Targeting the GD3 acetylation pathway selectively induces apoptosis in glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT: The expression of ganglioside GD3, which plays crucial roles in normal brain development, decreases in adults but is upregulated in neoplastic cells, where it regulates tumor invasion and survival. Normally a buildup of GD3 induces apoptosis, but this does not occur in gliomas due to formation of 9-O-acetyl GD3 by the addition of an acetyl group to the terminal sialic acid of GD3; this renders GD3 unable to induce apoptosis. Using human biopsy-derived glioblastoma cell cultures, we have carried out a series of molecular manipulations targeting GD3 acetylation pathways. Using immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, western blotting, and transwell assays, we have shown the existence of a critical ratio between GD3 and 9-O-acetyl GD3, which promotes tumor survival. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time in primary glioblastoma that cleaving the acetyl group restores GD3, resulting in a reduction in tumor cell viability while normal astrocytes remain unaffected. Additionally, we have shown that glioblastoma viability is reduced due to the induction of mitochondrially mediated apoptosis and that this occurs after mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Three methods of cleaving the acetyl group using hemagglutinin esterase were investigated, and we have shown that the baculovirus vector transduces glioma cells as well as normal astroctyes with a relatively high efficacy. A recombinant baculovirus containing hemagglutinin esterase could be developed for the clinic as an adjuvant therapy for glioma.
Project description:We used Casd1-deficient mice to confirm that this enzyme is responsible for 9-O-acetylation of sialic acids in vivo. We observed a complete loss of 9-O-acetylation of sialic acid on the surface of myeloid, erythroid and CD4+ T cells in Casd1-deficient mice. Although 9-O-acetylation of sialic acids on multiple hematopoietic lineages was lost, there were no obvious defects in hematopoiesis. Interestingly, erythrocytes from Casd1-deficient mice also lost reactivity to TER-119, a rat monoclonal antibody that is widely used to mark the murine erythroid lineage. The sialic acid glyco-epitope recognized by TER-119 on erythrocytes was sensitive to the sialic acid O-acetyl esterase activity of the hemagglutinin-esterase from bovine coronavirus but not to the corresponding enzyme from the influenza C virus. During erythrocyte development, TER-119+ Ery-A and Ery-B cells could be stained by catalytically inactive bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase but not by the inactive influenza C hemagglutinin-esterase, while TER-119+ Ery-C cells and mature erythrocytes were recognized by both virolectins. Although the structure of the sialoglycoconjugate recognized by TER-119 was not chemically demonstrated, its selective binding to virolectins suggests that it may be comprised of a 7,9-di-O-acetyl form of sialic acid. As erythrocytes mature, the surfaces of Ery-C cells and mature erythrocytes also acquire an additional distinct CASD1-dependent 9-O-acetyl sialic acid moiety that can be recognized by virolectins from both influenza C and bovine coronavirus.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumor, presents a dismal prognosis. MicroRNAs play a critical role in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of cancer; however, the potential biological role of miRNAs in glioblastoma multiforme remains largely unknown. In our study, we found that microRNA-96 is upregulated in glioma tissues than in normal human brains. Transfection of microRNA-96 mimics into glioma cells significantly decreases apoptosis by suppressing PDCD4, a well-known tumor suppressor that is involved in apoptosis. In contrast, knockdown of microRNA-96 enhanced apoptosis. In vivo, microRNA-96 overexpression inhibits the apoptosis and increases tumor growth. These data suggest that microRNA-96 is a potential molecular target for glioma treatment.
Project description:Background:Acetylated 4-O-(methyl)glucuronoxylan (GX) is the main hemicellulose in deciduous hardwood, and comprises a ?-(1?4)-linked xylopyranosyl (Xylp) backbone substituted by both acetyl groups and ?-(1?2)-linked 4-O-methylglucopyranosyluronic acid (MeGlcpA). Whereas enzymes that target singly acetylated Xylp or doubly 2,3-O-acetyl-Xylp have been well characterized, those targeting (2-O-MeGlcpA)3-O-acetyl-Xylp structures in glucuronoxylan have remained elusive. Results:An unclassified carbohydrate esterase (FjoAcXE) was identified as a protein of unknown function from a polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) otherwise comprising carbohydrate-active enzyme families known to target xylan. FjoAcXE was shown to efficiently release acetyl groups from internal (2-O-MeGlcpA)3-O-acetyl-Xylp structures, an activity that has been sought after but lacking in known carbohydrate esterases. FjoAcXE action boosted the activity of ?-glucuronidases from families GH67 and GH115 by five and nine times, respectively. Moreover, FjoAcXE activity was not only restricted to GX, but also deacetylated (3-O-Araf)2-O-acetyl-Xylp of feruloylated xylooligomers, confirming the broad substrate range of this new carbohydrate esterase. Conclusion:This study reports the discovery and characterization of the novel carbohydrate esterase, FjoAcXE. In addition to cleaving singly acetylated Xylp, and doubly 2,3-O-acetyl-Xylp, FjoAcXE efficiently cleaves internal 3-O-acetyl-Xylp linkages in (2-O-MeGlcpA)3-O-acetyl-Xylp residues along with densely substituted and branched xylooligomers; activities that until now were missing from the arsenal of enzymes required for xylan conversion.
