Multicomponent folate-targeted magnetoliposomes: design, characterization, and cellular uptake.
ABSTRACT: Folate-targeted cationic magnetoliposomes (FTMLs) have been prepared with coencapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) and anionic superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs) with 5 nm ?-Fe(2)O(3) cores and 16 nm hydrodynamic diameters. NP encapsulation (89%) was confirmed by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the presence of the oppositely charged NPs did not cause liposome aggregation. The FTMLs had an average diameter of 174 ± 53 nm and existed as unilamellar and cup-shaped liposomes, which was attributed to dissimilar lipid packing parameters and the presence of PEG-lipids. A 3-fold increase in DOX release was achieved over 2 hours when the encapsulated SPIO NPs were heated by an alternating current electromagnetic field operating at radio frequencies (RF). Results with human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), which have been shown to exhibit high folate receptor (FR) expression, confirmed FTML surface binding and cellular uptake. In contrast, no uptake was observed for lower FR-expressing human breast carcinoma cells (ZR-75-1).This study discusses the design and cellular uptake of multifunctional folate-targeted cationic magnetoliposomes enabling doxorubicin delivery and SPIO labeling.
Project description:Background:Glioma represents the most common malignant brain tumor. Outcomes of surgical resection are often unsatisfactory due to low sensitivity or resolution of imaging methods. Moreover, the use of traditional chemotherapeutics, such as doxorubicin (DOX), is limited due to their low blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Recently, the development of nanotechnology could overcome these obstacles. Materials and methods:Hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were prepared with the use of thermal decomposition method. They were coated with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG 2000) and DOX using a thin-film hydration method followed by loading of indocyanine green (ICG) into the phospholipid layers. Details regarding the characteristics of NPs were determined. The in vitro biocompatibility and antitumor efficacy were established with the use of MTT assay. In vivo fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were used to evaluate BBB penetration and accumulation of NPs at the tumor site. Antitumor efficacy was evaluated using measures of tumor size, median survival times, body weights, and H&E staining. Results:The multifunctional NPs generated had an average diameter of 22.9 nm, a zeta potential of -38.19 mV, and were capable of providing a sustained release of DOX. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the SPIO@DSPE-PEG/DOX/ICG NPs effectively enhanced cellular uptake of DOX as compared with that of free DOX. In vivo fluorescence and MR imaging revealed that the NPs not only effectively crossed the BBB but selectively accumulated at the tumor site. Meanwhile, among all groups studied, C6 glioma-bearing rats treated with the NPs exhibited the maximal degree of therapeutic efficacy, including smallest tumor volume, lowest body weight loss, and longest survival times, with no obvious side effects. Conclusion:These results suggest that the SPIO@DSPE-PEG/DOX/ICG NPs can not only function as a nanoprobe for MR and fluorescence bimodal imaging, but also as a vehicle to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to the tumor site, to achieve the theranostic treatment of glioma.
Project description:Hepatic cancer is a serious disease with high morbidity and mortality. Theranostic agents with effective diagnostic and therapeutic capability are highly needed for the treatment of hepatic cancer. Herein, we aimed to develop a novel mesoporous polydopamine (MPDA)-based theranostic agent for T1/T2 dual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided cancer chemo-photothermal therapy. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-loaded MPDA NPs (MPDA@SPIO) was firstly prepared, followed by modifying with a targeted molecule of sialic acid (SA) and chelating with Fe3+ (SA-MPDA@SPIO/Fe3+ NPs). After that, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded SA-MPDA@SPIO/Fe3+ NPs (SA-MPDA@SPIO/DOX/Fe3+) was prepared for tumor theranostics. The prepared SAPEG-MPDA@SPIO/Fe3+ NPs were water-dispersible and biocompatible as evidenced by MTT assay. In vitro photothermal and relaxivity property suggested that the novel theranostic agent possessed excellent photothermal conversion capability and photostability, with relaxivity of being r1 = 4.29 mM-1s-1 and r2 = 105.53 mM-1s-1, respectively. SAPEG-MPDA@SPIO/Fe3+ NPs could effectively encapsulate the DOX, showing dual pH- and thermal-triggered drug release behavior. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that SA-MPDA@SPIO/DOX/Fe3+ NPs could effectively target to the hepatic tumor tissue, which was possibly due to the specific interaction between SA and the overexpressed E-selectin. This behavior also endowed SA-MPDA@SPIO/DOX/Fe3+ NPs with a more precise T1-T2 dual mode contrast imaging effect than the one without SA modification. In addition, SAPEG-MPDA@SPIO/DOX/Fe3+ NPs displayed a superior therapeutic effect, which was due to its active targeting ability and combined effects of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy. These results demonstrated that SAPEG-MPDA@SPIO/DOX/Fe3+ NPs is an effective targeted nanoplatform for tumor theranostics, having potential value in the effective treatment of hepatic cancer.
