Real-time FDG PET guidance during biopsies and radiofrequency ablation using multimodality fusion with electromagnetic navigation.
ABSTRACT: To assess the feasibility of combined electromagnetic device tracking and computed tomography (CT)/ultrasonography (US)/fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) fusion for real-time feedback during percutaneous and intraoperative biopsies and hepatic radiofrequency (RF) ablation.In this HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved prospective study with written informed consent, 25 patients (17 men, eight women) underwent 33 percutaneous and three intraoperative biopsies of 36 FDG-avid targets between November 2007 and August 2010. One patient underwent biopsy and RF ablation of an FDG-avid hepatic focus. Targets demonstrated heterogeneous FDG uptake or were not well seen or were totally inapparent at conventional imaging. Preprocedural FDG PET scans were rigidly registered through a semiautomatic method to intraprocedural CT scans. Coaxial biopsy needle introducer tips and RF ablation electrode guider needle tips containing electromagnetic sensor coils were spatially tracked through an electromagnetic field generator. Real-time US scans were registered through a fiducial-based method, allowing US scans to be fused with intraprocedural CT and preacquired FDG PET scans. A visual display of US/CT image fusion with overlaid coregistered FDG PET targets was used for guidance; navigation software enabled real-time biopsy needle and needle electrode navigation and feedback.Successful fusion of real-time US to coregistered CT and FDG PET scans was achieved in all patients. Thirty-one of 36 biopsies were diagnostic (malignancy in 18 cases, benign processes in 13 cases). RF ablation resulted in resolution of targeted FDG avidity, with no local treatment failure during short follow-up (56 days).Combined electromagnetic device tracking and image fusion with real-time feedback may facilitate biopsies and ablations of focal FDG PET abnormalities that would be challenging with conventional image guidance.
Project description:PURPOSE:To show utility, accuracy, and clinical outcomes of electromagnetic tracking and multimodality image fusion for guidance of biopsy and radiofrequency (RF) ablation procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A combination of conventional image guidance (ultrasound[US]/computed tomography [CT]) and a research navigation system was used in 40 patients undergoing biopsy or RF ablation to assist in target localization and needle and electrode placement. The navigation system displays electromagnetically tracked needles and US images relative to a preprocedural CT scan. Additional images (prior positron emission tomography [PET] or magnetic resonance [MR] imaging) can be fused with CT as needed. Needle aiming with and without tracking were compared, the utility of navigation for each procedure was assessed, the system's off-target tracking error for two different registration methods was evaluated, and setup time was recorded. RESULTS:The tracking error could be evaluated in 35 of 40 patients. A basic tracking error of 3.8 mm ± 2.3 was shown using skin fiducial markers for registration. The error improved to 2.7 mm ± 1.6 when using prior internal needle positions as additional fiducial markers. Real-time fusion of US with CT and registration with prior PET and MR imaging were successful and provided clinically relevant guidance information, enabling 19 of the 40 procedures. CONCLUSIONS:The spatial accuracy of the navigation system is sufficient to display clinically relevant image guidance information during biopsy and RF ablation. Breath holding and respiratory gating are effective in minimizing the error associated with tissue motion. In 48% of cases, the navigation system provided information crucial for successful execution of the procedure. Fusion of real-time US with CT or prior diagnostic images may enable procedures that are not feasible with standard, single-modality image guidance.
Project description:[18F]-FDG-PET/CT ([18F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)) is increasingly used as a diagnostic tool in suspected infectious or inflammatory conditions. Studies on the value of FDG-PET/CT in children are scarce. This study assesses the role of FDG-PET/CT in suspected infection or inflammation in children. In this multicenter cohort study, 64 scans in 59 children with suspected infection or inflammation were selected from 452 pediatric FDG-PET/CT scans, performed in five hospitals between January 2016 and August 2017. Main outcomes were diagnostic information provided by FDG-PET/CT for diagnostic scans and impact on clinical management for follow-up scans. Of these 64 scans, 50 were performed for primary diagnosis and 14 to monitor disease activity. Of the positive diagnostic scans, 23/27 (85%) contributed to establishing a diagnosis. Of the negative diagnostic scans, 8/21 (38%) contributed to the final diagnosis by narrowing the differential or by providing information on the disease manifestation. In all follow-up scans, FDG-PET/CT results guided management decisions. CRP was significantly higher in positive scans than in negative scans (p = 0.004). In 6% of diagnostic scans, relevant incidental findings were identified. In conclusion, FDG-PET/CT performed in children with suspected infection or inflammation resulted in information that contributed to the final diagnosis or helped to guide management decisions in the majority of cases. Prospective studies assessing the impact of FDG-PET/CT results on diagnosis and patient management using a structured diagnostic protocol are feasible and necessary.
