Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide modulate DNA repair through ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein.
ABSTRACT: Stability and repair of DNA is of principal importance in cell survival. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; Hmox1) is critical in maintaining cellular homeostasis, in large part through its ability to generate CO, but neither molecule has been studied in the setting of DNA damage. Naïve Hmox1(-/-) mice exhibit excessive tissue levels of ?-histone H2A, whereas administration of genotoxic stressors or irradiation in HO-1-deficient cells resulted in loss of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated/ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein and breast cancer 1, early onset induction with dysfunctional ?-H2AX foci and marked elevations in DNA damage. HO-1 induction or exposure to CO induced homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair through ataxia-telangiectasia mutated/ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein. In vivo, exposure of mice to CO followed by genotoxin (Adriamycin) or radiation-induced injury led to diminished tissue DNA damage and improved survival. We characterize a joint role for HO-1 and the gasotransmitter CO for appropriate DNA repair and provide a mechanism for their potent cytoprotective effects in various pathologies.
Project description:RPA (replication protein A) is an essential factor for DNA DSB (double-strand break) repair and cell cycle checkpoint activation. The 32 kDa subunit of RPA undergoes hyperphosphorylation in response to cellular genotoxic insults. However, the potential involvement of hyperphosphorylated RPA in DSB repair and checkpoint activation remains unclear. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays, we showed that cellular interaction of RPA with two DSB repair factors, Rad51 and Rad52, was predominantly mediated by the hyperphosphorylated species of RPA in cells after UV and camptothecin treatment. Moreover, Rad51 and Rad52 displayed higher affinity for the hyperphosphorylated RPA than native RPA in an in vitro binding assay. Checkpoint kinase ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related) also interacted more efficiently with the hyperphosphorylated RPA than with native RPA following DNA damage. Consistently, immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the hyperphosphorylated RPA was able to co-localize with Rad52 and ATR to form significant nuclear foci in cells. Our results suggest that hyperphosphorylated RPA is preferentially localized to DSB repair and the DNA damage checkpoint complexes in response to DNA damage.
Project description:The telomere end-protection problem is defined by the aggregate of DNA damage signaling and repair pathways that require repression at telomeres. To define the end-protection problem, we removed the whole shelterin complex from mouse telomeres through conditional deletion of TRF1 and TRF2 in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) deficient cells. The data reveal two DNA damage response pathways not previously observed upon deletion of individual shelterin proteins. The shelterin-free telomeres are processed by microhomology-mediated alternative-NHEJ when Ku70/80 is absent and are attacked by nucleolytic degradation in the absence of 53BP1. The data establish that the end-protection problem is specified by six pathways [ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related) signaling, classical-NHEJ, alt-NHEJ, homologous recombination, and resection] and show how shelterin acts with general DNA damage response factors to solve this problem.
Project description:In response to DNA damage, mammalian cells activate various DNA repair pathways to remove DNA lesions and, meanwhile, halt cell cycle progressions to allow sufficient time for repair. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) and the ATR-dependent cell cycle checkpoint activation are two major cellular responses to DNA damage induced by UV irradiation. However, how these two processes are coordinated in the response is poorly understood. Here we showed that the essential NER factor XPA (xeroderma pigmentosum group A) underwent nuclear accumulation upon UV irradiation, and strikingly, such an event occurred in an ATR (Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated and RAD3-related)-dependent manner. Either treatment of cells with ATR kinase inhibitors or transfection of cells with small interfering RNA targeting ATR compromised the UV-induced XPA nuclear translocation. Consistently, the ATR-deficient cells displayed no substantial XPA nuclear translocation while the translocation remained intact in ATM (Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated)-deficient cells in response to UV irradiation. Moreover, we found that ATR is required for the UV-induced nuclear focus formation of XPA. Taken together, our results suggested that the ATR checkpoint pathway may modulate NER activity through the regulation of XPA redistribution in human cells upon UV irradiation.
Project description:Senataxin, defective in ataxia oculomotor apraxia type 2, protects the genome by facilitating the resolution of RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops) and other aspects of RNA processing. Disruption of this gene in mice causes failure of meiotic recombination and defective meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, leading to male infertility. Here we provide evidence that the disruption of Setx leads to reduced SUMOylation and disruption of protein localization across the XY body during meiosis. We demonstrate that senataxin and other DNA damage repair proteins, including ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein-interacting partner, are SUMOylated, and a marked downregulation of both ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein-interacting partner and TopBP1 leading to defective activation and signaling through ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein occurs in the absence of senataxin. Furthermore, chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4, a component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase chromatin remodeler that interacts with both ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein and senataxin was not recruited efficiently to the XY body, triggering altered histone acetylation and chromatin conformation in Setx (-/-) pachytene-staged spermatocytes. These results demonstrate that senataxin has a critical role in ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein- and chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4-mediated transcriptional silencing and chromatin remodeling during meiosis providing greater insight into its critical role in gene regulation to protect against neurodegeneration.
Project description:Homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) are two distinct DNA double-stranded break (DSB) repair pathways. Here, we report that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), the core component of NHEJ, partnering with DNA-damage checkpoint kinases ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), regulates HR repair of DSBs. The regulation was accomplished through modulation of the p53 and replication protein A (RPA) interaction. We show that upon DNA damage, p53 and RPA were freed from a p53-RPA complex by simultaneous phosphorylations of RPA at the N-terminus of RPA32 subunit by DNA-PK and of p53 at Ser37 and Ser46 in a Chk1/Chk2-independent manner by ATR and ATM, respectively. Neither the phosphorylation of RPA nor of p53 alone could dissociate p53 and RPA. Furthermore, disruption of the release significantly compromised HR repair of DSBs. Our results reveal a mechanism for the crosstalk between HR repair and NHEJ through the co-regulation of p53-RPA interaction by DNA-PK, ATM and ATR.
