Differences in clinical features according to Boryoung and Karp genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi.
ABSTRACT: Scrub typhus is an infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The differences in virulence of O. tsutsugamushi prototypes in humans are still unknown. We investigated whether there are any differences in the clinical features of the Boryoung and Karp genotypes.Patients infected with O. tsutsugamushi, as Boryoung and Karp clusters, who had visited 6 different hospitals in southwestern Korea were prospectively compared for clinical features, complications, laboratory parameters, and treatment responses. Infected patients in the Boryoung cluster had significantly more generalized weakness, eschars, skin rashes, conjunctival injection, high albumin levels, and greater ESR and fibrinogen levels compared to the Karp cluster. The treatment response to current antibiotics was significantly slower in the Karp cluster as compared to the Boryoung cluster.The frequency of occurrence of eschars and rashes may depend on the genotype of O. tsutsugamushi.
Project description:To verify the value of eschars for the diagnosis of scrub typhus and to characterize genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi in patients, we examined eschars and blood specimens of 7 patients from Shandong Province, People's Republic of China, for O. tsutsugamushi by polymerase chain reaction targeting the Sta56 gene. All 7 eschars and acute-phase blood samples were positive, while no specific DNA amplicons were obtained from the 7 convalescent-phase blood samples collected after antimicrobial drug therapy. The findings indicate that patients' eschars can be used for detection and genetic characterization of O. tsutsugamushi during the convalescent phase.
Project description:Orientia tsutsugamushi, an intracellular bacterium, belongs to the family Rickettsiaceae This study presents the draft genome sequence of strain Karp, with 2.0 Mb as the size of the completed genome. This nearly finished draft genome sequence was annotated with the RAST server and the contents compared to those of the other strains.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Scrub typhus is an important endemic disease in tropical Asia caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi for which no effective broadly protective vaccine is available. The successful evaluation of vaccine candidates requires well-characterized animal models and a better understanding of the immune response against O. tsutsugamushi. While many animal species have been used to study host immunity and vaccine responses in scrub typhus, only limited data exists in non-human primate (NHP) models.<h4>Methodology/principle findings</h4>In this study we evaluated a NHP scrub typhus disease model based on intradermal inoculation of O. tsutsugamushi Karp strain in rhesus macaques (n = 7). After an intradermal inoculation with 106 murine LD50 of O. tsutsugamushi at the anterior thigh (n = 4) or mock inoculum (n = 3), a series of time course investigations involving hematological, biochemical, molecular and immunological assays were performed, until day 28, when tissues were collected for pathology and immunohistochemistry. In all NHPs with O. tsutsugamushi inoculation, but not with mock inoculation, the development of a classic eschar with central necrosis, regional lymphadenopathy, and elevation of body temperature was observed on days 7-21 post inoculation (pi); bacteremia was detected by qPCR on days 6-18 pi; and alteration of liver enzyme function and increase of white blood cells on day 14 pi. Immune assays demonstrated raised serum levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules, anti-O. tsutsugamushi-specific antibody responses (IgM and IgG) and pathogen-specific cell-mediated immune responses in inoculated macaques. The qPCR assays detected O. tsutsugamushi in eschar, spleen, draining and non-draining lymph nodes, and immuno-double staining demonstrated intracellular O. tsutsugamushi in antigen presenting cells of eschars and lymph nodes.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>These data show the potential of using rhesus macaques as a scrub typhus model, for evaluation of correlates of protection in both natural and vaccine induced immunity, and support the evaluation of future vaccine candidates against scrub typhus.
Project description:Scrub typhus also known as bush typhus is a disease with symptoms similar to Chikungunya infection. It is caused by a gram-negative bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi which resides in its vertebrate host, Mites. The genome of Orientia tsutsugamushi str. Karp encodes for 1,563 proteins, of which 344 are characterized as hypothetical ones. In the present study, we tried to identify the probable functions of these 344 hypothetical proteins (HPs). All the characterized hypothetical proteins (HPs) belong to the various protein classes like enzymes, transporters, binding proteins, metabolic process and catalytic activity and kinase activity. These hypothetical proteins (HPs) were further analyzed for virulence factors with 62 proteins identified as the most virulent proteins among these hypothetical proteins (HPs). In addition, we studied the protein sequence similarity network for visualizing functional trends across protein superfamilies from the context of sequence similarity and it shows great potential for generating testable hypotheses about protein structure-function relationships. Furthermore, we calculated toplogical properties of the network and found them to obey network power law distributions showing a fractal nature. We also identifed two highly interconnected modules in the main network which contained five hub proteins (KJV55465, KJV56211, KJV57212, KJV57203 and KJV57216) having 1.0 clustering coefficient. The structural modeling (2D and 3D structure) of these five hub proteins was carried out and the catalytic site essential for its functioning was analyzed. The outcome of the present study may facilitate a better understanding of the mechanism of virulence, pathogenesis, adaptability to host and up-to-date annotations will make unknown genes easy to identify and target for experimentation. The information on the functional attributes and virulence characteristic of these hypothetical proteins (HPs) are envisaged to facilitate effective development of novel antibacterial drug targets of Orientia tsutsugamushi.
