Smyd3 is required for the development of cardiac and skeletal muscle in zebrafish.
ABSTRACT: Modifications of histone tails are involved in the regulation of a wide range of biological processes including cell cycle, cell survival, cell division, and cell differentiation. Among the modifications, histone methylation plays a critical role in cardiac and skeletal muscle differentiation. In our earlier studies, we found that SMYD3 has methyltransferase activity to histone H3 lysine 4, and that its up-regulation is involved in the tumorigenesis of human colon, liver, and breast. To clarify the role of Smyd3 in development, we have studied its expression patterns in zebrafish embryos and the effect of its suppression on development using Smyd3-specific antisense morpholino-oligonucleotides. We here show that transcripts of smyd3 were expressed in zebrafish embryos at all developmental stages examined and that knockdown of smyd3 in embryos resulted in pericardial edema and defects in the trunk structure. In addition, these phenotypes were associated with abnormal expression of three heart-chamber markers including cmlc2, amhc and vmhc, and abnormal expression of myogenic regulatory factors including myod and myog. These data suggest that Smyd3 plays an important role in the development of heart and skeletal muscle.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Dysmorphogenesis and multiple organ defects are well known in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos with T-box transcription factor 5 (tbx5) deficiencies, mimicking human Holt-Oram syndrome. METHODS: Using an oligonucleotide-based microarray analysis to study the expression of special genes in tbx5 morphants, we demonstrated that GH and some GH-related genes were markedly downregulated. Zebrafish embryos microinjected with tbx5-morpholino (MO) antisense RNA and mismatched antisense RNA in the 1-cell stage served as controls, while zebrafish embryos co-injected with exogenous growth hormone (GH) concomitant with tbx5-MO comprised the treatment group. RESULTS: The attenuating effects of GH in tbx5-MO knockdown embryos were quantified and observed at 24, 30, 48, 72, and 96?h post-fertilization. Though the understanding of mechanisms involving GH in the tbx5 functioning complex is limited, exogenous GH supplied to tbx5 knockdown zebrafish embryos is able to enhance the expression of downstream mediators in the GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 pathway, including igf1, ghra, and ghrb, and signal transductors (erk1, akt2), and eventually to correct dysmorphogenesis in various organs including the heart and pectoral fins. Supplementary GH also reduced apoptosis as determined by a TUNEL assay and decreased the expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins (bcl2 and bad) according to semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively, as well as improving cell cycle-related genes (p27 and cdk2) and cardiomyogenetic genes (amhc, vmhc, and cmlc2). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, tbx5 knockdown causes a pseudo GH deficiency in zebrafish during early embryonic stages, and supplementation of exogenous GH can partially restore dysmorphogenesis, apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, and abnormal cardiomyogenesis in tbx5 knockdown zebrafish in a paracrine manner.
Project description:Mammalian early embryonic development is controlled by a unique program of gene expression, and involves epigenetic reprogramming of histone modifications and DNA methylation. SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase that plays important roles in transcription regulation. The expression of SMYD3 has been studied in some cancer cell lines. However, its expression in oocytes and embryos has not previously been reported. Here, we detected the SMYD3 mRNA and found that it was expressed throughout bovine oocyte in vitro maturation and early embryonic development. Microinjection of SMYD3 siRNA at germinal vesicle stage decreased the transcription level of NANOG, and blocked the development of in vitro fertilization embryos at 4-8 cell stage. Conversely, Microinjection of SMYD3 siRNA at pronuclear stage did not affect early embryonic development. Our findings suggest that SMYD3 regulates the expression of NANOG, and plays an essential role in bovine early embryonic development.
