The impact of diabetes on tuberculosis treatment outcomes: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Multiple studies of tuberculosis treatment have indicated that patients with diabetes mellitus may experience poor outcomes.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize evidence for the impact of diabetes on tuberculosis outcomes. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the World Health Organization Regional Indexes from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2010 and references of relevant articles for reports of observational studies that included people with diabetes treated for tuberculosis. We reviewed the full text of 742 papers and included 33 studies of which 9 reported culture conversion at two to three months, 12 reported the combined outcome of failure and death, 23 reported death, 4 reported death adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors, 5 reported relapse, and 4 reported drug resistant recurrent tuberculosis. RESULTS: Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of failure and death during tuberculosis treatment. Patients with diabetes have a risk ratio (RR) for the combined outcome of failure and death of 1.69 (95% CI, 1.36 to 2.12). The RR of death during tuberculosis treatment among the 23 unadjusted studies is 1.89 (95% CI, 1.52 to 2.36), and this increased to an effect estimate of 4.95 (95% CI, 2.69 to 9.10) among the 4 studies that adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors. Diabetes is also associated with an increased risk of relapse (RR, 3.89; 95% CI, 2.43 to 6.23). We did not find evidence for an increased risk of tuberculosis recurrence with drug resistant strains among people with diabetes. The studies assessing sputum culture conversion after two to three months of tuberculosis therapy were heterogeneous with relative risks that ranged from 0.79 to 3.25. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes increases the risk of failure and death combined, death, and relapse among patients with tuberculosis. This study highlights a need for increased attention to treatment of tuberculosis in people with diabetes, which may include testing for suspected diabetes, improved glucose control, and increased clinical and therapeutic monitoring.
Project description:Using hollow-fiber tuberculosis studies, we recently demonstrated that nonadherence is not a significant factor for ADR and that therapy failure only occurs after a large proportion of doses are missed. Computer-aided clinical trial simulations have suggested that isoniazid and rifampin pharmacokinetic variability best explained poor outcomes. We were interested in determining whether isoniazid pharmacokinetic variability was associated with either microbiological failure or ADR in the clinic.Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials that reported isoniazid acetylation status and microbiological outcomes were selected. The main effects examined were microbiological sputum conversion, ADR, and relapse. Effect size was expressed as pooled risk ratios (RRs) comparing rapid with slow acetylators.Thirteen randomized studies with 1631 rapid acetylators and 1751 slow acetylators met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Rapid acetylators were more likely than slow acetylators to have microbiological failure (RR, 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.7), ADR (RR, 2.0; CI, 1.1-3.4), and relapse (RR, 1.3; CI, .9-2.0). Higher failure rates were encountered even in drug regimens comprising >3 antibiotics. No publication bias or small-study effects were observed for the outcomes evaluated.Pharmacokinetic variability to a single drug in the regimen is significantly associated with failure of therapy and ADR in patients. This suggests that individualized dosing for tuberculosis may be more effective than standardized dosing, which is prescribed in directly observed therapy programs.
Project description:To assess the effectiveness of decentralized treatment and care for patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, in comparison with centralized approaches.We searched ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane library, Embase®, Google Scholar, LILACS, PubMed®, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's portal of clinical trials for studies reporting treatment outcomes for decentralized and centralized care of MDR tuberculosis. The primary outcome was treatment success. When possible, we also evaluated, death, loss to follow-up, treatment adherence and health-system costs. To obtain pooled relative risk (RR) estimates, we performed random-effects meta-analyses.Eight studies met the eligibility criteria for review inclusion. Six cohort studies, with 4026 participants in total, reported on treatment outcomes. The pooled RR estimate for decentralized versus centralized care for treatment success was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.01-1.27). The corresponding estimate for loss to follow-up was RR: 0.66 (95% CI: 0.38-1.13), for death RR: 1.01 (95% CI: 0.67-1.52) and for treatment failure was RR: 1.07 (95% CI: 0.48-2.40). Two of three studies evaluating health-care costs reported lower costs for the decentralized models of care than for the centralized models.Treatment success was more likely among patients with MDR tuberculosis treated using a decentralized approach. Further studies are required to explore the effectiveness of decentralized MDR tuberculosis care in a range of different settings.