Project description:In a recent case of scrub typhus in Australia, Orientia tsutsugamushi isolated from the patient's blood was tested by sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene. The sequence showed a strain of O. tsutsugamushi that was quite different from the classic Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strains. The new strain has been designated Litchfield.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Scrub typhus is a common cause of undiagnosed febrile illness in certain tropical regions, but can be easily treated with antibiotics. The causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is antigenically variable which complicates diagnosis and efforts towards vaccine development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:This study aimed to dissect the antigenic and genetic relatedness of O. tsutsugamushi strains and investigate sero-diagnostic reactivities by titrating individual patient sera against their O. tsutsugamushi isolates (whole-cell antigen preparation), in homologous and heterologous serum-isolate pairs from the same endemic region in NE Thailand. The indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to titrate Orientia tsutsugamushi isolates and human sera, and a mathematical technique, antigenic cartography, was applied to these data to visualise the antigenic differences and cross-reactivity between strains and sera. No functional or antigen-specific analyses were performed. The antigenic variation found in clinical isolates was much less pronounced than the genetic differences found in the 56kDa type-specific antigen genes. The Karp-like sera were more broadly reactive than the Gilliam-like sera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Antigenic cartography worked well with scrub typhus indirect immunofluorescence titres. The data from humoral responses suggest that a Karp-like strain would provide broader antibody cross-reactivity than a Gilliam-like strain. Although previous exposure to O. tsutsugamushi could not be ruled out, scrub typhus patient serum antibody responses were characterised by strong homologous, but weak heterologous antibody titres, with little evidence for cross-reactivity by Gilliam-like sera, but a broader response from some Karp-like sera. This work highlights the importance of antigenic variation in O. tsutsugamushi diagnosis and determination of new serotypes.
Project description:Scrub typhus, a chigger-borne febrile illness, occurs primarily in countries of the Asia-Pacific rim and islands of the Western Pacific. The etiologic agent is the obligate intracellular rickettsial bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. Research on O. tsutsugamushi has relied on the availability of several prototype strains, which were isolated from human cases of scrub typhus in the 1940s and 1950s. We review the history of the three original, and most important, prototype strains, Gilliam, Karp and Kato, including information on their isolation, their culture history, their clinical characteristics, their importance within the research literature on scrub typhus, and recent advances in elucidating their molecular genomics. The importance of these strains to the research and development of clinical tools related to scrub typhus is also considered. Finally, we examine whether the strains have been genetically stable since their isolation, and whether prototype strains maintained in separate laboratories are identical, based on pairwise comparisons of several sequences from four genes. By using genetic information archived in international DNA databases, we show that the prototype strains used by different laboratories are essentially identical, and that the strains have retained their genetic integrity at least since the 1950s. The three original prototype strains should remain a standard by which new diagnostic procedures are measured. Given their fundamental position in any comparative studies, they are likely to endure as a critical part of present and future research on scrub typhus and Orientia.
Project description:A survey of rodents and chiggers associated with Orientia tsutsugamushi was conducted in a rural region of the Republic of Korea (Korea) between 2014 and 2018. Overall Apodemus agrarius 15.2% had the highest seropisitive for O. tsutsugamushi, followed by Myodes regulus 11.4%. Monthly risk factors using logistic regression analysis were not associated with O. tsutsugamushi infections in rodents. The overall prevalence rate of O. tsutsugamushi among chiggers was 0.3%. The chigger (Leptotrombidium scutellare) and monthly (October) risk factors were associated with O. tsutsugamushi human infections (P<0.05). Orientia tsutsugamushi infections are endemic in rodents in Korea and people, for example, soldiers who are active outdoors, must employ preventive measures, especially during October (P<0.05). When there are many reports of O. tsutsugamushi infections in Korea. The Boryong strain 85.7% (2/14) was the most common strain detected in chiggers, followed by the Shimokoshi 7.1% (1/14) and Karp 7.1% strains.