Ryanodine receptor leak mediated by caspase-8 activation leads to left ventricular injury after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.
ABSTRACT: Myocardial ischemic disease is the major cause of death worldwide. After myocardial infarction, reperfusion of infracted heart has been an important objective of strategies to improve outcomes. However, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by inflammation, arrhythmias, cardiomyocyte damage, and, at the cellular level, disturbance in Ca(2+) and redox homeostasis. In this study, we sought to determine how acute inflammatory response contributes to reperfusion injury and Ca(2+) homeostasis disturbance after acute ischemia. Using a rat model of I/R, we show that circulating levels of TNF-? and cardiac caspase-8 activity were increased within 6 h of reperfusion, leading to myocardial nitric oxide and mitochondrial ROS production. At 1 and 15 d after reperfusion, caspase-8 activation resulted in S-nitrosylation of the RyR2 and depletion of calstabin2 from the RyR2 complex, resulting in diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak. Pharmacological inhibition of caspase-8 before reperfusion with Q-LETD-OPh or prevention of calstabin2 depletion from the RyR2 complex with the Ca(2+) channel stabilizer S107 ("rycal") inhibited the SR Ca(2+) leak, reduced ventricular arrhythmias, infarct size, and left ventricular remodeling after 15 d of reperfusion. TNF-?-induced caspase-8 activation leads to leaky RyR2 channels that contribute to myocardial remodeling after I/R. Thus, early prevention of SR Ca(2+) leak trough normalization of RyR2 function is cardioprotective.
Project description:Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have a progressive dilated cardiomyopathy associated with fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Electrical and functional abnormalities have been attributed to cardiac fibrosis; however, electrical abnormalities may occur in the absence of overt cardiac histopathology. Here we show that structural and functional remodeling of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR2) occurs in the mdx mouse model of DMD. RyR2 from mdx hearts were S-nitrosylated and depleted of calstabin2 (FKBP12.6), resulting in "leaky" RyR2 channels and a diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak. Inhibiting the depletion of calstabin2 from the RyR2 complex with the Ca(2+) channel stabilizer S107 ("rycal") inhibited the SR Ca(2+) leak, inhibited aberrant depolarization in isolated cardiomyocytes, and prevented arrhythmias in vivo. This suggests that diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak via RyR2 due to S-nitrosylation of the channel and calstabin2 depletion from the channel complex likely triggers cardiac arrhythmias. Normalization of the RyR2-mediated diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak prevents fatal sudden cardiac arrhythmias in DMD.
Project description:To examine the presence and effect of calstabin2-deficiency in Boxer dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC).Thirteen Boxer dogs with ARVC.Tissue samples were collected for histopathology, oligonucleotide microarray, PCR, immunoelectrophoresis, ryanodine channel immunoprecipitation and single-channel recordings, and calstabin2 DNA sequencing.In cardiomyopathic Boxer dogs, myocardial calstabin2 mRNA and protein were significantly decreased as compared to healthy control dogs (calstabin2 protein normalized to tetrameric cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) complex: affected, 0.51+/-0.04; control, 3.81+/-0.22; P<0.0001). Calstabin2 deficiency in diseased dog hearts was associated with a significantly increased open probability of single RyR2 channels indicating intracellular Ca(2+) leak. PCR-based sequencing of the promoter, exonic and splice site regions of the canine calstabin2 gene did not identify any causative mutations.Calstabin2 deficiency is a potential mechanism of Ca(2+) leak-induced ventricular arrhythmias and heart disease in Boxer dogs with ARVC.
