Common variants near FRK/COL10A1 and VEGFA are associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration.
ABSTRACT: Despite significant progress in the identification of genetic loci for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), not all of the heritability has been explained. To identify variants which contribute to the remaining genetic susceptibility, we performed the largest meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to date for advanced AMD. We imputed 6 036 699 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with the 1000 Genomes Project reference genotypes on 2594 cases and 4134 controls with follow-up replication of top signals in 5640 cases and 52 174 controls. We identified two new common susceptibility alleles, rs1999930 on 6q21-q22.3 near FRK/COL10A1 [odds ratio (OR) 0.87; P = 1.1 × 10(-8)] and rs4711751 on 6p12 near VEGFA (OR 1.15; P = 8.7 × 10(-9)). In addition to the two novel loci, 10 previously reported loci in ARMS2/HTRA1 (rs10490924), CFH (rs1061170, and rs1410996), CFB (rs641153), C3 (rs2230199), C2 (rs9332739), CFI (rs10033900), LIPC (rs10468017), TIMP3 (rs9621532) and CETP (rs3764261) were confirmed with genome-wide significant signals in this large study. Loci in the recently reported genes ABCA1 and COL8A1 were also detected with suggestive evidence of association with advanced AMD. The novel variants identified in this study suggest that angiogenesis (VEGFA) and extracellular collagen matrix (FRK/COL10A1) pathways contribute to the development of advanced AMD.
Project description:The authors performed a systematic review of the association of complement component 2(C2)/complement factor B (CFB) gene polymorphisms with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In total, data from 19 studies published between 2006 and 2011 were pooled for 4 polymorphisms: rs9332739 and rs547154 in the C2 gene and rs4151667 and rs641153 in the CFB gene. Data extraction and assessments for risk of bias were independently performed by 2 reviewers. Allele frequencies and allele and genotypic effects were pooled. Heterogeneity and publication bias were explored. Pooled minor allele frequencies for all 4 SNPs were between 4.7% and 9.6% for all polymorphisms, except for an Indian population in which the C allele at rs9332739 was the major allele. For the C2 polymorphisms, the minor C allele at rs9332739 and the minor T allele at rs547154 carried estimated relative risks (odds ratios) of 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.65) and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.57), respectively. For the CFB polymorphisms, the minor A alleles at rs4151667 and rs614153 carried estimated risks of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.64) and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.51), respectively. These allele effects contributed to an absolute lowering of the risk of all AMD in Caucasian populations by 2.0%-6.0%. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the protective association of C2/CFB with AMD.
Project description:To evaluate the independent and joint effects of genetic factors and environmental variables on advanced forms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), including geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularization, and to develop a predictive model with genetic and environmental factors included.Demographic information, including age at onset, smoking status, and body mass index, was collected for 1844 participants. Genotypes were evaluated for 8 variants in 5 genes related to AMD. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed to generate a risk predictive model.All genetic variants showed a strong association with AMD. Multivariate odds ratios were 3.52 (95% confidence interval, 2.08-5.94) for complement factor H, CFH rs1061170 CC, 4.21 (2.30-7.70) for CFH rs2274700 CC, 0.46 (0.27-0.80) for C2 rs9332739 CC/CG, 0.44 (0.30-0.66) for CFB rs641153 TT/CT, 10.99 (6.04-19.97) for HTRA1/LOC387715 rs10490924 TT, and 2.66 (1.43-4.96) for C3 rs2230199 GG. Smoking was independently associated with advanced AMD after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, and all genetic variants.CFH confers more risk to the bilaterality of geographic atrophy, whereas HTRA1/LOC387715 contributes more to the bilaterality of choroidal neovascularization. C3 confers more risk for geographic atrophy than choroidal neovascularization. Risk models with combined genetic and environmental factors have notable discrimination power.Early detection and risk prediction of AMD could help to improve the prognosis of AMD and to reduce the outcome of blindness. Targeting high-risk individuals for surveillance and clinical interventions may help reduce disease burden.