Project description:We hypothesised that in esophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas combining molecular predictive biomarkers with FDG-PET would optimise response prediction. Changes in FDG uptake in tumours meaured by PET scans after 14 days of chemotherapy define metabolic responders and non-responders. However while <5% of metabolic non-responders will go onto have a response to the full 9-12 week chemotherapy protocol providing a high negative predictive value for FDG-PET, the positive predictive value of metabolic response is more limited. Only 50% of those patients that have a metabolic response determined by FDG PET at day 14 will go on to subsequently have a response to the full 9-12 week chemotherapy protocol . We used global gene expression profiling to identify molecular biomarkers that when combined with FDG-PET would improve predictive accuracy, in particular we aimed to identify molecular biomarkers that could sub-classify FDG PET defined metabolic responders into those that did and did not subsequently go on to have a radiological response and hence clinical benefit from the full chemotherapy protocol. Patients with stage IB-IV esophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas(n=28) received platinum combination chemotherapy .FDG-PET CT scans were performed at baseline and day 14 and expression profiling (Affymetrix ST1.0 Exon Genechips) on baseline tumour biopsies. 14 patients were classified as FDG-PET metabolic responders and gene expression was analysed in these tumour specimens to determine differences between those that did subsequently go on to have a radiological response (n=10) or did not have a radiological response (n=4) to the full 9-12 week chemotherapy protocol. A tissue microarray(n=154 esophagogastric adenocarcinomas who underwent surgery+/-neoadjuvant chemotherapy)was used with immunohistochemistry for qualification of gene expression profiling results. Radiological response was assessed after 3or4 cycles of chemotherapy by RECISTv1.1.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the spatial accuracy of electromagnetic needle tracking and demonstrate the feasibility of ultrasonography (US)-computed tomography (CT) fusion during CT- and US-guided biopsy and radiofrequency ablation procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The authors performed a 20-patient clinical trial to investigate electromagnetic needle tracking during interventional procedures. The study was approved by the institutional investigational review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Needles were positioned by using CT and US guidance. A commercial electromagnetic tracking device was used in combination with prototype internally tracked needles and custom software to record needle positions relative to previously obtained CT scans. Position tracking data were acquired to evaluate the tracking error, defined as the difference between tracked needle position and reference standard needle position on verification CT scans. Registration between tracking space and image space was obtained by using reference markers attached to the skin ("fiducials"), and different registration methods were compared. The US transducer was tracked to demonstrate the potential use of real-time US-CT fusion for imaging guidance. RESULTS:One patient was excluded from analysis because he was unable to follow breathing instructions during the acquisition of CT scans. Nineteen of the 20 patients were evaluable, demonstrating a basic tracking error of 5.8 mm +/- 2.6, which improved to 3.5 mm +/- 1.9 with use of nonrigid registrations that used previous internal needle positions as additional fiducials. Fusion of tracked US with CT was successful. Patient motion and distortion of the tracking system by the CT table and gantry were identified as sources of error. CONCLUSIONS:The demonstrated spatial tracking accuracy is sufficient to display clinically relevant preprocedural imaging information during needle-based procedures. Virtual needles displayed within preprocedural images may be helpful for clandestine targets such as arterial phase enhancing liver lesions or during thermal ablations when obscuring gas is released. Electromagnetic tracking may help improve imaging guidance for interventional procedures and warrants further investigation, especially for procedures in which the outcomes are dependent on accuracy.
Project description:11C-methionine (MET) has recently emerged as an accurate marker of tumor burden and disease activity in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This dual-center study aimed at further corroboration of the superiority of MET as positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for staging and re-staging MM, as compared to 18F-2`-deoxy-2`-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). 78 patients with a history of solitary plasmacytoma (n=4), smoldering MM (SMM, n=5), and symptomatic MM (n=69) underwent both MET- and FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) at the University Centers of Würzburg, Germany and Navarra, Spain. Scans were compared on a patient and on a lesion basis. Inter-reader agreement was also evaluated. In 2 patients, tumor biopsies for verification of discordant imaging results were available. MET-PET detected focal lesions (FL) in 59/78 subjects (75.6%), whereas FDG-PET/CT showed lesions in only 47 patients (60.3%; p<0.01), accordingly disease activity would have been missed in 12 patients. Directed biopsies of discordant results confirmed MET-PET/CT results in both cases. MET depicted more FL in 44 patients (56.4%; p<0.01), whereas in two patients (2/78), FDG proved superior. In the remainder (41.0%, 32/78), both tracers yielded comparable results. Inter-reader agreement for MET was higher than for FDG (? = 0.82 vs ? = 0.72). This study demonstrates higher sensitivity of MET in comparison to standard FDG to detect intra- and extramedullary MM including histologic evidence of FDG-negative, viable disease exclusively detectable by MET-PET/CT. MET holds the potential to replace FDG as functional imaging standard for staging and re-staging of MM.