Project description:Increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak via the cardiac ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel (RyR2) is thought to play a role in heart failure (HF) progression. Inhibition of this leak is an emerging therapeutic strategy. To explore the role of chronic PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 in HF pathogenesis and treatment, we generated a knockin mouse with aspartic acid replacing serine 2808 (mice are referred to herein as RyR2-S2808D+/+ mice). This mutation mimics constitutive PKA hyperphosphorylation of RyR2, which causes depletion of the stabilizing subunit FKBP12.6 (also known as calstabin2), resulting in leaky RyR2. RyR2-S2808D+/+ mice developed age-dependent cardiomyopathy, elevated RyR2 oxidation and nitrosylation, reduced SR Ca2+ store content, and increased diastolic SR Ca2+ leak. After myocardial infarction, RyR2-S2808D+/+ mice exhibited increased mortality compared with WT littermates. Treatment with S107, a 1,4-benzothiazepine derivative that stabilizes RyR2-calstabin2 interactions, inhibited the RyR2-mediated diastolic SR Ca2+ leak and reduced HF progression in WT and RyR2-S2808D+/+ mice. In contrast, ?-adrenergic receptor blockers improved cardiac function in WT but not in RyR2-S2808D+/+ mice.Thus, chronic PKA hyperphosphorylation of RyR2 results in a diastolic leak that causes cardiac dysfunction. Reversing PKA hyperphosphorylation of RyR2 is an important mechanism underlying the therapeutic action of ?-blocker therapy in HF.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, however the mechanism(s) causing AF remain poorly understood and therapy is suboptimal. The ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is the major calcium (Ca2+) release channel on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) required for excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle.In the present study, we sought to determine whether intracellular diastolic SR Ca2+ leak via RyR2 plays a role in triggering AF and whether inhibiting this leak can prevent AF.We generated 3 knock-in mice with mutations introduced into RyR2 that result in leaky channels and cause exercise induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in humans [catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)]. We examined AF susceptibility in these three CPVT mouse models harboring RyR2 mutations to explore the role of diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in AF. AF was stimulated with an intra-esophageal burst pacing protocol in the 3 CPVT mouse models (RyR2-R2474S+/-, 70%; RyR2-N2386I+/-, 60%; RyR2-L433P+/-, 35.71%) but not in wild-type (WT) mice (P<0.05). Consistent with these in vivo results, there was a significant diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in atrial myocytes isolated from the CPVT mouse models. Calstabin2 (FKBP12.6) is an RyR2 subunit that stabilizes the closed state of RyR2 and prevents a Ca2+ leak through the channel. Atrial RyR2 from RyR2-R2474S+/- mice were oxidized, and the RyR2 macromolecular complex was depleted of calstabin2. The Rycal drug S107 stabilizes the closed state of RyR2 by inhibiting the oxidation/phosphorylation induced dissociation of calstabin2 from the channel. S107 reduced the diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in atrial myocytes and decreased burst pacing-induced AF in vivo. S107 did not reduce the increased prevalence of burst pacing-induced AF in calstabin2-deficient mice, confirming that calstabin2 is required for the mechanism of action of the drug.The present study demonstrates that RyR2-mediated diastolic SR Ca2+ leak in atrial myocytes is associated with AF in CPVT mice. Moreover, the Rycal S107 inhibited diastolic SR Ca2+ leak through RyR2 and pacing-induced AF associated with CPVT mutations.
Project description:Heart contraction vitally depends on tightly controlled intracellular Ca regulation. Because contraction is mainly driven by Ca released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), this organelle plays a particularly important role in Ca regulation. The type two ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is the major SR Ca release channel in ventricular myocytes. Several cardiac pathologies, including myocardial infarction and heart failure, are associated with increased RyR2 activity and diastolic SR Ca leak. It has been suggested that the increased RyR2 activity plays an important role in arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction. Several studies have linked increased SR Ca leak during myocardial infarction and heart failure to the activation of RyR2 in response to oxidative stress. This activation might include direct oxidation of RyR2 as well as indirect activation via phosphorylation or altered interactions with regulatory proteins. Out of ninety cysteine residues per RyR2 subunit, twenty one were reported to be in reduced state that could be potential targets for redox modifications that include S-nitrosylation, S-glutathionylation, and disulfide cross-linking. Despite its clinical significance, molecular mechanisms of RyR dysfunction during oxidative stress are not fully understood. Herein we review the most recent insights into redox-dependent modulation of RyR2 during oxidative stress and heart diseases.
