Cellular networks involved in the influenza virus life cycle.
ABSTRACT: Influenza viruses cause epidemics and pandemics. Like all viruses, influenza viruses rely on the host cellular machinery to support their life cycle. Accordingly, identification of the host functions co-opted for viral replication is of interest to understand the mechanisms of the virus life cycle and to find new targets for the development of antiviral compounds. Among the various approaches used to explore host factor involvement in the influenza virus replication cycle, perhaps the most powerful is RNAi-based genome-wide screening, which has shed new light on the search for host factors involved in virus replication. In this review, we examine the cellular genes identified to date as important for influenza virus replication in genome-wide screens, assess pathways that were repeatedly identified in these studies, and discuss how these pathways might be involved in the individual steps of influenza virus replication, ultimately leading to a comprehensive understanding of the virus life cycle.
Project description:Influenza pandemics occur unpredictably when zoonotic influenza viruses with novel antigenicity acquire the ability to transmit amongst humans. Host range breaches are limited by incompatibilities between avian virus components and the human host. Barriers include receptor preference, virion stability and poor activity of the avian virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in human cells. Mutants of the heterotrimeric viral polymerase components, particularly PB2 protein, are selected during mammalian adaptation, but their mode of action is unknown. We show that a species-specific difference in host protein ANP32A accounts for the suboptimal function of avian virus polymerase in mammalian cells. Avian ANP32A possesses an additional 33 amino acids between the leucine-rich repeats and carboxy-terminal low-complexity acidic region domains. In mammalian cells, avian ANP32A rescued the suboptimal function of avian virus polymerase to levels similar to mammalian-adapted polymerase. Deletion of the avian-specific sequence from chicken ANP32A abrogated this activity, whereas its insertion into human ANP32A, or closely related ANP32B, supported avian virus polymerase function. Substitutions, such as PB2(E627K), were rapidly selected upon infection of humans with avian H5N1 or H7N9 influenza viruses, adapting the viral polymerase for the shorter mammalian ANP32A. Thus ANP32A represents an essential host partner co-opted to support influenza virus replication and is a candidate host target for novel antivirals.
Project description:Influenza virus is a major human and animal pathogen causing seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics in the human population that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza A virus, a member of the orthomyxovirus family, contains an RNA genome with a coding capacity for a limited number of proteins. In addition to ensuring the structural integrity of virions, these viral proteins facilitate the replication of virus in the host cell. Consequently, viral proteins often evolve to perform multiple functions, the influenza A virus nuclear export protein (NEP) (also referred to as non-structural protein 2, or NS2) being an emerging example. NEP was originally implicated in mediating the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, which are synthesized in the infected cell nucleus and are assembled into progeny virions at the cell membrane. However, since then, new and unexpected roles for NEP during the influenza virus life cycle have started to emerge. These recent studies have shown NEP to be involved in regulating the accumulation of viral genomic vRNA and antigenomic cRNA as well as viral mRNA synthesized by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Subsequently, this regulation of viral RNA transcription and replication by NEP was shown to be an important factor in the adaptation of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses to the mammalian host. Unexpectedly, NEP has also been implicated in recruiting a cellular ATPase to the cell membrane to aid the efficient release of budding virions. Accordingly, NEP is proposed to play multiple biologically important roles during the influenza virus life cycle.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) is a human respiratory pathogen that causes yearly global epidemics, as well as sporadic pandemics due to human adaptation of pathogenic strains. Efficient replication of IAV in different species is, in part, dictated by its ability to exploit the genetic environment of the host cell. To investigate IAV tropism in human cells, we evaluated the replication of IAV strains in a diverse subset of epithelial cell lines. HeLa cells were refractory to the growth of human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses and low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. Interestingly, a human isolate of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus successfully propagated in HeLa cells to levels comparable to those in a human lung cell line. Heterokaryon cells generated by fusion of HeLa and permissive cells supported H1N1 virus growth, suggesting the absence of a host factor(s) required for the replication of H1N1, but not H5N1, viruses in HeLa cells. The absence of this factor(s) was mapped to