Project description:The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services coverage includes 3 posttherapy 18F-FDG PET/CT scans per patient and per tumor type. Any additional follow-up 18F-FDG PET/CT scans will be reimbursed at the discretion of a local Medicare administrator, if deemed medically necessary. This study aimed to investigate common clinical indications for performing a fourth or additional follow-up 18F-FDG PET/CT scans that could affect the management of patients. Methods: This was a retrospective institutional review of 433 oncology patients (203 men; mean age, 55 y), including a total of 1,659 fourth or subsequent follow-up PET/CT scans after completion of primary treatment. Twelve indications for performing a fourth or subsequent follow-up PET/CT scan were determined, and the impact of each of the 12 indications on patients' management was evaluated. Results: The primary tumors were breast cancer (92 patients, 426 scans), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (77 patients, 208 scans), Hodgkin disease (41 patients, 182 scans), colorectal cancer (70 patients, 286 scans), melanoma (69 patients, 271 scans), and lung cancer (84 patients, 286 scans). The indications were categorized in 4 groups: PET/CT for diagnosis of tumor recurrence (303/1,659, 18.3%), PET/CT before starting therapy for tumor recurrence (64/1,659, 3.9%), PET/CT to assess therapy response for tumor recurrence (507/1,659, 30.6%), and follow-up PET/CT after completion of treatment for tumor recurrence (785/1,659, 47.3%). Overall, fourth and subsequent follow-up 18F-FDG PET/CT scans resulted in change in management in 31.6% of the scans (356 of 1,128) when the scans were obtained for medical necessities (indications 1-11), and in 5.6% of the scans (30/531) when the scans were obtained without any medical necessity (indication 12). Conclusion: The fourth and subsequent PET/CT scans obtained after completion of primary treatment led to a change in management in 31.6% of the scans when acquired for appropriate clinical reasons. Performing follow-up PET/CT without appropriate medical reason had a low impact on patients' management and should be avoided.
Project description:This study aimed to explore the correlation between imaging patterns and clinical features in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) who simultaneously underwent 18F-FDG, 11C-Methionine, and 68Ga-Pentixafor positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). We retrieved and analyzed clinical characteristics and PET imaging data of 10 patients with SMM. We found a significant correlation between bone marrow (BM) plasma cell (PC) infiltration and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean) of lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 on 11C-Methionine PET/CT scans (r = 0.676, p = 0.031) and 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT scans (r = 0.839, p = 0.002). However, there was no significant correlation between BM involvement and SUVmean of lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 on 18F-FDG PET/CT scans (r = 0.558, p = 0.093). Similarly, mean target-to-background ratios (TBRmean) of lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 also correlated with bone marrow plasma cell (BMPC) infiltration in 11C-Methionine PET/CT (r = 0.789, p = 0.007) and 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT (r = 0.724, p = 0.018) PET/CT. In contrast, we did not observe a significant correlation between BMPC infiltration rate and TBRmean in 18F-FDG PET/CT (r = 0.355, p = 0.313). Additionally, on 11C-Methionine PET/CT scans, we found a significant correlation between BMPC infiltration and TBRmax of lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 (r = 0.642, p = 0.045). In conclusion, 11C-Methionine and 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT demonstrate higher sensitivity than 18F-FDG PET/CT in detecting BM involvement in SMM.