Project description:Tuberculosis remains an important health concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of unfavorable outcomes at the end of treatment (EOT) and at the end of study (EOS; 40 months after EOT) in South Korea.New or previously treated tuberculosis patients were recruited into a prospective observational cohort study at two hospitals in South Korea. To identify predictors of unfavorable outcomes at EOT and EOS, logistic regression analysis was performed.The proportion of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was 8.2% in new cases and 57.9% in previously treated cases. Of new cases, 68.6% were cured, as were 40.7% of previously treated cases. At EOT, diabetes, ?3 previous TB episodes, ?1 significant regimen change, and MDR-TB were significantly associated with treatment failure or death. At EOS, age ?35, body-mass index (BMI) <18.5, diabetes, and MDR-TB were significantly associated with treatment failure, death, or relapse. Among cases that were cured at EOT, age ?50 and a BMI <18.5 were associated with subsequent death or relapse during follow-up to EOS. Treatment interruption was associated with service sector employees or laborers, bilateral lesions on chest X-ray, and previous treatment failure or treatment interruption history.Risk factors for poor treatment outcomes at EOT and EOS include both patient factors (diabetes status, age, BMI) and disease factors (history of multiple previous treatment episodes, MDR-TB). In this longitudinal, observational cohort study, diabetes mellitus and MDR-TB were risk factors for poor treatment outcomes and relapse. Measures to help ensure that the first tuberculosis treatment episode is also the last one may improve treatment outcomes.ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00341601.
Project description:Digoxin has long been used for rate control in atrial fibrillation (AF); its safety remains controversial.We performed a literature search using MEDLINE (source PubMed, January 1, 1966, to July 31, 2015) and EMBASE (January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015) with no restrictions. Studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of interest were included. Pooled effect estimates were obtained by using random-effects meta-analysis.Twenty-two studies involving 586,594 patients were identified. Patients taking digoxin, as compared with those who took no digoxin, experienced an increased risk of death from any cause (RR: 1.29[95% CI 1.16-1.43]), even after reported adjustment for propensity scores (RR: 1.28[95% CI 1.18-1.39]). The risk of death was increased with patients with or without heart failure (RR: 1.12[95% CI 1.02-1.23] and RR: 1.26[95% CI 1.15-1.29], respectively), and patients taking or not taking beta blockers (RR: 1.17 [95% CI 1.06-1.30] and RR: 1.28 [95% CI 1.08-1.51], respectively). Digoxin use was also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death (RR: 1.32 [95% CI 1.07-1.64]), arrhythmic death (RR: 1.38 [95% CI 1.07-1.79]), and stroke (RR: 1.20 [95% CI 1.004-1.44]). Digoxin treatment is associated with an absolute risk increase of 19 (95% CI 13-26) additional deaths from any cause per 1000 person-years.Digoxin use is associated with a significant increased risk for death from any cause in patients with AF. This finding suggests a need for reconsideration of present treatment recommendations on use of digoxin in AF.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To evaluate the impact of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) on risk of heart failure hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes.<h4>Methods</h4>We searched the PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang, CBM, and other web knowledge databases for data from randomized controlled trials. We performed statistical analyses by using review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and STATA 12.0 for meta-analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Eight randomized controlled trials that compared SGLT-2i <i>versus</i> placebo met our inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The final meta-analysis included a total of 55,763 type 2 diabetes patients. Compared with placebo, SGLT-2i reduced the risk of heart failure hospitalization (RR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.74; <i>P</i> < 0.00001), MACE (defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke) (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.98; <i>P</i> < 0.007), cardiovascular death (RR, 0.78; 95%CI, 0.62 to 0.99; <i>P</i> = 0.04) in type 2 diabetes patients. SGLT-2i could reduce the risk of death from any cause (RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.01; <i>P</i> = 0.06) without statistical significance in type 2 diabetes patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Compared with placebo, SGLT-2i may reduce the risk of heart failure hospitalization, MACE, and cardiovascular death. Therefore, SGLT-2i may be an ideal choice for type 2 diabetes mellitus patient with heart failure. These results will help inform practitioners, patients, and authorities making appropriate choices in hypoglycemic therapy clinical practice.