Project description:Novel treatments for glioblastoma, the most common malignant primary brain tumor, are urgently required. Type I interferons (IFN) are natural cytokines primarily involved in the defense against viral infections, which may also serve a role in the control of cancer, notably in the suppression of the cancer stem cell phenotype. TG02 is a novel orally available cyclin-dependent kinase 9 inhibitor which induces glioma cell apoptosis without profound caspase activation, which is currently explored in early clinical trials in newly diagnosed and recurrent glioblastoma. In the present study, human glioma-initiating cell line models were used to explore whether IFN-? modulates the anti-glioma activity of TG02. The present study employed immunoblotting to assess protein levels, several viability assays and gene silencing strategies to assess gene function. Pre-exposure to IFN-? sensitized human glioma models to a subsequent exposure to TG02. Combination treatment was associated with increased DEVD-amc cleaving caspase activity that was blocked by the anti-apoptotic protein, BCL2. However, BCL2 did not protect from the synergistic effects of IFN and TG02 on glioma cell growth. Furthermore, although IFN strongly induced pro-apoptotic XIAP-associated factor (XAF) expression, disrupting XAF expression did not abrogate the synergy with TG02. Consistent with that, caspase 3 gene silencing did not abrogate the effects of TG02 or IFN-? alone or in combination. Finally, it was observed that IFN-? may indeed modulate the effects of TG02 upstream in the signaling cascade since inhibition of RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, a direct readout of the pharmacodynamic activity of TG02, was facilitated when glioma cells were pre-exposed to IFN-?. In summary, these data suggest that type I IFN may be combined with TG02 to limit glioblastoma growth, but that the well characterized effects of IFN and TG02 on apoptotic signaling are dispensable for synergistic tumor growth inhibition. Instead, exploring how IFN signaling primes glioma cells for TG02-mediated direct target inhibition may help to design novel and effective pharmacological approaches to glioblastoma.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Despite concerted efforts to improve current therapies and develop novel clinical approaches, patient survival remains poor. As such, increasing attention has focused on developing new therapeutic strategies that specifically target the apoptotic pathway in order to improve treatment responses. Recently, nutlins, small-molecule antagonists of MDM2, have been developed to inhibit p53-MDM2 interaction and activate p53 signaling in cancer cells. Glioma cell lines and primary cultured glioblastoma cells were treated with nutlin-3a. Nutlin-3a induced p53-dependent G1- and G2-M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in glioma cell lines with normal TP53 status. In addition, nutlin-arrested glioma cells show morphological features of senescence and persistent induction of p21 protein. Furthermore, senescence induced by nutlin-3a might be depending on mTOR pathway activity. In wild-type TP53 primary cultured cells, exposure to nutlin-3a resulted in variable degrees of apoptosis as well as cellular features of senescence. Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis and senescence were firmly dependent on the presence of functional p53, as revealed by the fact that glioblastoma cells with knockdown p53 with specific siRNA, or cells with mutated or functionally impaired p53 pathway, were completely insensitive to the drug. Finally, we also found that nutlin-3a increased response of glioma cells to radiation therapy. The results provide a basis for the rational use of MDM2 antagonists as a novel treatment option for glioblastoma patients.
Project description:Glioblastoma patients are immunosuppressed, yet glioblastomas are highly infiltrated by monocytes/macrophages. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC; immunosuppressive myeloid cells including monocytes) have been identified in other cancers and correlate with tumor burden. We hypothesized that glioblastoma exposure causes normal monocytes to assume an MDSC-like phenotype and that MDSC are increased in glioblastoma patients. Healthy donor human CD14(+) monocytes were cultured with human glioblastoma cell lines. Controls were cultured alone or with normal human astrocytes. After 48 hours, glioblastoma-conditioned monocytes (GCM) were purified using magnetic beads. GCM cytokine and costimulatory molecular expression, phagocytic ability, and ability to induce apoptosis in activated lymphocytes were assessed. The frequency of MDSC was assessed by flow cytometry in glioma patients' blood and in GCM in vitro. As predicted, GCM have immunosuppressive, MDSC-like features, including reduced CD14 (but not CD11b) expression, increased immunosuppressive interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-beta, and B7-H1 expression, decreased phagocytic ability, and increased ability to induce apoptosis in activated lymphocytes. Direct contact between monocytes and glioblastoma cells is necessary for complete induction of these effects. In keeping with our hypothesis, glioblastoma patients have increased circulating MDSC compared with normal donors and MDSC are increased in glioma-conditioned monocytes in vitro. To our knowledge, this has not been reported previously. Although further study is needed to directly characterize their origin and function in glioblastoma patients, these results suggest that MDSC may be an important contributor to systemic immunosuppression and can be modeled in vitro by GCM.