Project description:Chromatin changes within the context of DNA repair remain largely obscure. Here we show that DNA damage induces monoubiquitylation of histone H2A in the vicinity of DNA lesions. Ultraviolet (UV)-induced monoubiquitylation of H2A is dependent on functional nucleotide excision repair and occurs after incision of the damaged strand. The ubiquitin ligase Ring2 is required for the DNA damage-induced H2A ubiquitylation. UV-induced ubiquitylation of H2A is dependent on the DNA damage signaling kinase ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related) but not the related kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated). Although the response coincides with phosphorylation of variant histone H2AX, H2AX was not required for H2A ubiquitylation. Together our data show that monoubiquitylation of H2A forms part of the cellular response to UV damage and suggest a role of this modification in DNA repair-induced chromatin remodeling.
Project description:The DNA damage response (DDR) encompasses the cellular response to DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), and includes recognition of the DSB, recruitment of numerous factors to the DNA damage site, initiation of signaling cascades, chromatin remodeling, cell-cycle checkpoint activation, and repair of the DSB. Key drivers of the DDR are multiple members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase family, including ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). ATM and ATR modulate multiple portions of the DDR, but DNA-PKcs is believed to primarily function in the DSB repair pathway, non-homologous end joining. Utilizing a human cell line in which the kinase domain of DNA-PKcs is inactivated, we show here that DNA-PKcs kinase activity is required for the cellular response to DSBs immediately after their induction. Specifically, DNA-PKcs kinase activity initiates phosphorylation of the chromatin factors H2AX and KAP1 following ionizing radiation exposure and drives local chromatin decondensation near the DSB site. Furthermore, loss of DNA-PKcs kinase activity results in a marked decrease in the recruitment of numerous members of the DDR machinery to DSBs. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that DNA-PKcs activity is pivotal for the initiation of the DDR.
Project description:The DNA damage response kinases ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), and ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) signal through multiple pathways to promote genome maintenance. These related kinases share similar methods of regulation, including recruitment to specific nucleic acid structures and association with protein activators. ATM and DNA-PK also are regulated via phosphorylation, which provides a convenient biomarker for their activity. Whether phosphorylation regulates ATR is unknown. Here we identify ATR Thr-1989 as a DNA damage-regulated phosphorylation site. Selective inhibition of ATR prevents Thr-1989 phosphorylation, and phosphorylation requires ATR activation. Cells engineered to express only a non-phosphorylatable T1989A mutant exhibit a modest ATR functional defect. Our results suggest that, like ATM and DNA-PK, phosphorylation regulates ATR, and phospho-peptide specific antibodies to Thr-1989 provide a proximal marker of ATR activation.
Project description:The DNA damage response (DDR) ensures cellular adaptation to genotoxic insults. In the crowded environment of the nucleus, the assembly of productive DDR complexes requires multiple protein modifications. How the apical E1 ubiquitin activation enzyme UBA1 integrates spatially and temporally in the DDR remains elusive. Using a human cell-free system, we show that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 promotes the recruitment of UBA1 to DNA. We find that the association of UBA1 with poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated protein-DNA complexes is necessary for the phosphorylation replication protein A and checkpoint kinase 1 by the serine/threonine protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia and RAD3-related, a prototypal response to DNA damage. UBA1 interacts directly with poly(ADP-ribose) via a solvent-accessible and positively charged patch conserved in the Animalia kingdom but not in Fungi. Thus, ubiquitin activation can anchor to poly(ADP-ribose)-seeded protein assemblies, ensuring the formation of functional ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and RAD3-related-signalling complexes.
Project description:Oncolytic adenoviruses replicate selectively within and lyse malignant cells. As such, they are being developed as anticancer therapeutics. However, the sensitivity of ovarian cancers to adenovirus cytotoxicity varies greatly, even in cells of similar infectivity. Using both the adenovirus E1A-CR2 deletion mutant dl922-947 and WT adenovirus serotype 5 in a panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines that cover a 3-log range of sensitivity, we observed profound overreplication of genomic DNA only in highly sensitive cell lines. This was associated with the presence of extensive genomic DNA damage. Inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related checkpoint kinase 1 (ATR-Chk1), but not ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), promoted genomic DNA damage and overreplication in resistant and partially sensitive cells. This was accompanied by increased adenovirus cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. We also demonstrated that Cdc25A was upregulated in highly sensitive ovarian cancer cell lines after adenovirus infection and was stabilized after loss of Chk1 activity. Knockdown of Cdc25A inhibited virus-induced DNA damage in highly sensitive cells and blocked the effects of Chk1 inhibition in resistant cells. Finally, inhibition of Chk1 decreased homologous recombination repair of virus-induced genomic DNA double-strand breaks. Thus, virus-induced host cell DNA damage signaling and repair are key determinants of oncolytic adenoviral activity, and promoting unscheduled DNA synthesis and/or impeding homologous recombination repair could potentiate the effects of oncolytic adenoviruses in the treatment of ovarian cancer.