Complete genome sequence of Brachyspira intermedia reveals unique genomic features in Brachyspira species and phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Brachyspira spp. colonize the intestines of some mammalian and avian species and show different degrees of enteropathogenicity. Brachyspira intermedia can cause production losses in chickens and strain PWS/AT now becomes the fourth genome to be completed in the genus Brachyspira. RESULTS: 15 classes of unique and shared genes were analyzed in B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. The largest number of unique genes was found in B. intermedia and B. murdochii. This indicates the presence of larger pan-genomes. In general, hypothetical protein annotations are overrepresented among the unique genes. A 3.2 kb plasmid was found in B. intermedia strain PWS/AT. The plasmid was also present in the B. murdochii strain but not in nine other Brachyspira isolates. Within the Brachyspira genomes, genes had been translocated and also frequently switched between leading and lagging strands, a process that can be followed by different AT-skews in the third positions of synonymous codons. We also found evidence that bacteriophages were being remodeled and genes incorporated into them. CONCLUSIONS: The accessory gene pool shapes species-specific traits. It is also influenced by reductive genome evolution and horizontal gene transfer. Gene-transfer events can cross both species and genus boundaries and bacteriophages appear to play an important role in this process. A mechanism for horizontal gene transfer appears to be gene translocations leading to remodeling of bacteriophages in combination with broad tropism.
Project description:A novel PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the Brachyspira nox gene was developed. The restriction patterns for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. murdochii, and B. innocens were highly distinct with two restriction endonucleases only. The assay proved to be user-friendly and robust.
Project description:Avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS), an important but neglected disease in laying hens, is caused by Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. intermedia, and B. alvinipulli. Poultry are also frequently colonized by putatively nonpathogenic species such as B. murdochii and B. innocens. We evaluated the differentiation of Brachyspira species by 3 methods: sequencing of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase gene ( nox), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and a new multiplex (m)PCR targeting genes such as the tryptophanase A gene ( tnaA) and the p-aminobenzoyl-glutamate hydrolase subunit B gene ( abgB). Sequencing of 414 bp of the nox PCR amplification products generated from 41 pure cultures of avian Brachyspira isolates allowed presumptive species identification in 33 isolates with at least 99% identity in basic local alignment search tool analysis, including B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. innocens, and " B. pulli". MALDI-TOF MS analysis was found to be a reliable tool for differentiation after extension of the manufacturer's database. In the mPCR, all isolates identified as B. pilosicoli and B. intermedia were positive for abgB and tnaA, respectively. The mPCR might be very useful in detecting Brachyspira species in mixed cultures including not only nonpathogenic species, such as B. innocens, but also one of the AIS pathogens. We found that MALDI-TOF MS analysis combined with the mPCR targeting tnaA and abgB was suitable for the identification of avian isolates of B. pilosicoli and B. intermedia, 2 important agents of AIS.
Project description:Using three reference strains of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B204, B234, B169), one B. pilosicoli (P43/6/78), one B. murdochii (56-150), one B. intermedia (PWS/A), one B. innocens (B256) and ten Korean isolates, PCR-RFLP analysis of DNA encoding 23S rRNA was performed to establish a rapid and accurate method for characterizing porcine intestinal spirochetes. Consequently, B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli revealed different restriction patterns; however, the other three species shared the same pattern. These findings are not consistent with a prior report. Differences in 23S rRNA gene sequences, between two B. murdochii strains, 56-150 and 155-20, were observed. These results indicate that 23S rRNA PCR-RFLP could be used as an identification method for pathogenic Brachyspira spp. (B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli) as well as an epidemiological tool for characterizing spirochetes isolated from swine.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The anaerobic spirochete Brachyspira pilosicoli colonizes the large intestine of various species of birds and mammals, including humans. It causes "intestinal spirochetosis", a condition characterized by mild colitis, diarrhea and reduced growth. This study aimed to sequence and analyse the bacterial genome to investigate the genetic basis of its specialized ecology and virulence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genome of B. pilosicoli 95/1000 was sequenced, assembled and compared with that of the pathogenic Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and a near-complete sequence of Brachyspira murdochii. The B. pilosicoli genome was circular, composed of 2,586,443 bp with a 27.9 mol% G+C content, and encoded 2,338 genes. The three Brachyspira species shared 1,087 genes and showed evidence of extensive genome rearrangements. Despite minor differences in predicted protein functional groups, the species had many similar features including core metabolic pathways. Genes distinguishing B. pilosicoli from B. hyodysenteriae included those for a previously undescribed bacteriophage that may be useful for genetic manipulation, for a glycine reductase complex allowing use of glycine whilst protecting from oxidative stress, and for aconitase and related enzymes in the incomplete TCA cycle, allowing glutamate synthesis and function of the cycle during oxidative stress. B. pilosicoli had substantially fewer methyl-accepting chemotaxis genes than B. hyodysenteriae and hence these species are likely to have different chemotactic responses that may help to explain their different host range and colonization sites. B. pilosicoli lacked the gene for a new putative hemolysin identified in B. hyodysenteriae WA1. Both B. pilosicoli and B. murdochii lacked the rfbBADC gene cluster found on the B. hyodysenteriae plasmid, and hence were predicted to have different lipooligosaccharide structures. Overall, B. pilosicoli 95/1000 had a variety of genes potentially contributing to virulence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The availability of the complete genome sequence of B. pilosicoli 95/1000 will facilitate functional genomics studies aimed at elucidating host-pathogen interactions and virulence.
