The histone chaperone facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) protein maintains normal replication fork rates.
ABSTRACT: Ordered nucleosome disassembly and reassembly are required for eukaryotic DNA replication. The facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) complex, a histone chaperone comprising Spt16 and SSRP1, is involved in DNA replication as well as transcription. FACT associates with the MCM helicase, which is involved in DNA replication initiation and elongation. Although the FACT-MCM complex is reported to regulate DNA replication initiation, its functional role in DNA replication elongation remains elusive. To elucidate the functional role of FACT in replication fork progression during DNA elongation in the cells, we generated and analyzed conditional SSRP1 gene knock-out chicken (Gallus gallus) DT40 cells. SSRP1-depleted cells ceased to grow and exhibited a delay in S-phase cell cycle progression, although SSRP1 depletion did not affect the level of chromatin-bound DNA polymerase ? or nucleosome reassembly on daughter strands. The tracking length of newly synthesized DNA, but not origin firing, was reduced in SSRP1-depleted cells, suggesting that the S-phase cell cycle delay is mainly due to the inhibition of replication fork progression rather than to defects in the initiation of DNA replication in these cells. We discuss the mechanisms of how FACT promotes replication fork progression in the cells.
Project description:The minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex plays essential, conserved roles throughout DNA synthesis: first, as a component of the prereplication complex at origins and, then, as a helicase associated with replication forks. Here we use fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as a model to demonstrate a role for the MCM complex in protecting replication fork structure and promoting recovery from replication arrest. Loss of MCM function generates lethal double-strand breaks at sites of DNA synthesis during replication elongation, suggesting replication fork collapse. MCM function also maintains the stability of forks stalled by hydroxyurea that activate the replication checkpoint. In cells where the checkpoint is activated, Mcm4 binds the Cds1 kinase and undergoes Cds1-dependent phosphorylation. MCM proteins also interact with proteins involved in homologous recombination, which promotes recovery from arrest by ensuring normal mitosis. We suggest that the MCM complex links replication fork stabilization with checkpoint arrest and recovery through direct interactions with checkpoint and recombination proteins and that this role in S-phase genome stability is conserved from yeast to human cells.
Project description:The organization of genomic DNA into nucleosomes profoundly affects all DNA-related processes in eukaryotes. The histone chaperone known as 'facilitates chromatin transcription' (FACT<sup>1</sup>) (consisting of subunits SPT16 and SSRP1) promotes both disassembly and reassembly of nucleosomes during gene transcription, DNA replication and DNA repair<sup>2</sup>. However, the mechanism by which FACT causes these opposing outcomes is unknown. Here we report two cryo-electron-microscopic structures of human FACT in complex with partially assembled subnucleosomes, with supporting biochemical and hydrogen-deuterium exchange data. We find that FACT is engaged in extensive interactions with nucleosomal DNA and all histone variants. The large DNA-binding surface on FACT appears to be protected by the carboxy-terminal domains of both of its subunits, and this inhibition is released by interaction with H2A-H2B, allowing FACT-H2A-H2B to dock onto a complex containing DNA and histones H3 and H4 (ref. <sup>3</sup>). SPT16 binds nucleosomal DNA and tethers H2A-H2B through its carboxy-terminal domain by acting as a placeholder for DNA. SSRP1 also contributes to DNA binding, and can assume two conformations, depending on whether a second H2A-H2B dimer is present. Our data suggest a compelling mechanism for how FACT maintains chromatin integrity during polymerase passage, by facilitating removal of the H2A-H2B dimer, stabilizing intermediate subnucleosomal states and promoting nucleosome reassembly. Our findings reconcile discrepancies regarding the many roles of FACT and underscore the dynamic interactions between histone chaperones and nucleosomes.