Project description:Drug targeting is an active area of research and nano-scaled drug delivery systems hold tremendous potential for the treatment of neoplasms. In this study, a novel cyclodextrin (CD)-based nanoparticle drug delivery system has been assembled and characterized for the therapy of folate receptor-positive [FR(+)] cancer. Water-soluble folic acid (FA)-conjugated CD carriers (FACDs) were successfully synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and circular dichroism. Drug complexes of adamatane (Ada) and cytotoxic doxorubicin (Dox) with FACD were readily obtained by mixed solvent precipitation. The average size of FACD-Ada-Dox was 1.5-2.5 nm. The host-guest association constant K a was 1,639 M(-1) as determined by induced circular dichroism and the hydrophilicity of the FACDs was greatly enhanced compared to unmodified CD. Cellular uptake and FR binding competitive experiments demonstrated an efficient and preferentially targeted delivery of Dox into FR-positive tumor cells and a sustained drug release profile was seen in vitro. The delivery of Dox into FR(+) cancer cells via endocytosis was observed by confocal microscopy and drug uptake of the targeted nanoparticles was 8-fold greater than that of non-targeted drug complexes. Our docking results suggest that FA, FACD and FACD-Ada-Dox could bind human hedgehog interacting protein that contains a FR domain. Mouse cardiomyocytes as well as fibroblast treated with FACD-Ada-Dox had significantly lower levels of reactive oxygen species, with increased content of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity, indicating a reduced potential for Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. These results indicate that the targeted drug complex possesses high drug association and sustained drug release properties with good biocompatibility and physiological stability. The novel FA-conjugated ?-CD based drug complex might be promising as an anti-tumor treatment for FR(+) cancer.
Project description:Albumin-based nanoparticles (NPs) as a drug delivery system have attracted much attention owing to their nontoxicity, non-immunogenicity, great stability and ability to bind to many therapeutic drugs. Herein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was utilized as a template to prepare Au-BSA core/shell NPs. The outer layer BSA was subsequently conjugated with <i>cis</i>-aconityl doxorubicin (DOX) and folic acid (FA) to create Au-BSA-DOX-FA nanocomposites. A list of characterizations was undertaken to identify the successful conjugation of drug molecules and targeted agents. In vitro cytotoxicity using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay indicated that Au-BSA NPs did not display obvious cytotoxicity to MGC-803 and GES-1 cells in the concentration range of 0-100 ?g/mL, which can therefore be used as a safe drug delivery carrier. Furthermore, compared with free DOX, Au-BSA-DOX-FA nanocomposites exhibited a pH-sensitive drug release ability and superior antitumor activity in a drug concentration-dependent manner. In vivo computed tomography (CT) imaging experiments showed that Au-BSA-DOX-FA nanocomposites could be used as an efficient and durable CT contrast agent for targeted CT imaging of the folate receptor (FR) overexpressed in cancer tissues. In vivo antitumor experiments demonstrated that Au-BSA-DOX-FA nanocomposites have selective antitumor activity effects on FR-overexpressing tumors and no adverse effects on normal tissues and organs. In conclusion, the Au-BSA-DOX-FA nanocomposite exhibits selective targeting activity, X-ray attenuation activity and pH-sensitive drug release activity. Therefore, it can enhance CT imaging and improve the targeting therapeutic efficacy of FR-overexpressing gastric cancers. Our findings suggest that Au-BSA-DOX-FA nanocomposite is a novel drug delivery carrier and a promising candidate for cancer theranostic applications.
Project description:Amylose is a promising nanocarrier for gene delivery in terms of its good biocompatibility and high transfection efficiency. Small interfering RNA against survivin (survivin-siRNA) can cause tumor apoptosis by silencing a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-specific gene at the messenger RNA level. In this study, we developed a new class of folate-functionalized, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-loaded cationic amylose nanoparticles to deliver survivin-siRNA to HCC cells. The cellular uptake of nanocomplexes, cytotoxicity, cell apoptosis, and gene suppression mediated by siRNA-complexed nanoparticles were tested. The results demonstrated that folate-functionalized, SPIO-loaded cationic amylose nanoparticles can mediate a specific and safe cellular uptake of survivin-siRNA with high transfection efficiency, resulting in a robust survivin gene downregulation in HCC cells. The biocompatible complex of cationic amylose could be used as an efficient, rapid, and safe gene delivery vector. Upon SPIO loading, it holds a great promise as a theranostic carrier for gene therapy of HCC.
