Inhibition of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) reduces ventricular tachycardia risk by altering connexin43.
ABSTRACT: Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation is associated with arrhythmias. We investigated the effects of RAS inhibition in cardiac-specific angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) overexpression (ACE 8/8) mice, which exhibit proclivity to ventricular tachycardia (VT) and sudden death because of reduced connexin43 (Cx43). ACE 8/8 mice were treated with an ACE inhibitor (captopril) or an angiotensin receptor type-1 blocker (losartan). Subsequently, electrophysiological studies were performed, and the hearts were extracted for Cx43 quantification using immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, fluorescent dye spread method, and sodium current quantification using whole cell patch clamping. VT was induced in 12.5% of captopril-treated ACE 8/8 and in 28.6% of losartan-treated mice compared to 87.5% of untreated mice (P?
Project description:BACKGROUND: Injurious mechanical ventilation can cause a pro-inflammatory reaction in the lungs. Recent evidence suggests an association of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with lung inflammation. A study was undertaken to investigate the pathogenic role of the RAS in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and to determine whether VILI can be attenuated by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were mechanically ventilated for 4 h with low (7 ml/kg) or high (40 ml/kg) tidal volumes; non-ventilated rats were used as controls. Lung injury and inflammation were measured by the lung injury score, protein leakage, myeloperoxidase activity, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activity. Expression of the RAS components was also assessed. Some rats were pretreated with the ACE inhibitor captopril (10 mg/kg) for 3 days or received a concomitant infusion with losartan or PD123319 (type 1 or type 2 angiotensin II receptor antagonist) during mechanical ventilation to assess possible protective effects on VILI. RESULTS: In the high-volume group (n=6) the lung injury score, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein concentration, pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-kappaB activities were significantly increased compared with controls (n=6). Lung tissue angiotensin II levels and mRNA levels of angiotensinogen and type 1 and type 2 angiotensin II receptors were also significantly increased in the high-volume group. Pretreatment with captopril or concomitant infusion with losartan or PD123319 in the high-volume group attenuated the lung injury and inflammation (n=6 for each group). CONCLUSIONS: The RAS is involved in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury. ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor antagonists can attenuate VILI in this rat model.
Project description:The contribution of T cells in severe malaria pathogenesis has been described. Here, we provide evidence for the potential role of angiotensin II (Ang II) in modulating splenic T cell responses in a rodent model of cerebral malaria. T cell activation induced by infection, determined by 3 to 4-fold enhancement in CD69 expression, was reduced to control levels when mice were treated with 20 mg/kg losartan (IC???=?0.966 mg/kg/d), an AT? receptor antagonist, or captopril (IC???=?1.940 mg/kg/d), an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Moreover, the production of interferon-? and interleukin-17 by CD4+ T cells diminished 67% and 70%, respectively, by both treatments. Losartan reduced perforin expression in CD8+ T cells by 33% while captopril completely blocked it. The upregulation in chemokine receptor expression (CCR2 and CCR5) observed during infection was abolished and CD11a expression was partially reduced when mice were treated with drugs. T cells activated by Plasmodium berghei ANKA antigens showed 6-fold enhance in AT? levels in comparison with naive cells. The upregulation of AT? expression was reduced by losartan (80%) but not by captopril. Our results suggest that the AT?/Ang II axis has a role in the establishment of an efficient T cell response in the spleen and therefore could participate in a misbalanced parasite-induced T cell immune response during P. berghei ANKA infection.
Project description:CD8+ T-cell response is critical in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria during blood-stage. Our group and other have been shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) and its receptor AT1 (AT1R), a key effector axis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), have immune regulatory effects on T cells. Previously, we showed that inhibition of AT1R signaling protects mice against the lethal disease induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection However, most of the Ang II/AT1R actions were characterized by using only pharmacological approaches, the effects of which may not always be due to a specific receptor blockade. In addition, the mechanisms of action of the AT1R in inducing the pathogenic activity of Plasmodium-specific CD8+ T cells during blood-stage were not determined. Here, we examined how angiotensin II/AT1R axis promotes the harmful response of Plasmodium-specific CD8+ T-cell during blood-stage by using genetic and pharmacological approaches. We evaluated the response of wild-type (WT) and AT1R-/-Plasmodium-specific CD8+ T cells in mice infected with a transgenic PbA lineage expressing ovalbumin; and in parallel infected mice receiving WT Plasmodium-specific CD8+ T cells were treated with losartan (AT1R antagonist) or captopril (ACE inhibitor). Both, AT1R-/- OT-I cells and WT OT-I cells from losartan- or captopril-treated mice showed lower expansion, reduced IL-2 production and IL-2R? expression, lower activation (lower expression of CD69, CD44 and CD160) and lower exhaustion profiles. AT1R-/- OT-I cells also exhibit lower expression of the integrin LFA-1 and the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3, known to play a key role in the development of cerebral malaria. Moreover, AT1R-/- OT-I cells produce lower amounts of IFN-? and TNF-? and show lower degranulation upon restimulation. In conclusion, our results show the pivotal mechanisms of AT1R-induced harmful phenotype of Plasmodium-specific CD8+ T cells during blood-stage malaria.