Project description:FACT is a heterodimeric histone chaperone consisting of the SSRP1 and SPT16 proteins and is conserved among eukaryotes. It interacts with the histones H2A-H2B and H3-H4 as well as with DNA. Based on in vitro and in vivo studies mainly in yeast and mammalian cells, FACT can mediate nucleosome disassembly and reassembly and thus facilitates in the chromatin context DNA-dependent processes including transcription, replication and repair. In plants, primarily the role of FACT related to RNA polymerase II transcription has been examined. FACT was found to associate with elongating Arabidopsis RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) as part of the transcript elongation complex and it was identified as repressor of aberrant intragenic transcriptional initiation. Arabidopsis mutants depleted in FACT subunits exhibit various defects in vegetative and reproductive development. Strikingly, FACT modulates important developmental transitions by promoting expression of key repressors of these processes. Thus, FACT facilitates expression of DOG1 and FLC adjusting the switch from seed dormancy to germination and from vegetative to reproductive development, respectively. In the central cell of the female gametophyte, FACT can facilitate DNA demethylation especially within heterochromatin, and thereby contributes to gene imprinting during Arabidopsis reproduction. This review discusses results particularly from the plant perspective about the contribution of FACT to processes that involve reorganisation of nucleosomes with a main focus on RNAPII transcription and its implications for diverse areas of plant biology.
Project description:The Cdc45-MCM-GINS (CMG) helicase unwinds DNA during the elongation step of eukaryotic genome duplication and this process depends on the MCM ATPase function. Whether CMG translocation occurs on single- or double-stranded DNA and how ATP hydrolysis drives DNA unwinding remain open questions. Here we use cryo-electron microscopy to describe two subnanometre resolution structures of the CMG helicase trapped on a DNA fork. In the predominant state, the ring-shaped C-terminal ATPase of MCM is compact and contacts single-stranded DNA, via a set of pre-sensor 1 hairpins that spiral around the translocation substrate. In the second state, the ATPase module is relaxed and apparently substrate free, while DNA intimately contacts the downstream amino-terminal tier of the MCM motor ring. These results, supported by single-molecule FRET measurements, lead us to suggest a replication fork unwinding mechanism whereby the N-terminal and AAA+ tiers of the MCM work in concert to translocate on single-stranded DNA.
Project description:Built of DNA polymerases and multiple associated factors, the replication fork steadily progresses along the DNA template and faithfully replicates DNA. This model can be found in practically every textbook of genetics, with the more complex situation of chromatinized DNA in eukaryotes often viewed as a variation. However, the replication-coupled disassembly/reassembly of chromatin adds significant complexity to the whole replication process. During the course of eukaryotic DNA replication the forks encounter various conditions and numerous impediments. These include nucleosomes with a variety of post-translational modifications, euchromatin and heterochromatin, differentially methylated DNA, tightly bound proteins, active gene promoters and DNA loops. At such positions the forks slow down or even stall. Dedicated factors stabilize the fork and prevent its rotation or collapse, while other factors resolve the replication block and facilitate the resumption of elongation. The fate of histones during replication stalling and resumption is not well understood. In this review we briefly describe recent advances in our understanding of histone turnover during DNA replication and focus on the possible mechanisms of nucleosome disassembly/reassembly at paused replication forks. We propose that replication pausing provides opportunities for an epigenetic change of the associated locus.
Project description:Chromatin is suppressive in nature to cellular enzymes that metabolize DNA, mainly due to the inherent inaccessibility of the DNA template. Despite extensive understanding of the involvement of chromatin-modifying factors in transcription, roles of related activities in DNA replication remain largely elusive. Here, we show that the heterodimeric transcriptional elongation factor FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) is functionally linked to DNA synthesis. Its involvement in DNA replication is partly mediated by the stable association with the replicative helicase complex, MCM, and further by the coexistence with MCM on replication origin. Furthermore, relying on its nucleosome-reorganizing activity, FACT can facilitate chromatin unwinding by the MCM complex, which is otherwise inert on the nucleosomal template. As a consequence, the physical and functional interaction between FACT and MCM is an important determinant in the proper initiation of DNA replication and S phase in vivo. Together, our findings identify FACT as an integral and conserved component of the endogenous replication machinery, and support a model in which the concerted action of helicase and chromatin-modifying activities promotes chromosome replication.