Project description:There have been a few studies on the ganglioside expression in human glioma tissues. However, the role of these gangliosides such as GD3 and GD2 has not been well understood. In this study we employed a genetically engineered mouse model of glioma to clarify the functions of GD3 in gliomas. Forced expression of platelet-derived growth factor B in cultured astrocytes derived from p53-deficient mice resulted in the expression of GD3 and GD2. GD3-positive astrocytes exhibited increased cell growth and invasion activities along with elevated phosphorylation of Akt and Yes kinase. By enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources reaction and mass spectrometry, we identified PDGF receptor ? (PDGFR?) as a GD3-associated molecule. GD3-positive astrocytes showed a significant amount of PDGFR? in glycolipid-enriched microdomains/rafts compared with GD3-negative cells. Src kinase family Yes was co-precipitated with PDGFR?, and its pivotal role in the increased cell invasion of GD3-positive astrocytes was demonstrated by silencing with anti-Yes siRNA. Direct association between PDGFR? and GD3 was also shown, suggesting that GD3 forms ternary complex with PDGFR? and Yes. The fact that GD3, PDGFR?, and activated Yes were colocalized in lamellipodia and the edge of tumors in cultured cells and glioma tissues, respectively, suggests that GD3 induced by platelet-derived growth factor B enhances PDGF signals in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts, leading to the promotion of malignant phenotypes such as cell proliferation and invasion in gliomas.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common primary malignancy in the brain and confers a uniformly poor prognosis. MicroRNAs have been shown to activate or inhibit tumorigenesis. Abnormalities in the p53 signaling pathway are found in various cancers and correlate with tumor formation. We examined the expression of microRNA-141-3p (miR-141-3p) in glioma of different grades by analysis of expression profiling databases and clinical specimens. Cell proliferation and flow cytometry assays were performed to evaluate the promotion of miR-141-3p in proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and temozolomide resistance of glioblastoma cells in vitro. Bioinformatics analyses, luciferase reporter assays, and immunoblotting showed that p53 is a target gene of miR-141-3p. A significant inverse correlation was observed between expression of miR-141-3p and p53 in glioma and normal brain tissues (R2=0.506, P<0.0001). Rescue experiments indicated that overexpression of p53 significantly reversed the alterations in proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and temozolomide resistance measured by cell apoptosis induced by miR-141-3p overexpression. In an orthotopic mouse model of human glioma, inhibition of miRNA-141-3p reduced the proliferation and growth of glioma cells in the brain and significantly prolonged the survival of glioma-bearing mice. We suggest that miR-141-3p promotes glioblastoma progression and temozolomide resistance by altering p53 expression and therefore may serve as a new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for glioma in the future.
Project description:Chemical investigation of the cultures of marine Streptomyces sp. 182SMLY led to the discovery of two new polycyclic anthraquinones, which were elucidated as N-acetyl-N-demethylmayamycin (1) and streptoanthraquinone A (2) based on the extensive spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and an electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation. Both anthraquinones remarkably suppressed the proliferation of four different glioma cell lines with IC50 values in a range from 0.5 to 7.3 ?M and induced apoptosis in the glioma cells. The ratios of IC50 for normal human astrocytes to IC50 for glioma cells were 6.4-53 for 1 and >14-31 for 2. N-acetyl-N-demethylmayamycin (1) also inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with MIC 20.0 ?M.
Project description:It remains a challenge in oncology to identify novel drug regimens to efficiently tackle glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Here, we target deubiquitinases for glioblastoma therapy by utilizing the small-molecule inhibitor WP1130 which has been characterized as a deubiquitinase inhibitor that interferes with the function of Usp9X. Expression analysis data confirm that Usp9X expression is increased in glioblastoma compared to normal brain tissue indicating its potential as a therapeutic. Consistently, increasing concentrations of WP1130 decrease the cellular viability of established, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and stem cell-like glioblastoma cells. Specific down-regulation of Usp9X reduces viability in glioblastoma cells mimicking the effects of WP1130. Mechanistically, WP1130 elicits apoptosis and increases activation of caspases. Moreover, WP1130 and siRNAs targeting Usp9X reduce the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members and Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins, XIAP and Survivin. Pharmacological and genetic interference with Usp9X efficiently sensitized glioblastoma cells to intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimuli. In addition, single treatment with WP1130 elicited anti-glioma activity in an orthotopic proneural murine model of glioblastoma. Finally, the combination treatment of WP1130 and ABT263 inhibited tumor growth more efficiently than each reagent by its own in vivo without detectable side effects or organ toxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that targeting deubiquitinases for glioma therapy is feasible and effective.