reduced nuclear import, replication, and translation, as well as deficient viral budding. Using reassortant H1N1:H5N1 viruses, we found that the combined introduction of nucleoprotein (NP) and hemagglutinin (HA) from an H5N1 virus was necessary and sufficient to enable H1N1 virus growth. Overall, this study suggests that the absence of one or more cellular factors in HeLa cells results in abortive replication of H1N1, H3N2, and LPAI viruses, which can be circumvented upon the introduction of H5N1 virus NP and HA. Further understanding of the molecular basis of this restriction will provide important insights into the virus-host interactions that underlie IAV pathogenesis and tropism.IMPORTANCE Many zoonotic avian influenza A viruses have successfully crossed the species barrier and caused mild to life-threatening disease in humans. While human-to-human transmission is limited, there is a risk that these zoonotic viruses may acquire adaptive mutations enabling them to propagate efficiently and cause devastating human pandemics. Therefore, it is important to identify viral determinants that provide these viruses with a replicative advantage in human cells. Here, we tested the growth of influenza A virus in a subset of human cell lines and found that abortive replication of H1N1 viruses in HeLa cells can be circumvented upon the introduction of H5N1 virus HA and NP. Overall, this work leverages the genetic diversity of multiple human cell lines to highlight viral determinants that could contribute to H5N1 virus pathogenesis and tropism.
Project description:All viruses rely on host cell proteins and their associated mechanisms to complete the viral life cycle. Identifying the host molecules that participate in each step of virus replication could provide valuable new targets for antiviral therapy, but this goal may take several decades to achieve with conventional forward genetic screening methods and mammalian cell cultures. Here we describe a novel genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila that can be used to identify host genes important for influenza virus replication. After modifying influenza virus to allow infection of Drosophila cells and detection of influenza virus gene expression, we tested an RNAi library against 13,071 genes (90% of the Drosophila genome), identifying over 100 for which suppression in Drosophila cells significantly inhibited or stimulated reporter gene (Renilla luciferase) expression from an influenza-virus-derived vector. The relevance of these findings to influenza virus infection of mammalian cells is illustrated for a subset of the Drosophila genes identified; that is, for three implicated Drosophila genes, the corresponding human homologues ATP6V0D1, COX6A1 and NXF1 are shown to have key functions in the replication of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza A viruses, but not vesicular stomatitis virus or vaccinia virus, in human HEK 293 cells. Thus, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using genome-wide RNAi screens in Drosophila to identify previously unrecognized host proteins that are required for influenza virus replication. This could accelerate the development of new classes of antiviral drugs for chemoprophylaxis and treatment, which are urgently needed given the obstacles to rapid development of an effective vaccine against pandemic influenza and the probable emergence of strains resistant to available drugs.
Project description:Despite heroic efforts to prevent the emergence of an influenza pandemic, avian influenza A virus has prevailed by crossing the species barriers to infect humans worldwide, occasionally with morbidity and mortality at unprecedented levels, and the virus later usually continues circulation in humans as a seasonal influenza virus, resulting in health-social-economic problems each year. Here, we review current knowledge of influenza viruses, their life cycle, interspecies transmission, and past pandemics and discuss the molecular basis of pandemic acquisition, notably of hemagglutinin (lectin) acting as a key contributor to change in host specificity in viral infection.
Project description:Influenza A viruses cause seasonal epidemics and global pandemics, representing a considerable burden to healthcare systems. Central to the replication cycle of influenza viruses is the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase which transcribes and replicates the viral RNA genome. The polymerase undergoes conformational rearrangements and interacts with viral and host proteins to perform these functions. Here we determine the structure of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase in transcriptase and replicase conformations using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). We then structurally and functionally characterise the binding of single-domain nanobodies to the polymerase of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus. Combining these functional and structural data we identify five sites on the polymerase which are sensitive to inhibition by nanobodies. We propose that the binding of nanobodies at these sites either prevents the polymerase from assuming particular functional conformations or interactions with viral or host factors. The polymerase is highly conserved across the influenza A subtypes, suggesting these sites as effective targets for potential influenza antiviral development.