Project description:Renin-angiotensin (RAS) system activation is associated with an increased risk of sudden death. Previously, we used cardiac-restricted angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) overexpression to construct a mouse model of RAS activation. These ACE 8/8 mice die prematurely and abruptly. Here, we have investigated cardiac electrophysiological abnormalities that may contribute to early mortality in this model. In ACE 8/8 mice, surface ECG voltages are reduced. Intracardiac electrograms showed atrial and ventricular potential amplitudes of 11% and 24% compared with matched wild-type (WT) controls. The atrioventricular (AV), atrio-Hisian (AH), and Hisian-ventricular (HV) intervals were prolonged 2.8-, 2.6-, and 3.9-fold, respectively, in ACE 8/8 vs. WT mice. Various degrees of AV nodal block were present only in ACE 8/8 mice. Intracardiac electrophysiology studies demonstrated that WT and heterozygote (HZ) mice were noninducible, whereas 83% of ACE 8/8 mice demonstrated ventricular tachycardia with burst pacing. Atrial connexin 40 (Cx40) and connexin 43 (Cx43) protein levels, ventricular Cx43 protein level, atrial and ventricular Cx40 mRNA abundances, ventricular Cx43 mRNA abundance, and atrial and ventricular cardiac Na(+) channel (Scn5a) mRNA abundances were reduced in ACE 8/8 compared with WT mice. ACE 8/8 mice demonstrated ventricular Cx43 dephosphorylation. Atrial and ventricular L-type Ca(2+) channel, Kv4.2 K(+) channel alpha-subunit, and Cx45 mRNA abundances and the peak ventricular Na(+) current did not differ between the groups. In isolated heart preparations, a connexin blocker, 1-heptanol (0.5 mM), produced an electrophysiological phenotype similar to that seen in ACE 8/8 mice. Therefore, cardiac-specific ACE overexpression resulted in changes in connexins consistent with the phenotype of low-voltage electrical activity, conduction defects, and induced ventricular arrhythmia. These results may help explain the increased risk of arrhythmia in states of RAS activation such as heart failure.
Project description:Microarray gene expression profiling of aorta genes of APOE-deficient mice receiving atherosclerosis treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril. Hypercholesterolemic APOE-deficient mice were used as a standard model of atherosclerosis to study gene expression changes during atherosclerosis treatment with the ACE inhibitor captopril. Microarray analysis was performed of whole aortas isolated from captopril-treated APOE-deficient mice relative to untreated APOE-deficient mice with overt atherosclerosis, and nontransgenic control mice. Microarray gene expression profiling revealed that captopril-mediated atherosclerosis prevention involved inhibition of aorta-infiltrating immune cells such as pro-atherogenic T lymphocytes and macrophages. Overall design: Microarray gene expression profiling was performed of whole aortas isolated from APOE-deficient mice with atherosclerosis relative to captopril-treated APOE-deficient mice, and nontransgenic control mice. Three study groups were analyzed, i.e. 8-months-old untreated APOE-deficient mice with overt atherosclerosis, age-matched APOE-deficient mice treated for 7 months with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril (20 mg/kg in drinking water), and nontransgenic control C57BL/6J mice. Two biological replicates were made of each group, and total RNA of three aortas was pooled for one gene chip.
Project description:Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) systemically or locally collaborates with tissue homeostasis, growth and development, which has been extensively studied for its pharmacological implications. This study was primarily aimed at finding and characterizing local RAS in rat parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands. It was also hypothesized that vasoactive drugs could affect the expression of RAS targets, as well as saliva flow and its composition. Therefore, another objective of this study was to compare the effects of losartan (angiotensin II receptor blocker) and isoproterenol (?-adrenergic receptor agonist). Forty-one Wistar rats were divided into three groups and administered a daily intraperitoneal dose of saline, losartan or isoproterenol solutions for one week. The following RAS targets were studied using qPCR: renin (REN), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE-2, elastase-2 (ELA-2), AT1-a and MAS receptors, using RPL-13 as a reference gene. Morphology of glands was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using REN, ACE, ACE-2, AT1, AT2 and MAS antibodies. The volume and total protein content of saliva were measured. Our results revealed that ACE, ACE-2, AT1-a, AT2 and MAS receptors were expressed in all salivary gland samples, but REN and ELA-2 were absent. Losartan decreased mRNA expression of RAS targets in parotid (MAS) and submandibular glands (ACE and both AT receptors), without affecting morphological alterations, and significantly decreased saliva and total protein secretions. Isoproterenol treatment affected gene expression profiles in parotid (ACE, ACE-2, AT1-a, MAS, AGT), and submandibular (ACE, AT2, AGT) glands, thus promoting acinar hypertrophy in serous acini, without significant changes in salivary flow or total protein content. These drugs affected mainly acini, followed by duct systems and myoepithelial cells, whereas blood vessels were not affected. In conclusion, there is a local RAS in major rat salivary glands and losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, affected not only the RAS-target gene expression but also decreased salivary flow and total protein content.
