injection with anti-type II collagen antibodies and lipopolysaccharide (mAbs/LPS), and osteopontin (OPN) deficiency suppresses chondrocyte apoptosis in this arthritis model in vivo. To understand how OPN deficiency renders resistance against chondrocyte apoptosis, we examined the cellular basis for this protection. DESIGN: Chondrocytes were prepared from wild-type and OPN-deficient mouse ribs, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced cell death was examined based on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay and TUNEL assay. RESULTS: TNF-α treatment induced LDH release in wild-type chondrocytes, while OPN deficiency suppressed such LDH release in the cultures of these cells. TNF-α-induced increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells was observed in wild-type chondrocytes, while OPN deficiency in chondrocytes suppressed the TNF-α induction of TUNEL-positive cells. OPN deficiency suppressed TNF-α-induced increase in caspase-3 activity in chondrocytes in culture. Furthermore, OPN overexpression in chondrocytes enhanced TNF-α-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the presence of OPN in chondrocytes is involved in the susceptibility of these cells to TNF-α-induced apoptosis.
Project description:Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) frequently develops after intra-articular fracture of weight bearing joints. Loss of cartilage viability and post-injury inflammation have both been implicated as possible contributing factors to PTA progression. To further investigate chondrocyte response to impact and fracture, we developed a blunt impact model applying 70%, 80%, or 90% surface-to-surface compressive strain with or without induction of an articular fracture in a cartilage explant model. Following mechanical loading, chondrocyte viability, and apoptosis were assessed. Culture media were evaluated for the release of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and immunostimulatory activity via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activity in Toll-like receptor (TLR) -expressing Ramos-Blue reporter cells. High compressive strains, with or without articular fracture, resulted in significantly reduced chondrocyte viability. Blunt impact at 70% strain induced a loss in viability over time through a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, whereas blunt impact above 80% strain caused predominantly necrosis. In the fracture model, a high level of primarily necrotic chondrocyte death occurred along the fracture edges. At sites away from the fracture, viability was not significantly different than controls. Interestingly, both dsDNA release and NF-?B activity in Ramos-Blue cells increased with blunt impact, but was only significantly increased in the media from fractured cores. This study indicates that the mechanism of trauma determines the type of chondrocyte death and the potential for post-injury inflammation.
Project description:Despite the numerous studies of protein kinase CK2, little progress has been made in understanding its function in chondrocyte death. Our previous study first demonstrated that CK2 is involved in apoptosis of rat articular chondrocytes. Recent studies have suggested that CK2 downregulation is associated with aging. Thus examining the involvement of CK2 downregulation in chondrocyte death is an urgently required task. We undertook this study to examine whether CK2 downregulation modulates chondrocyte death. We first measured CK2 activity in articular chondrocytes of 6-, 21- and 30-month-old rats. Noticeably, CK2 activity was downregulated in chondrocytes with advancing age. To build an in vitro experimental system for simulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-induced cell death in aged chondrocytes with decreased CK2 activity, chondrocytes were co-treated with CK2 inhibitors and TNF-?. Viability assay demonstrated that CK2 inhibitors facilitated TNF-?-mediated chondrocyte death. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, nuclear staining, flow cytometry, TUNEL staining, confocal microscopy, western blot and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to assess cell death modes. The results of multiple assays showed that this cell death was mediated by apoptosis. Importantly, autophagy was also involved in this process, as supported by the appearance of a punctuate LC3 pattern and autophagic vacuoles. The inhibition of autophagy by silencing of autophage-related genes 5 and 7 as well as by 3-methyladenine treatment protected chondrocytes against cell death and caspase activation, indicating that autophagy led to the induction of apoptosis. Autophagic cells were observed in cartilage obtained from osteoarthritis (OA) model rats and human OA patients. Our findings indicate that CK2 down regulation facilitates TNF-?-mediated chondrocyte death through apoptosis and autophagy. It should be clarified in the future if autophagy observed is a consequence versus a cause of the degeneration in vivo.
Project description:During endochondral ossification, chondrocytes undergo hypertrophic differentiation and die by apoptosis. The level of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) elevates at the site of cartilage mineralization, and when chondrocytes were treated with P(i), they underwent rapid apoptosis. Gene silencing of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3-only molecule bnip3 significantly suppressed P(i)-induced apoptosis. Conversely, overexpression of Bcl-xL suppressed, and its knockdown promoted, the apoptosis of chondrocytes. Bnip3 was associated with Bcl-xL in chondrocytes stimulated with P(i). Bcl-xL was expressed uniformly in the growth plate chondrocytes, whereas Bnip3 expression was exclusively localized in the hypertrophic chondrocytes. Finally, we generated chondrocyte-specific bcl-x knock-out mice using the Cre-loxP recombination system, and we provided evidence that the hypertrophic chondrocyte layer was shortened in those mice because of an increased apoptosis of prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes, with the mice afflicted with dwarfism as a result. These results suggest the pivotal role of Bcl-2 family members in the regulation of chondrocyte apoptosis.