Project description:Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world, the most common type of which is non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Computed tomography (CT) is required for patients with NSCLC, but often involves diagnostic issues and large intra- and interobserver variability. The anatomic data obtained using CT can be supplemented by the metabolic data obtained using fluorodeoxyglucose F 18 (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET); therefore, the use of FDG-PET/CT for staging NSCLC is recommended, as it provides more accuracy than either modality alone. Furthermore, FDG-PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides useful information on metabolic activity and tumor cellularity, and has become increasingly popular. A number of studies have described FDG-PET/MRI as having a high diagnostic performance in NSCLC staging. Therefore, multidimensional functional imaging using FDG-PET/MRI is promising for evaluating the activity of the intratumoral environment. Radiomics is the quantitative extraction of imaging features from medical scans. The chief advantages of FDG-PET/CT radiomics are the ability to capture information beyond the capabilities of the human eye, non-invasiveness, the (virtually) real-time response, and full-field analysis of the lesion. This review summarizes the recent advances in FDG-PET imaging within the field of clinical oncology in NSCLC, with a focus on surgery and prognostication, and investigates the site-specific strengths and limitations of FDG-PET/CT. Overall, the goal of treatment for NSCLC is to provide the best opportunity for long-term survival; therefore, FDG-PET/CT is expected to play an increasingly important role in deciding the appropriate treatment for such patients.
Project description:Although stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an established treatment option for early-stage lung cancer, there are no guidelines for reassessing patients for local treatment failure or intrathoracic recurrence after treatment. This study reports the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT scanning when used to evaluate patients after SBRT.Charts were reviewed of all patients who received SBRT and a subsequent FDG PET-CT scan at a university hospital over a 5-year period. Pretreatment and 3-month posttreatment tumor characteristics on PET-CT scan and outcome data (adverse events from SBRT, need for repeat biopsy, rate of local treatment failure and recurrent disease, and all-cause mortality) were recorded.Eighty-eight patients were included in the study. Fourteen percent of patients (12 of 88) had positive 3-month PET scans. Of the positive results, 67% (eight of 12) were true positives. Eighty-six percent (76 of 88 patients) had negative 3-month FDG PET-CT scans, with 89% (68 of 76) true negatives. FDG PET-CT scan performed 3 months after SBRT for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) had a sensitivity of 50% (95% CI, 0.26-0.75), a specificity of 94% (95% CI, 0.89-1.0), a positive predictive value of 67% (95% CI, 0.4-0.93), and a negative predictive value of 89% (95% CI, 0.83- 0.96).FDG PET-CT scan 3 months after treatment of NSCLC with SBRT was a specific but insensitive test for the detection of recurrence or treatment failure. Serial CT scans should be used for early surveillance following SBRT, whereas FDG PET-CT scans should be reserved to define suspected metastatic disease or to evaluate new abnormalities on CT scan, or for possible reassessment later in the follow-up period after radiation-related inflammation subsides.
Project description:The feasibility of longitudinal metastatic biopsies for gene expression profiling in breast cancer is unexplored. Dynamic changes in gene expression can potentially predict efficacy of targeted cancer drugs. Patients enrolled in a phase III trial of metastatic breast cancer with sunitinib combined with docetaxel (SU+DOC) versus docetaxel alone (DOC) were offered to participate in a translational substudy comprising longitudinal fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) and positron emission imaging before (T1) and two weeks after start of treatment (T2). Aspirated tumor material was used for microarray analysis, and treatment-induced changes (T2 versus T1) in gene expression and standardized uptake values were investigated. Twenty-one patients were included in the docetaxel ± sunitinib trial at Karolinska and 18 of them agreed to participate in the substudy. Of the 18 women enrolled, 8 were randomly assigned to SU+DOC and 10 to DOC. Metastatic FNAB were carried out in 17 of the 18 patients at both time points with no complications reported. Representative tumor material, sufficient for RNA extraction was obtained in 15 patients at T1 and 14 patients at T2. Matched samples both at T1 and T2 were obtained for 14 subjects, 7 in each arm. The main objective was to determine whether gene expression profiling is feasible using sequential, intra-patient FNAB. Secondary objectives were to identify potential biomarkers of early response by gene expression and/or functional imaging and to explore drug action in vivo by changes in gene expression. Overall design: A Karolinska substudy of the docetaxel ± sunitinib phase III clinical trial utilising sequential metastatic fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) and 18-F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT). In brief, the randomized docetaxel ± sunitinib trial compared sunitinib combined with docetaxel (SU+DOC) versus docetaxel alone (DOC), as first line therapy in patients with HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer. Patients in the exploratory substudy were subjected to baseline FDG PET/CT assessment, followed by FNAB of one tumor lesion prior to start of treatment (Time point T1). FDG PET/CT and FNAB were repeated at Day 14 ± 1 (Time point T2) when sunitinib has achieved steady state.