Project description:The coordinated expression of myogenic regulatory factors, including MyoD and myogenin, orchestrates the steps of skeletal muscle development, from myoblast proliferation and cell-cycle exit, to myoblast fusion and myotubes maturation. Yet, it remains unclear how key transcription factors and epigenetic enzymes cooperate to guide myogenic differentiation. Proteins of the SMYD (SET and MYND domain-containing) methyltransferase family participate in cardiac and skeletal myogenesis during development in zebrafish, Drosophila and mice. Here, we show that the mammalian SMYD3 methyltransferase coordinates skeletal muscle differentiation in vitro. Overexpression of SMYD3 in myoblasts promoted muscle differentiation and myoblasts fusion. Conversely, silencing of endogenous SMYD3 or its pharmacological inhibition impaired muscle differentiation. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of murine myoblasts, with silenced or overexpressed SMYD3, revealed that SMYD3 impacts skeletal muscle differentiation by targeting the key muscle regulatory factor myogenin. The role of SMYD3 in the regulation of skeletal muscle differentiation and myotube formation, partially via the myogenin transcriptional network, highlights the importance of methyltransferases in mammalian myogenesis.
Project description:Upregulation of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 plays a central role in tumor progression and metastasis by stimulating cell migration, tumor invasion, and angiogenesis. To gain insights into MMP-9 expression, we investigated its epigenetic control in a reversible model of cancer that is initiated by infection with intracellular Theileria parasites. Gene induction by parasite infection was associated with trimethylation of histone H3K4 (H3K4me3) at the MMP-9 promoter. Notably, we found that the H3K4 methyltransferase SMYD3 was the only histone methyltransferase upregulated upon infection. SMYD3 is overexpressed in many types of cancer cells, but its contributions to malignant pathophysiology are unclear. We found that overexpression of SMYD3 was sufficient to induce MMP-9 expression in transformed leukocytes and fibrosarcoma cells and that proinflammatory phorbol esters further enhanced this effect. Furthermore, SMYD3 was sufficient to increase cell migration associated with MMP-9 expression. In contrast, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of SMYD3 decreased H3K4me3 modification of the MMP-9 promoter, reduced MMP-9 expression, and reduced tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, SMYD3 knockdown also reduced cellular invasion in a zebrafish xenograft model of cancer. Together, our results define SMYD3 as an important new regulator of MMP-9 transcription, and they provide a molecular link between SMYD3 overexpression and metastatic cancer progression.
Project description:SMYD3 (SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3) is involved in histone modification, which initiates oncogenesis by activating transcription of multiple downstream genes. To investigate associations of variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) variants in the SMYD3 gene promoter, SMYD3 serum levels and SMYD3 mRNA expression in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and clinical progression of related liver disease. SMYD3 VNTRs were genotyped in 756 HBV patients and 297 healthy controls. SMYD3 serum levels were measured in 293 patients and SMYD3 mRNA expression was quantified in 48 pairs of hepatocellular tumor and adjacent non-tumor liver tissues. Genotype SYMD3 VNTR 3/3 was more frequent among HCC patients than in controls (Padjusted?=?0.037). SMYD3 serum levels increased according to clinical progression of liver diseases (P?=?0.01); HCC patients had higher levels than non-HCC patients (P?=?0.04). Among patients with SMYD3 VNTR 3/3, HCC patients had higher SMYD3 levels than others (P?<?0.05). SMYD3 mRNA expression was up-regulated in HCC tumor tissues compared to other tissues (P?=?0.008). In conclusion, upregulation of SMYD3 correlates with the occurrence of HCC and SMYD3 VNTR 3/3 appears to increase the risk of HCC through increasing SMYD3 levels. SMYD3 may be an indicator for HCC development in HBV patients.
Project description:Methylation of histone tails plays a pivotal role in the regulation of a wide range of biological processes. SET and MYND domain-containing protein (SMYD) is a methyltransferase, five family members of which have been identified in humans. SMYD1, SMYD2, SMYD3, and SMYD4 have been found to play critical roles in carcinogenesis and/or the development of heart and skeletal muscle. However, the physiological functions of SMYD5 remain unknown. To investigate the function of Smyd5 in vivo, zebrafish were utilised as a model system. We first examined smyd5 expression patterns in developing zebrafish embryos. Smyd5 transcripts were abundantly expressed at early developmental stages and then gradually decreased. Smyd5 was expressed in all adult tissues examined. Loss-of-function analysis of Smyd5 was then performed in zebrafish embryos using smyd5 morpholino oligonucleotide (MO). Embryos injected with smyd5-MO showed normal gross morphological development, including of heart and skeletal muscle. However, increased expression of both primitive and definitive hematopoietic markers, including pu.1, mpx, l-plastin, and cmyb, were observed. These phenotypes of smyd5-MO zebrafish embryos were also observed when we introduced mutations in smyd5 gene with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. As the expression of myeloid markers was elevated in smyd5 loss-of-function zebrafish, we propose that Smyd5 plays critical roles in hematopoiesis.