Project description:Background:To determine the impact of HTRA1 rs1120638, TIMP3 rs9621532, VEGFA rs833068, CFI rs10033900, ERCC6 rs3793784, and KCTD10 rs56209061 genotypes on the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Lithuanian population. Methods:A total of 916 subjects were examined: 309 patients with early AMD, 301 patients with exudative AMD, and 306 healthy controls. The genotyping of HTRA1 rs11200638, TIMP3 rs9621532, VEGFA rs833068, CFI rs10033900, ERCC6 rs3793784, and KCTD10 rs56209061 was carried out using the RT-PCR method. Results:Our study showed that single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs3793784 and rs11200638 were associated with increased odds of early and exudative AMD, and the variant in KCTD10 (rs56209061) was found to be associated with decreased odds of early and exudative AMD development after adjustments for age and gender in early AMD analysis and after adjustments only for age in exudative AMD. The haplotype containing two minor alleles C-A and the G-A haplotype in rs3793784-rs11200638 were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of exudative AMD development after adjustment for age, while the G-G haplotype showed a protective role against early and exudative AMD and the haplotype C-G in rs3793784-rs11200638 was associated with a decreased risk only of exudative AMD development. Conclusions:Our study identified two markers, rs11200638 and rs3793784, as risk factors for early and exudative AMD, and one marker, rs56209061, as a protective factor for early and exudative AMD development. The haplotypes constructed of rs3793784-rs11200638 were found to be associated with AMD development, as well.
Project description:Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness among the elderly in the developed world. Genetic analysis of AMD has identified 34 high-risk loci associated with AMD. The genes at these high risk loci belong to diverse biological pathways, suggesting different mechanisms leading to AMD pathogenesis. Thus, therapies targeting a single pathway for all AMD patients will likely not be universally effective. Recent evidence suggests defects in mitochondria (mt) of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) may constitute a key pathogenic event in some AMD patients. The purpose of this study is to determine if individuals with a specific genetic background have a greater propensity for mtDNA damage. We used human eyebank tissues from 76 donors with AMD and 42 age-matched controls to determine the extent of mtDNA damage in the RPE that was harvested from the macula using a long extension polymerase chain reaction assay. Genotype analyses were performed for ten common AMD-associated nuclear risk alleles (ARMS2, TNFRSF10A, CFH, C2, C3, APOE, CETP, LIPC, VEGF and COL10A1) and mtDNA haplogroups. Sufficient samples were available for genotype association with mtDNA damage for TNFRSF10A, CFH, CETP, VEGFA, and COL10A1. Our results show that AMD donors carrying the high risk allele for CFH (C) had significantly more mtDNA damage compared with donors having the wild-type genetic profile. The data from an additional 39 donors (12 controls and 27 AMD) genotyped for CFH alleles further supported these findings. Taken together, these studies provide the rationale for a more personalized approach for treating AMD by uncovering a significant correlation between the CFH high risk allele and accelerated mtDNA damage. Patients harboring this genetic risk factor may benefit from therapies that stabilize and protect the mt in the RPE.
Project description:Hallmarks of the inflammatory process in Type I diabetes are macrophage activation, local release of beta-cell-toxic cytokines and infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We have observed recently that mice overexpressing active FRK (fyn-related kinase)/RAK (previously named GTK/Bsk/IYK, where GTK stands for gut tyrosine kinase, Bsk for beta-cell Src-homology kinase and IYK for intestinal tyrosine kinase) in beta-cells exhibit increased susceptibility to beta-cell-toxic events, and therefore, we now attempt to find a more precise role for FRK/RAK in these processes. Phosphopeptide mapping of baculovirus-produced mouse FRK/RAK revealed an autophosphorylation pattern compatible with Tyr-394 being the main site. No evidence for in vitro phosphorylation of the C-terminal regulatory sites Tyr-497 and Tyr-504 was obtained, nor was there any indication of in vitro regulation of FRK/RAK kinase activity. Screening a panel of known tyrosine kinase inhibitors for their ability to inhibit FRK/RAK revealed several compounds that inhibited FRK/RAK, with a potency similar to that reported for their ability to inhibit other tyrosine kinases. Cytokine-induced islet toxicity was reduced in islets isolated from FRK/RAK knockout mice and this occurred without effects on the production of nitric oxide. Addition of the nitric oxide inhibitor nitroarginine to FRK/RAK knockout islets exposed to cytokines decreased cell death to a basal level. In normal islets, cytokine-induced cell death was inhibited by the addition of two FRK/RAK inhibitors, SU4984 and D-65495, or by transfection with short interfering RNA against FRK/RAK. It is concluded that FRK/RAK contributes to cytokine-induced beta-cell death, and inhibition of this kinase could provide means to suppress beta-cell destruction in Type I diabetes.