Project description:Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P < 0.05 versus SHR) but did not influence altered cardiac RAS expression. Increased blood pressure in SHR (149 ± 2 in SHR versus 109 ± 2 mmHg in Wistar; P < 0.05) was associated with a lower renal expressions of renin, Agtr1a and Mas and with an increase in ACE2. Continuous losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05 versus SHR), however, only renal renin and ACE2 were significantly up-regulated (for both P < 0.05 versus SHR). Conclusively, prevention of hypertension and LV hypertrophy development by losartan was unrelated to cardiac or renal expression of Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multi-organ damage. Neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE) is one of the most common manifestations of human SLE, often causing depression. Interferon-? (IFN?) is a central mediator in disease pathogenesis. Administration of IFN? to patients with chronic viral infections or cancers causes depressive symptoms. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is part of the kallikrein-kinin/renin-angiotensin (KKS/RAS) system that regulates many physiological processes, including inflammation, and brain functions. It is known that ACE degrades bradykinin (BK) into inactive peptides. We have previously shown in an in vitro model of mouse bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that captopril (a centrally acting ACE inhibitor-ACEi) suppressed Type I IFN responsive gene (IRG) expression. In this report, we used the MRL/lpr lupus-prone mouse model, an established model to study NPSLE, to determine the in vivo effects of captopril on Type I IFN and associated immune responses in the periphery and brain and effects on behavior. Administering captopril to MRL/lpr mice decreased expression of IRGs in brain, spleen and kidney, decreased circulating and tissue IFN? levels, decreased microglial activation (IBA-1 expression) and reduced depressive-like behavior. Serotonin levels that are decreased in depression were increased by captopril treatment. Captopril also reduced autoantibody levels in plasma and immune complex deposition in kidney and brain. Thus, ACEi's may have potential for therapeutic use for systemic and NPSLE.
Project description:The initiation or progression of periodontitis might involve a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in periodontal tissue. The aim of this study was to further characterize the local RAS in human and rat periodontal tissues between healthy and periodontally-affected tissue. Components of the RAS were investigated using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments involving both human and Wistar rat periodontium. Although not upregulated when challenged with P. gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide, human gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts expressed RAS components. Likewise, healthy and inflamed human gingiva expressed RAS components, some of which were shown to be functional, yet no differences in expression were found between healthy and diseased gingiva. However, in inflamed tissue the immunoreactivity was greater for the AT1R compared to AT2R in fibroblasts. When compared to healthy tissue, ACE activity was increased in human gingiva from volunteers with gingivitis. Human-gingiva homogenates generated Ang II, Ang 1-9 and Ang 1-7 when incubated with precursors. In gingiva homogenates, Ang II formation from Ang I was nearly abolished only when captopril and chymostatin were combined. Ang 1-7 formation was significantly greater when human gingiva homogenates were incubated with chymostatin alone compared to incubation without any inhibitor, only captopril, or captopril and chymostatin. In rat gingiva, RAS components were also found; their expression was not different between healthy and experimentally induced periodontitis (EP) groups. However, renin inhibition (aliskiren) and an AT1R antagonist (losartan) significantly blocked EP-alveolar-bone loss in rats. Collectively, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that a local RAS system is not only present but is also functional in both human and rat periodontal tissue. Furthermore, blocking AT1R and renin can significantly prevent periodontal bone loss induced by EP in rats.
Project description:1. The concept that angiotensin II exerts pro-angiogenic activity is not universally accepted. We evaluated whether inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) would influence reparative angiogenesis in a murine model of limb ischaemia. 2. Perfusion recovery following surgical removal of the left femoral artery was analysed by laser Doppler flowmetry in mice given the ACE inhibitor ramipril (1 mg kg(-1) per day), the AT(1) antagonist losartan (15 mg kg(-1) per day), or vehicle. Muscular capillarity was examined at necroscopy. Ramipril-induced effects were also studied under combined blockade of kinin B(1) and B(2) receptors. Furthermore, the effects of ischaemia on AT(1) gene expression and ACE activity were determined. 3. In untreated mice, muscular AT(1a) gene expression was transiently decreased early after induction of limb ischaemia, whereas AT(1b) mRNA was up-regulated. ACE activity was reduced in ischaemic muscles at 1 and 3 days. Gene expression of AT(1) isoforms as well as ACE activity returned to basal values by day 14. Spontaneous neovascularization allowed for complete perfusion recovery of the ischaemic limb after 21 days. 4. Reparative angiogenesis was negatively influenced by either ramipril (P<0.02) or losartan (P<0.01), leading to delayed and impaired post-ischaemic recovery (50 - 70% less compared with controls). Ramipril-induced effects remained unaltered under kinin receptor blockade. 5. The present study indicates that (a) expression of angiotensin II AT(1) receptors and ACE activity are modulated by ischaemia, (b) ACE-inhibition or AT(1) antagonism impairs reparative angiogenesis, and (c) intact AT(1) receptor signalling is essential for post-ischaemic recovery. These results provide new insights into the role of the RAS in vascular biology and suggest cautionary use of ACE inhibitors and AT(1) antagonists in patients at risk for developing peripheral ischaemia.