Project description:This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to explore and summarise the evidence regarding the association between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and the subsequent risk of vascular outcomes and all-cause mortality.Electronic databases PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify studies conducted through May 2016. Prospective cohort studies that reported effect estimates with 95% CIs of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cardiac death, all-cause mortality and heart failure for different levels versus the lowest level of OSA were included.A total of 16 cohort studies reporting data on 24?308 individuals were included. Of these, 11 studies reported healthy participants, and the remaining five studies reported participants with different diseases. Severe OSA was associated with an increased risk of MACEs (relative risk (RR): 2.04; 95%?CI 1.56 to 2.66; P<0.001), CHD (RR: 1.63; 95%?CI 1.18 to 2.26; P=0.003), stroke (RR: 2.15; 95%?CI 1.42 to 3.24; P<0.001), cardiac death (RR: 2.96; 95%?CI 1.45 to 6.01; P=0.003) and all-cause mortality (RR: 1.54; 95%?CI 1.21 to 1.97; P<0.001). Moderate OSA was also significantly associated with increased risk of MACEs (RR: 1.16; 95%?CI 1.01 to 1.33; P=0.034) and CHD (RR: 1.38; 95%?CI 1.04 to 1.83; P=0.026). No significant association was found between mild OSA and the risk of vascular outcomes or all-cause mortality (P>0.05). Finally, no evidence of a factor-specific difference in the risk ratio for MACEs among participants with different levels of OSA compared with those with the lowest level of OSA was found.Severe and moderate OSAs were associated with an increased risk of vascular outcomes and all-cause mortality. This relationship might differ between genders. Therefore, further large-scale prospective studies are needed to verify this difference.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There are conflicting reports as to the association between smoking, radiotherapy, diabetes and osteoporosis and the risk of dental implant failure. We undertook a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between smoking, radiotherapy, diabetes and osteoporosis and the risk of dental implant failure. METHODS: A comprehensive research on MEDLINE and EMBASE, up to January 2013, was conducted to identify potential studies. References of relevant studies were also searched. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted independently and in duplicate. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool estimates of relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: A total of 51 studies were identified in this meta-analysis, with more than 40,000 dental implants placed under risk-threatening conditions. The pooled RRs showed a direct association between smoking (n?=?33; RR?=?1.92; 95% CI, 1.67-2.21) and radiotherapy (n?=?16; RR?=?2.28; 95% CI, 1.49-3.51) and the risk of dental implant failure, whereas no inverse impact of diabetes (n?=?5; RR?=?0.90; 95% CI, 0.62-1.32) on the risk of dental implant failure was found. The influence of osteoporosis on the risk of dental implant failure was direct but not significant (n?=?4; RR?=?1.09; 95% CI, 0.79-1.52). The subgroup analysis indicated no influence of study design, geographical location, length of follow-up, sample size, or mean age of recruited patients. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking and radiotherapy were associated with an increased risk of dental implant failure. The relationship between diabetes and osteoporosis and the risk of implant failure warrant further study.