Project description:The complement factor I (CFI) gene polymorphisms have been reported to age-related macular degenerative (AMD) risk, nevertheless, above association is not consistent. We investigated a meta-analysis to evaluate the conclusions between CFI polymorphisms (rs10033900 and rs2285714) and AMD risk. An identification was covered with the PubMed and other databases through February 8, 2020. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the strength of associations. After a comprehensive search, 11 different articles (12 case-control studies for total AMD and 11 case-control studies about neovascular disease/geographic atrophy in AMD) were retrieved. Individuals carrying C-allele or CC genotype of rs10033900 polymorphism may have a decreased risk to be AMD disease. For example, there has a significantly decreased relationship between rs10033900 polymorphism and AMD both in the whole group, Caucasian population and population-based source of control. Moreover, a similar trend in subgroup of genotype method group by MALDI-TOF MS was detected. To classify the type of AMD in further, decreased association was also observed in both neovascular disease and geographic atrophy AMD. No association was found about rs2285714 polymorphism. Our present groundbreaking study suggests that the CFI rs10033900 polymorphism is potentially associated with the risk of AMD development.
Project description:A novel locus in the hepatic lipase (LIPC) gene was found to be significantly related to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in our genome-wide association study. We evaluated its association and interaction with previously identified genetic variants and modifiable factors.Participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study with advanced AMD (n=545 cases) or no AMD (n=275 controls) were evaluated. AMD status was determined using fundus photography. Covariates included cigarette smoking, body mass index (BMI), and dietary lutein. Individuals were genotyped for the rs10468017 polymorphism in LIPC as well as seven previously identified AMD genetic loci. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were then performed.The TT genotype of the LIPC variant was associated with a reduced risk of AMD, with odds ratios (OR) of 0.50 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-0.90) and p=0.014 for the TT genotype versus the CC genotype, controlling for age, gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), and nutritional factors. Controlling for seven other AMD genetic variants, the OR was 0.50, 95% (CI 0.20-1.1, p=0.077). The magnitude of the effect was similar for both atrophic and neovascular forms of AMD. Cigarette smoking and higher BMI increased the risk, while higher dietary lutein reduced the risk of advanced AMD, adjusting for genetic variants. There were no significant interactions between LIPC and smoking, BMI, or lutein. There was a possible association between LIPC and complement factor H (CFH) rs1410996, and a possible interaction effect between LIPC and both CFH rs10033900 and the complement factor I (CFI) variants in terms of risk of AMD.LIPC is associated with reduced risk of advanced AMD, independent of demographic and environmental variables. Both genetic susceptibility and behavioral and lifestyle factors modify the risk of developing AMD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness. While around half of the genetic contribution to advanced AMD has been uncovered, little is known about the genetic architecture of early AMD. METHODS:To identify genetic factors for early AMD, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis (14,034 cases, 91,214 controls, 11 sources of data including the International AMD Genomics Consortium, IAMDGC, and UK Biobank, UKBB). We ascertained early AMD via color fundus photographs by manual grading for 10 sources and via an automated machine learning approach for >?170,000 photographs from UKBB. We searched for early AMD loci via GWAS and via a candidate approach based on 14 previously suggested early AMD variants. RESULTS:Altogether, we identified 10 independent loci with statistical significance for early AMD: (i) 8 from our GWAS with genome-wide significance (P <?5?