Project description:SMYD3 is a member of the SMYD lysine methylase family and plays an important role in the methylation of various histone and non-histone targets. Aberrant SMYD3 expression contributes to carcinogenesis and SMYD3 upregulation was proposed as a prognostic marker in various solid cancers. Here we summarize SMYD3-mediated regulatory mechanisms, which are implicated in the pathophysiology of cancer, as drivers of distinct oncogenic pathways. We describe SMYD3-dependent mechanisms affecting cancer progression, highlighting SMYD3 interplay with proteins and RNAs involved in the regulation of cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We also address the effectiveness and mechanisms of action for the currently available SMYD3 inhibitors. The findings analyzed herein demonstrate that a complex network of SMYD3-mediated cytoplasmic and nuclear interactions promote oncogenesis across different cancer types. These evidences depict SMYD3 as a modulator of the transcriptional response and of key signaling pathways, orchestrating multiple oncogenic inputs and ultimately, promoting transcriptional reprogramming and tumor transformation. Further insights into the oncogenic role of SMYD3 and its targeting of different synergistic oncogenic signals may be beneficial for effective cancer treatment.
Project description:Smyd3 is a lysine methyltransferase implicated in chromatin and cancer regulation. Here we show that Smyd3 catalyzes histone H4 methylation at lysine 5 (H4K5me). This novel histone methylation mark is detected in diverse cell types and its formation is attenuated by depletion of Smyd3 protein. Further, Smyd3-driven cancer cell phenotypes require its enzymatic activity. Thus, Smyd3, via H4K5 methylation, provides a potential new link between chromatin dynamics and neoplastic disease.
Project description:SMYD3 is a histone methyltransferase that regulates gene transcription, and its overexpression is associated with multiple human cancers. A novel class of tetrahydroacridine compounds which inhibit SMYD3 through a covalent mechanism of action is identified. Optimization of these irreversible inhibitors resulted in the discovery of 4-chloroquinolines, a new class of covalent warheads. Tool compound 29 exhibits high potency by inhibiting SMYD3's enzymatic activity and showing antiproliferative activity against HepG2 in 3D cell culture. Our findings suggest that covalent inhibition of SMYD3 may have an impact on SMYD3 biology by affecting expression levels, and this warrants further exploration.
Project description:SMYD3 is a methylase previously linked to cancer cell invasion and migration. Here we show that SMYD3 favors TGFβ-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in mammary epithelial cells, promoting mesenchymal and EMT transcription factors expression. SMYD3 directly interacts with SMAD3 but it is unnecessary for SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Conversely, SMYD3 is indispensable for SMAD3 direct association to EMT genes regulatory regions. Accordingly, SMYD3 knockdown or its pharmacological blockade with the BCI121 inhibitor dramatically reduce TGFβ-induced SMAD3 association to the chromatin. Remarkably, BCI121 treatment attenuates mesenchymal genes transcription in the mesenchymal-like MDA-MB-231 cell line and reduces their invasive ability in vivo, in a zebrafish xenograft model. In addition, clinical datasets analysis revealed that higher SMYD3 levels are linked to a less favorable prognosis in claudin-low breast cancers and to a reduced metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients. Overall, our data point at SMYD3 as a pivotal SMAD3 cofactor that promotes TGFβ-dependent mesenchymal gene expression and cell migration in breast cancer, and support SMYD3 as a promising pharmacological target for anti-cancer therapy.