Project description:Apoptosis of articular chondrocytes is associated with the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Recently, we demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2?, encoded by Epas1, causes OA cartilage destruction by regulating the expression of various matrix-degrading enzymes. Here, we investigated the involvement of HIF-2? in chondrocyte apoptosis and OA cartilage destruction. HIF-2? levels in human and mouse OA chondrocytes were markedly elevated in association with increased apoptosis of articular chondrocytes. Overexpression or knockdown of HIF-2? alone did not cause chondrocyte apoptosis. However, HIF-2? expression markedly increased chondrocyte apoptosis in the presence of an agonistic anti-Fas (CD95) antibody. HIF-2? enhanced Fas expression and potentiated downstream signaling pathways, increasing the activity of initiator and executioner caspases. Overexpression of HIF-2? in mouse cartilage tissue, either by intra-articular injection of Epas1 adenovirus (Ad-Epas1) or in the context of chondrocyte-specific Epas1 transgenic mice, increased chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage destruction. In contrast, chondrocyte-specific knockout of Epas1 in mice suppressed DMM (destabilization of the medial meniscus)-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and inhibited OA cartilage destruction. Moreover, Fas-deficient mice exhibited diminished chondrocyte apoptosis and OA cartilage destruction in response to Ad-Epas1 injection or DMM surgery. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HIF-2? potentiates Fas-mediated chondrocyte apoptosis, which is associated with OA cartilage destruction.
Project description:Aquaporins (AQPs) have been found to be associated with a number of diseases. However, the role of AQP?1 in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis remains unclear. We previously found that AQP?1 expression was upregulated in osteoarthritic cartilage and strongly correlated with caspase?3 expression and activity. The aim of this study was to further investigate the association of AQP?1 expression with chondrocyte apoptosis in a rat model of osteoarthritis, using RNA interference to knock down AQP?1. For this purspose, 72 male Sprague?Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups as follows: the control group not treated surgically (n=24), the sham?operated group (n=24), and the osteoarthritis group (n=24). Osteoarthritis was induced by amputating the anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament and partially excising the medial meniscus. Chondrocytes from the rats with osteoarthritis were isolated and cultured. shRNAs were used to knock down AQP?1 expression in the cultured chondrocytes. The expression of AQP?1 and caspase?3 was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Caspase?3 activity was measured using a caspase?3 colorimetric assay. The rats in our model of osteoarthritis exhibited severe cartilage damage. The knockdown of AQP?1 decreased caspase?3 expression and activity in the cultured chondrocytes. In addition, the expression of AQP?1 positively correlated with caspase?3 expression and activity. Thus, the findings of our study, suggest that AQP?1 promotes caspase?3 activation and thereby contributes to chondrocyte apoptosis and to the development of osteoarthritis.
Project description:The role of TNF-alpha in impaired wound healing in diabetes was examined by focusing on fibroblasts.Small excisional wounds were created in the db/db mice model of type 2 diabetes and normoglycaemic littermates, and in a streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mouse model and control mice. Fibroblast apoptosis was measured by the TUNEL assay, proliferation by detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) activity by DNA binding and nuclear translocation. TNF-alpha was specifically inhibited by pegsunercept.Diabetic wounds had increased TNF-alpha, fibroblast apoptosis, caspase-3/7 activity and activation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor FOXO1, and decreased proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive fibroblasts (p < 0.05). TNF-alpha inhibition improved healing in the diabetic mice and increased fibroblast density. This may be explained by a decrease in fibroblast apoptosis and increased proliferation when TNF-alpha was blocked (p < 0.05). Although decreased fibroblast proliferation and enhanced FOXO1 activity were investigated in type 2 diabetes, they may also be implicated in type 1 diabetes. In vitro, TNF-alpha enhanced mRNA levels of gene sets related to apoptosis and Akt and p53 but not mitochondrial or cell-cycle pathways. FOXO1 small interfering RNA reduced gene sets that regulate apoptosis, Akt, mitochondrial and cell-cycle pathways. TNF-alpha also increased genes involved in inflammation, cytokine, Toll-like receptor and nuclear factor-kB pathways, which were significantly reduced by FOXO1 knockdown.These studies indicate that TNF-alpha dysregulation in diabetic wounds impairs healing, which may involve enhanced fibroblast apoptosis and decreased proliferation. In vitro, TNF-alpha induced gene sets through FOXO1 that regulate a number of pathways that could influence inflammation and apoptosis.
Project description:Subjects with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) often show early-onset osteoarthritis (OA); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology are not known. We investigated whether cellular changes in chondrocytes from OA cartilage can be detected in chondrocytes from DDH cartilage before histological manifestations of degeneration. We characterized undamaged and damaged articular cartilage from 22 participants having hip replacement surgery with and without DDH (9 DDH-OA, 12 OA-only, one femoral fracture). Tissue immunostaining revealed changes in damaged OA-only cartilage that was also found in undamaged DDH-OA cartilage. Chondrocytes in situ from both groups show: (i) thicker fibers of vimentin intermediate filaments, (ii) clusters of integrin ?5?1, (iii) positive MMP13 staining and (iv) a higher percentage of cells expressing the serine protease HtrA1. Further characterization of the extracellular matrix showed strong aggrecan and collagen II immunostaining in undamaged DDH cartilage, with no evidence of augmented cell death by activation of caspase 3. These findings suggest that early events in DDH cartilage originate at the chondrocyte level and that DDH cartilage may provide a novel opportunity to study these early changes for the development of therapeutic targets for OA.