×?10-?8), (ii) one previously suggested locus with experiment-wise significance (P <?0.05/14) in our non-overlapping data and with genome-wide significance when combining the reported and our non-overlapping data (together 17,539 cases, 105,395 controls), and (iii) one further previously suggested locus with experiment-wise significance in our non-overlapping data. Of these 10 identified loci, 8 were novel and 2 known for early AMD. Most of the 10 loci overlapped with known advanced AMD loci (near ARMS2/HTRA1, CFH, C2, C3, CETP, TNFRSF10A, VEGFA, APOE), except two that have not yet been identified with statistical significance for any AMD. Among the 17 genes within these two loci, in-silico functional annotation suggested CD46 and TYR as the most likely responsible genes. Presence or absence of an early AMD effect distinguished the known pathways of advanced AMD genetics (complement/lipid pathways versus extracellular matrix metabolism). CONCLUSIONS:Our GWAS on early AMD identified novel loci, highlighted shared and distinct genetics between early and advanced AMD and provides insights into AMD etiology. Our data provide a resource comparable in size to the existing IAMDGC data on advanced AMD genetics enabling a joint view. The biological relevance of this joint view is underscored by the ability of early AMD effects to differentiate the major pathways for advanced AMD.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:There are limited data from India on genetic variants influencing late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We have previously reported associations from a population-based study in India (the India age-related eye disease study (INDEYE)) of early AMD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ARMS2/HTRA1 and no association with CFH, C2 or CFB. Late AMD cases were too few for meaningful analyses. We aimed to investigate SNPs for late AMD through case enrichment and extend the loci for early AMD. METHODS:Fundus images of late AMD hospital cases were independently graded by the modified Wisconsin AMD grading scheme. In total 510 cases with late AMD (14 geographic atrophy and 496 neovascular AMD (nvAMD)), 1876 with early AMD and 1176 with no signs of AMD underwent genotyping for selected SNPs. We investigated genotype and per-allele additive associations (OR and 95% CIs) with nvAMD or early AMD. Bonferroni adjusted P values are presented. RESULTS:We found associations with nvAMD for CFHY402H variant (rs1061170) (OR=1.99, 95%?CI 1.67 to 2.37, P=10-6), ARMS2 (rs10490924) (OR=2.94, 95% CI 2.45 to 3.52, P=10-9), C2 (rs547154) (OR=0.67, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.85, P=0.01), ABCA1 (rs1883025) (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.92, P=0.04)?and an SNP near VEGFA (rs4711751) (OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.77, P=10-3). We found no associations of TLR3 (rs3775291), CFD (rs3826945), FRK (rs1999930) or LIPC (rs10468017) or APOE ?4 alleles with nvAMD or early AMD, nor between early AMD and rs1883025 or rs4711751. CONCLUSIONS:The major genetic determinants of nvAMD risk in India are similar to those in other ancestries, while findings for early AMD suggest potential differences in the pathophysiology of AMD development.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn-related kinase (FRK) has been reported to affect cell proliferation in several cancer types. However, its effect on the proliferation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains largely unknown.<h4>Purpose</h4>The objective of this study was to investigate the expression pattern and function of FRK in ccRCC. We further determined how FRK interacted with other molecules to regulate ccRCC proliferation.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>The expression of FRK in ccRCC samples and paired normal renal tissues from 30 patients were analyzed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. Then the role of FRK in ccRCC proliferation was analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation assay and EdU incorporation assay. In addition, the miRNA targeting FRK was predicted through a bioinformatic approach and validated by quantitative PCR, immunoblotting and luciferase reporter assay. Finally, the underlying mechanism of FRK regulation of ccRCC proliferation was also determined.<h4>Results</h4>Low expression of FRK was detected in ccRCC samples and predicted poor survival for ccRCC patients. FRK inhibited the proliferation of ccRCC cells via phosphorylating downstream PTEN. miR-19 was identified as a novel suppressor of FRK in renal cancer cells and it promoted the proliferation of ccRCC by inhibiting the FRK-PTEN axis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results unravel a new regulatory mechanism involved in ccRCC proliferation and may be useful in the identification of therapeutic targets for ccRCC.