Project description:The impact of pre-existing diabetes mellitus (DM) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence and prognosis is complex and unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between pre-existing diabetes mellitus and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence and prognosis.We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library from their inception to January, 2011 for prospective epidemiological studies assessing the effect of pre-existing diabetes mellitus on hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence, mortality outcomes, cancer recurrence, and treatment-related complications. Study-specific risk estimates were combined by using fixed effect or random effect models.The database search generated a total of 28 prospective studies that met the inclusion criteria. Among these studies, 14 reported the risk of HCC incidence and 6 studies reported risk of HCC specific mortality. Six studies provided a total of 8 results for all-cause mortality in HCC patients. Four studies documented HCC recurrence risks and 2 studies reported risks for hepatic decomposition occurrence in HCC patients. Meta-analysis indicated that pre-existing diabetes mellitus (DM) was significantly associated with increased risk of HCC incidence [meta-relative risk (RR)?=?1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-2.27] and HCC-specific mortality (meta-RR?=?1.88, 95%CI: 1.39-2.55) compared with their non-DM counterparts. HCC patients with pre-existing DM had a 38% increased (95% CI: 1.13-1.48) risk of death from all-causes and 91% increased (95%CI: 1.41-2.57) risk of hepatic decomposition occurrence compared to those without DM. In DM patients, the meta-RR for HCC recurrence-free survival was 1.93(95%CI: 1.12-3.33) compared with non-diabetic patients.The findings from the current meta-analysis suggest that DM may be both associated with elevated risks of both HCC incidence and mortality. Furthermore, HCC patients with pre-existing diabetes have a poorer prognosis relative to their non-diabetic counterparts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. However, the individual impact of traditional CV risk factors in RA is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To assess the strength of the association between individual CV risk factors and rate of either myocardial infarction (MI), combined CV morbidity (MI, angina pectoris, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease (PAD)) or CV mortality in RA patients. METHODS:RA studies reporting traditional CV risk factors [hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D), smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, and physical inactivity] as exposures and MI, CV morbidity (MI, angina, heart failure, stroke, and PAD combined) or CV mortality alone as outcomes were searched until March 2013 using MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane. Meta-analyses combined relative risk (RR) estimates from each study where either the RR and 95% confidence intervals or where raw counts were available. RESULTS:Ten studies reporting sufficient data for inclusion into meta-analyses were identified. Relevant data was available for each risk factor and MI and CV morbidity but no studies reported on CV mortality. Risk of MI increased in RA patients with hypertension (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38, 2.46) and T2D (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.36, 2.63). CV morbidity increased with hypertension (RR 2.24, 95% CI 1.42, 3.06), T2D (RR 1.94, 95% CI 1.58, 2.30), smoking (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.15, 1.84), hypercholesterolaemia (RR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03, 2.44) and obesity (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.29) but not with physical inactivity (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.71, 1.29). CONCLUSION:Hypertension, T2D, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia and obesity increased CV risk in patients with RA. These results highlight the importance of managing CV risk factors in RA, similarly to non-RA patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Diabetes was identified as a tuberculosis (TB) risk factor mostly in retrospective studies with limited assessments of metabolic variables. The prospective Effects of Diabetes on Tuberculosis Severity study compared adults with pulmonary TB in Chennai, India, who were classified as having either diabetes or a normal glucose tolerance at enrollment.<h4>Methods</h4>Baseline TB severity, sputum conversion, and treatment outcomes (cure, failure, death, or loss to follow-up) were compared between groups with respect to glycemic status and body mass index (BMI).<h4>Results</h4>The cohort of 389 participants included 256 with diabetes and 133 with a normal glucose tolerance. Low BMIs (<18.5 kg/m2) were present in 99 (74.4%) of nondiabetic participants and 85 (33.2%) of those with diabetes. Among participants with normal or high BMIs, rates of cure, treatment failure, or death did not vary by glycemic status. Participants with low BMIs had the highest radiographic severity of disease, the longest time to sputum culture conversion, and the highest rates of treatment failure and death. Among participants with low BMIs, poorly controlled diabetes (glycohemoglobin [HbA1c] ?8.0%) was unexpectedly associated with better TB treatment outcomes. A high visceral adiposity index was associated with adverse outcomes and, despite an overall correlation with HbA1c, was elevated in some low-BMI individuals with normal glucose tolerance.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this South Indian cohort, a low BMI was significantly associated with an increased risk for adverse TB treatment outcomes, while comorbid, poorly controlled diabetes lessened that risk. A high visceral adiposity index, either with or without dysglycemia, might reflect a novel TB susceptibility mechanism linked to adipose tissue dysfunction.