Project description:Mutations in the cardiac type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) have been linked to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). CPVT-associated RyR2 mutations cause fatal ventricular arrhythmias in young individuals during ?-adrenergic stimulation.This study sought to determine the effects of a novel RyR2-G230C mutation and whether this mutation and RyR2-P2328S alter the sensitivity of the channel to luminal calcium (Ca(2+)).Functional characterizations of recombinant human RyR2-G230C channels were performed under conditions mimicking stress. Human RyR2 mutant channels were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells together with calstabin2. RyR2 channels were measured to examine the regulation of the channels by cytosolic versus luminal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+). A 50-year-old white man with repeated syncopal episodes after exercise had a cardiac arrest and harbored the mutation RyR2-G230C. cAMP-dependent protein kinase-phosphorylated RyR2-G230C channels exhibited a significantly higher open probability at diastolic Ca(2+) concentrations, associated with a depletion of calstabin2. The luminal Ca(2+) sensitivities of RyR2-G230C and RyR2-P2328S channels were WT-like.The RyR2-G230C mutant exhibits similar biophysical defects compared with previously characterized CPVT mutations: decreased binding of the stabilizing subunit calstabin2 and a leftward shift in the Ca(2+) dependence for activation under conditions that simulate exercise, consistent with a "leaky" channel. Both RyR2-G230C and RyR2-P2328S channels exhibit normal luminal Ca(2+) activation. Thus, diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak caused by reduced calstabin2 binding and a leftward shift in the Ca(2+) dependence for activation by diastolic levels of cytosolic Ca(2+) is a common mechanism underlying CPVT.
Project description:AIMS:Abnormal Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), associated with Ca2+-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser2814, has consistently been linked to arrhythmogenesis and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cell death. In contrast, the role played by SR Ca2+ uptake under these stress conditions remains controversial. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in SR Ca2+ uptake is able to attenuate reperfusion arrhythmias and cardiac injury elicited by increased RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation. METHODS AND RESULTS:We used WT mice, which have been previously shown to exhibit a transient increase in RyR2-Ser2814 phosphorylation at the onset of reperfusion; mice with constitutive pseudo-phosphorylation of RyR2 at Ser2814 (S2814D) to exacerbate CaMKII-dependent reperfusion arrhythmias and cardiac damage, and phospholamban (PLN)-deficient-S2814D knock-in (SDKO) mice resulting from crossbreeding S2814D with phospholamban knockout deficient (PLNKO) mice. At baseline, S2814D and SDKO mice had structurally normal hearts. Moreover none of the strains were arrhythmic before ischaemia. Upon cardiac I/R, WT, and S2814D hearts exhibited abundant arrhythmias that were prevented by PLN ablation. In contrast, PLN ablation increased infarct size compared with WT and S2814D hearts. Mechanistically, the enhanced SR Ca2+ sequestration evoked by PLN ablation in SDKO hearts prevented arrhythmogenic events upon reperfusion by fragmenting SR Ca2+ waves into non-propagated and non-arrhythmogenic events (mini-waves). Conversely, the increase in SR Ca2+ sequestration did not reduce but rather exacerbated I/R-induced SR Ca2+ leak, as well as mitochondrial alterations, which were greatly avoided by inhibition of RyR2. These results indicate that the increase in SR Ca2+ uptake is ineffective in preventing the enhanced SR Ca2+ leak of PLN ablated myocytes from either entering into nearby mitochondria and/or activating additional CaMKII pathways, contributing to cardiac damage. CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrate that increasing SR Ca2+ uptake by PLN ablation can prevent the arrhythmic events triggered by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-induced SR Ca2+ leak. These findings underscore the benefits of increasing SERCA2a activity in the face of SR Ca2+ triggered arrhythmias. However, enhanced SERCA2a cannot prevent but rather exacerbates I/R cardiac injury.