Project description:The integrity of eukaryotic genomes requires rapid and regulated chromatin replication. How this is accomplished is still poorly understood. Using purified yeast replication proteins and fully chromatinized templates, we have reconstituted this process in vitro. We show that chromatin enforces DNA replication origin specificity by preventing non-specific MCM helicase loading. Helicase activation occurs efficiently in the context of chromatin, but subsequent replisome progression requires the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription). The FACT-associated Nhp6 protein, the nucleosome remodelers INO80 or ISW1A, and the lysine acetyltransferases Gcn5 and Esa1 each contribute separately to maximum DNA synthesis rates. Chromatin promotes the regular priming of lagging-strand DNA synthesis by facilitating DNA polymerase ? function at replication forks. Finally, nucleosomes disrupted during replication are efficiently re-assembled into regular arrays on nascent DNA. Our work defines the minimum requirements for chromatin replication in vitro and shows how multiple chromatin factors might modulate replication fork rates in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Each of the three individual components of the CMG complex (Cdc45, MCM and GINS) is essential for chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic cells, both for the initiation of replication at origins and also for normal replication fork progression. The MCM complex is a DNA helicase that most likely functions as the catalytic core of the replicative helicase, unwinding the parental duplex DNA ahead of the moving replication fork, whereas Cdc45 and the GINS complex are believed to act as accessory factors for MCM. RESULTS: To investigate interactions between components of the CMG complex, we have used bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe for the first time, to analyse protein-protein interactions between GINS and MCM subunits expressed from their native chromosomal loci. We demonstrate interactions between GINS and MCM in the nuclei of exponentially-growing fission yeast cells and on chromatin in binucleate S-phase cells. In addition we present evidence of MCM-MCM interactions in diploid fission yeast cells. As with GINS-MCM interactions, MCM-MCM interactions also occur on chromatin in S-phase cells. CONCLUSION: Bimolecular fluorescence complementation can be used in fission yeast to visualise interactions between two of the three components of the CMG complex, offering the prospect that this technique could in the future be used to allow studies on replication protein dynamics in living S. pombe cells.
Project description:The influence of mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub) on transcription via nucleosome reassembly has been widely documented. Recently, it has also been shown that H2Bub promotes recovery from replication stress; however, the underling molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that H2B ubiquitylation coordinates activation of the intra-S replication checkpoint and chromatin re-assembly, in order to limit fork progression and DNA damage in the presence of replication stress. In particular, we show that the absence of H2Bub affects replication dynamics (enhanced fork progression and reduced origin firing), leading to ?H2A accumulation and increased hydroxyurea sensitivity. Further genetic analysis indicates a role for H2Bub in transducing Rad53 phosphorylation. Concomitantly, we found that a change in replication dynamics is not due to a change in dNTP level, but is mediated by reduced Rad53 activation and destabilization of the RecQ helicase Sgs1 at the fork. Furthermore, we demonstrate that H2Bub facilitates the dissociation of the histone chaperone Asf1 from Rad53, and nucleosome reassembly behind the fork is compromised in cells lacking H2Bub. Taken together, these results indicate that the regulation of H2B ubiquitylation is a key event in the maintenance of genome stability, through coordination of intra-S checkpoint activation, chromatin assembly and replication fork progression.
Project description:The ATR-dependent DNA damage response pathway can respond to a diverse group of lesions as well as inhibitors of DNA replication. Using the Xenopus egg extract system, we show that lesions induced by UV irradiation and cis-platinum cause the functional uncoupling of MCM helicase and DNA polymerase activities, an event previously shown for aphidicolin. Inhibition of uncoupling during elongation with inhibitors of MCM7 or Cdc45, a putative helicase cofactor, results in abrogation of Chk1 phosphorylation, indicating that uncoupling is necessary for activation of the checkpoint. However, uncoupling is not sufficient for checkpoint activation, and DNA synthesis by Polalpha is also required. Finally, using plasmids of varying size, we demonstrate that all of the unwound DNA generated at a stalled replication fork can contribute to the level of Chk1 phosphorylation, suggesting that uncoupling amplifies checkpoint signaling at each individual replication fork. Taken together, these observations indicate that functional uncoupling of MCM helicase and DNA polymerase activities occurs in response to multiple forms of DNA damage and that there is a general mechanism for generation of the checkpoint-activating signal following DNA damage.