Project description:Anseriformes deserve special attention in the epidemiology of Brachyspira spp. because diverse Anseriformes species have been described to act as highly efficient carriers of several Brachyspira spp. that can also infect livestock. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and diversity of Brachyspira spp. in waterfowl that winter in Spain. Brachyspira spp. were isolated from 51 of the 205 faecal samples collected from graylag geese and mallards in the Villafáfila Lagoons Nature Reserve (Northwestern Spain). The Brachyspira species identified through phenotyping, PCR and sequencing of the nox gene were B. pilosicoli (5.9%), B. alvinipulli (11.8%), "B. hampsonii" (19.6%), B. murdochii (23.5%) and B. innocens (39.2%). The most relevant finding of this study is the description of "B. hampsonii" in specimens from birds for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the nox gene sequences grouped all of the obtained "B. hampsonii" isolates into a cluster with Brachyspira strains previously identified by others as "B. hampsonii" and separated from other Brachyspira spp. isolates and reference strains. Additionally, this cluster was related to clades that grouped B. murdochii and B. innocens isolates. The identification of "B. hampsonii" was also achieved in 8 of the 10 isolates by sequencing the16S rRNA gene and tlyA gene. Regardless of the species identified, no antimicrobial resistance was observed in any of the enteropathogenic isolates recovered. This is the first description of "B. hampsonii" in European waterfowl, which might represent hosts that serve as natural reservoirs of this Brachyspira species. This finding indicates that this spirochete is not limited to North America, and its presence in wild birds in Europe poses a risk of transmission to livestock.
Project description:Brachyspira murdochii Stanton et al. 1992 is a non-pathogenic, host-associated spirochete of the family Brachyspiraceae. Initially isolated from the intestinal content of a healthy swine, the 'group B spirochaetes' were first described as Serpulina murdochii. Members of the family Brachyspiraceae are of great phylogenetic interest because of the extremely isolated location of this family within the phylum 'Spirochaetes'. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of a type strain of a member of the family Brachyspiraceae and only the second genome sequence from a member of the genus Brachyspira. The 3,241,804 bp long genome with its 2,893 protein-coding and 40 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Project description:Colonic spirochetosis (CS) is a newly emerging infectious disease of humans and animals caused by the pathogenic spirochete Brachyspira (formerly Serpulina) pilosicoli. The purpose of this study was to characterize an antigen that was recognized by antibodies present in sera of challenge-exposed pigs. The gene encoding the antigen was identified by screening a plasmid library of human B. pilosicoli strain SP16 (ATCC 49776) genomic DNA with hyperimmune and convalescent swine sera. The predicted amino acid sequence encoded by the cloned B. pilosicoli gene had a high degree of similarity and identity to glucose-galactose MglB lipoprotein. Located 106 bp downstream of the putative mglB gene was a 3'-truncated open reading frame with 73.8% similarity and 66.3% identity to mglA of Escherichia coli, suggesting a gene arrangement within an operon which is similar to those of other bacteria. A single copy of the gene was present in B. pilosicoli, and homologous sequences were widely conserved among porcine intestinal spirochetes Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira murdochii, and the avian Brachyspira alvinipulli, but not in porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, human Brachyspira aalborgi, and porcine Treponema succinifaciens. The deduced molecular weight of the mature MglB lipoprotein was consistent with expression by the cloned gene of a polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000, as determined by Western blot analysis and [(3)H]palmitate labeling. Because mucin is the principal constituent of the colonic mucus gel and consists of glycoproteins that can serve as the substrate for growth and chemotaxis of B. pilosicoli in vitro, a role for MglB in mucosal localization of the spirochete appears consistent with the pathogenesis of CS. However, the presence of homologous sequences in closely related but nonpathogenic commensal spirochetes suggests that other virulence determinants may be required for pathogenesis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. METHOD:Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox), and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. RESULTS:Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus), three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum), and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi) sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills), and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills). Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species 'B. pulli' and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to human strains were found. None of the tested strains showed decreased susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, tylvalosin, lincomycin, or tylosin. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first report of intestinal spirochaetes from this region. Despite limitations of current diagnostic methods, our results, together with earlier studies, show that Brachyspira spp., including potentially pathogenic strains, occur globally among free-living avian hosts, and that this genus encompasses a higher degree of biodiversity than previously recognised.
Project description:Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered "Brachyspira hampsonii," have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Brachyspira associated diarrhea is a re-emerging concern for Canadian swine producers. To identify critical control points for reducing the impact of Brachyspira on production, improved diagnostic tools and a better understanding of the on-farm epidemiology of these pathogens are required. A cross-sectional study was conducted for the detection of Brachyspira on a commercial, two-site, farrow-to-finish pork production unit in Saskatchewan, Canada with a clinical history of mucohaemorrhagic colitis associated with "B. hampsonii". RESULTS: Rectal swabs from pigs at all production stages were collected over 13 weeks (n=866). Two swabs were collected per pig for culture and Gram stain, and for PCR. Ninety-one culture positive samples were detected, with the highest prevalence of Brachyspira shedding in grower pigs (21%). No Brachyspira were detected in pre-weaned piglets. PCR and Gram stain of rectal swabs detected fewer positive samples than culture. The most prevalent species detected was B. murdochii; other species detected included B. pilosicoli, B. innocens, and "Brachyspira hampsonii". Phylogenetic analysis revealed that several of the isolates, including some strongly beta-haemolytic isolates, might represent novel taxa. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that apparently healthy pigs can be colonized with diverse Brachyspira species, including some potential pathogens, and that frequency of shedding peaks in the grower stage. Difference in the detection rates of Brachyspira amongst culture, Gram stain or PCR on rectal swabs have implications for choice of detection methods and surveillance approaches that may be most effective in Brachyspira control strategies.