Project description:?-Adrenergic receptor (?-AR) activation can provoke cardiac arrhythmias mediated by cAMP-dependent alterations of Ca(2+) signaling. However, cAMP can activate both protein kinase A and an exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), but their functional interaction is unclear. In heart, selective Epac activation can induce potentially arrhythmogenic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release that involves Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) effects on the ryanodine receptor (RyR).We tested whether physiological ?-AR activation causes Epac-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak and arrhythmias and whether it requires Epac1 versus Epac2, ?(1)-AR versus ?(2)-AR, and CaMKII?-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-S2814. We used knockout (KO) mice for Epac1, Epac2, or both. All KOs exhibited unaltered basal cardiac function, Ca(2+) handling, and hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. However, SR Ca(2+) leak induced by the specific Epac activator 8-CPT in wild-type mice was abolished in Epac2-KO and double-KO mice but was unaltered in Epac1-KO mice. ?-AR-induced arrhythmias were also less inducible in Epac2-KO versus wild-type mice. ?-AR activation with protein kinase A inhibition mimicked 8-CPT effects on SR Ca(2+) leak and was prevented by blockade of ?(1)-AR but not ?(2)-AR. CaMKII inhibition (KN93) and genetic ablation of either CaMKII? or CaMKII phosphorylation on RyR2-S2814 prevented 8-CPT-induced SR Ca(2+) leak.?(1)-AR activates Epac2 to induce SR Ca(2+) leak via CaMKII?-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-S2814. This pathway contributes to ?-AR-induced arrhythmias and reduced cardiac function.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) derived from the activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) is involved in S-nitrosylation of key sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) handling proteins. Deficient S-nitrosylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) has a variable effect on SR Ca(2+) leak/sparks in isolated myocytes, likely dependent on the underlying physiological state. It remains unknown, however, whether such molecular aberrancies are causally related to arrhythmogenesis in the intact heart. Here we show in the intact heart, reduced NOS1 activity increased Ca(2+)-mediated ventricular arrhythmias only in the setting of elevated myocardial [Ca(2+)](i). These arrhythmias arose from increased spontaneous SR Ca(2+) release, resulting from a combination of decreased RyR2 S-nitrosylation (RyR2-SNO) and increased RyR2 oxidation (RyR-SOx) (i.e., increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) from xanthine oxidoreductase activity) and could be suppressed with xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibition (i.e., allopurinol) or nitric oxide donors (i.e., S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO). Surprisingly, we found evidence of NOS1 down-regulation of RyR2 phosphorylation at the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) site (S2814), suggesting molecular cross-talk between nitrosylation and phosphorylation of RyR2. Finally, we show that nitroso-redox imbalance due to decreased NOS1 activity sensitizes RyR2 to a severe arrhythmic phenotype by oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that nitroso-redox imbalance is an important mechanism of ventricular arrhythmias in the intact heart under disease conditions (i.e., elevated [Ca(2+)](i) and oxidative stress), and that therapies restoring nitroso-redox balance in the heart could prevent sudden arrhythmic death.
Project description:Calstabin2, also named FK506 binding protein 12.6 (FKBP12.6), is a subunit of ryanodine receptor subtype 2 (RyR2) macromolecular complex, which is an intracellular calcium channel and abundant in the brain. Previous studies identified a role of leaky neuronal RyR2 in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the functional role of Calstabin2 in the cognitive function remains unclear. Herein, we used a mouse model of genetic deletion of Calstabin2 to investigate the function of Calstabin2 in cognitive dysfunction. We found that Calstabin2 knockout (KO) mice showed significantly reduced performance in Morris Water Maze (MWM), long-term memory (LTM) contextual fear testing, and rotarod test when compared to wild type (WT) littermates. Indeed, genetic deletion of Calstabin2 reduced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the hippocampal CA3-CA1 connection, increased membrane excitability, and induced RyR2 leak. Finally, we demonstrated that the increase in cytoplasmic calcium activated Ca(2+) dependent potassium currents and led to neuronal apoptosis in KO hippocampal neurons. Thus, these results suggest that neuronal RyR2 Ca(2+) leak due to Calstabin2 deletion contributes to learning deficiency and memory impairment.