Project description:Influenza virus infection through seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics has been a major public health concern for decades. Incomplete protection from vaccination and increased antiviral resistance due to frequent mutations of influenza viruses have led to a continuous need for new therapeutic options. The functional significance of host protein and influenza virus interactions has been established, but relatively less is known about the interaction of host noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs, with influenza viruses. In this review, we summarize host noncoding RNA profiles during influenza virus infection and the regulation of influenza virus infection by host noncoding RNAs. Influenza viral non-coding RNAs are briefly discussed. Increased understanding of the molecular regulation of influenza viral replication will be beneficial in identifying potential therapeutic targets against the influenza virus.
Project description:Influenza virus causes epidemics and sporadic pandemics resulting in morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. Influenza viruses require host genes to replicate. RNA interference (RNAi) screens can identify host genes coopted by influenza virus for replication. Targeting these proinfluenza genes can provide therapeutic strategies to reduce virus replication. Nineteen proinfluenza G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and 13 proinfluenza ion channel genes were identified in human lung (A549) cells by use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). These proinfluenza genes were authenticated by testing influenza virus A/WSN/33-, A/CA/04/09-, and B/Yamagata/16/1988-infected A549 cells, resulting in the validation of 16 proinfluenza GPCR and 5 proinfluenza ion channel genes. These findings showed that several GPCR and ion channel genes are needed for the production of infectious influenza virus. These data provide potential targets for the development of host-directed therapeutic strategies to impede the influenza virus productive cycle so as to limit infection.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Influenza epidemics result in morbidity and mortality each year. Vaccines are the most effective preventive measure but require annual reformulation, since a mismatch of vaccine strains can result in vaccine failure. Antiviral measures are desirable particularly when vaccines fail. In this study, we used RNAi screening to identify several GPCR and ion channel genes needed for influenza virus replication. Understanding the host genes usurped by influenza virus during viral replication can help identify host genes that can be targeted for drug repurposing or for the development of antiviral drugs. The targeting of host genes is refractory to drug resistance generated by viral mutations, as well as providing a platform for the development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs.
Project description:Viruses are obligate parasites and thus require the machinery of the host cell to replicate. Inhibition of host factors co-opted during active infection is a strategy hosts use to suppress viral replication and a potential pan-antiviral therapy. To define the cellular proteins and processes required for a virus during infection is thus crucial to understanding the mechanisms of virally induced disease. In this report, we generated fully infectious tagged influenza viruses and used infection-based proteomics to identify pivotal arms of cellular signaling required for influenza virus growth and infectivity. Using mathematical modeling and genetic and pharmacologic approaches, we revealed that modulation of Sec61-mediated cotranslational translocation selectively impaired glycoprotein proteostasis of influenza as well as HIV and dengue viruses and led to inhibition of viral growth and infectivity. Thus, by studying virus-human protein-protein interactions in the context of active replication, we have identified targetable host factors for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.
Project description:Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are zoonotic pathogens that cause yearly outbreaks with high rates of morbidity and fatality. The virus continuously acquires point mutations while circulating in several hosts, ranging from aquatic birds to mammals, including humans. The wide range of hosts provides influenza A viruses greater chances of genetic re-assortment, leading to the emergence of zoonotic strains and occasional pandemics that have a severe impact on human life. Four major influenza pandemics have been reported to date, and health authorities worldwide have shown tremendous progress in efforts to control epidemics and pandemics. Here, we primarily discuss the pathogenesis of influenza virus type A, its epidemiology, pandemic potential, current status of antiviral drugs and vaccines, and ways to effectively manage the disease during a crisis.