Project description:The combination of drug and gene strategies for cancer therapy, has exhibited greater effectiveness than drug or gene therapy alone. In this paper, a coil-comb shaped polycationic brush was used as a multifunctional carrier for co-delivery of drug and gene. The side chains of the comb block of the brush were composed of cyclodextrin (CD)-containing cationic star polymers, with a super-high density of positive charge. Doxorubicin (DOX) could be loaded into the cavity of CD polymers to form DOX-loaded nanoparticles (DOX-NPs) and the p53 gene could be subsequently condensed by DOX-NPs. The obtained DOX-NPs/pDNA complexes were less than 150 nm in size, and so could transport DOX and the gene into the same cell. The complexes performed well with regards to their transfection efficiency on MCF-7 cancer cells. As a result, enhanced cell growth inhibition, with decreased DOX dosage was achieved due to the synergistic effect of co-delivery of DOX and the p53 gene. This finding provides an efficient approach for the development of a co-delivery system in combination therapy.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to compare the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of targeted and nontargeted doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded poly(d,l-lactide co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery systems in drug-resistant ovarian (SKOV-3) and uterine (MES-SA/Dx5) cancer cell lines. The cellular uptakes of DOX from nonconjugated DOX-loaded NPs (DNPs) and from HER-2 antibody-conjugated DOX-loaded NPs (ADNPs) in MES-SA/Dx5 cancer cells were higher compared to free DOX. Results also showed higher uptake of DOX from ADNPs in SKOV-3 cells compared with both free DOX and DNPs treatment. Cytotoxicity results at 10 ?M extracellular DOX concentration were consistent with the cellular uptake results. Our study concludes that cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of DOX can be improved in MES-SA/Dx5 cells by loading DOX into PLGA NPs. DNPs targeted to membrane receptors may enhance cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in SKOV-3 cells.The authors of this study compare the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of targeted and nontargeted doxorubicin loaded PLGA nanoparticle delivery systems in drug-resistant ovarian and uterine cancer cell lines, concluding that cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of doxorubicin can be improved by the proposed methods.
Project description:pH-responsive virus-like nanoparticles (VLNPs) hold promising potential as drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. In the present study, hepatitis B virus (HBV) VLNPs harbouring His-tags were used to display doxorubicin (DOX) via nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) conjugation. The His-tags served as pH-responsive nanojoints which released DOX from VLNPs in a controlled manner. The His-tagged VLNPs conjugated non-covalently with NTA-DOX, and cross-linked with folic acid (FA) were able to specifically target and deliver the DOX into ovarian cancer cells via folate receptor (FR)-mediated endocytosis. The cytotoxicity and cellular uptake results revealed that the His-tagged VLNPs significantly increased the accumulation of DOX in the ovarian cancer cells and enhanced the uptake of DOX, which improved anti-tumour effects. This study demonstrated that NTA-DOX can be easily displayed on His-tagged VLNPs by a simple Add-and-Display step with high coupling efficiency and the drug was only released at low pH in a controlled manner. This approach facilitates specific attachment of any drug molecule on His-tagged VLNPs at the very mild conditions without changing the biological structure and native conformation of the VLNPs.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the potential of a dual-targeted pH-sensitive doxorubicin prodrug-microbubble complex (DPMC) in ultrasound (US)-assisted antitumor therapy. The doxorubicin prodrug (DP) consists of a succinylated-heparin carrier conjugated with doxorubicin (DOX) <i>via</i> hydrazone linkage and decorated with dual targeting ligands, folate and cRGD peptide. Combination of microbubble (MB) and DP, generated <i>via</i> avidin-biotin binding, promoted intracellular accumulation and improved therapeutic efficiency assisted by US cavitation and sonoporation. Aggregates of prepared DP were observed with an inhomogeneous size distribution (average diameters: 149.6±29.8 nm and 1036.2±38.8 nm, PDI: 1.0) while DPMC exhibited a uniform distribution (average diameter: 5.804±2.1 ?m), facilitating its usage for drug delivery. Notably, upon US exposure, DPMC was disrupted and aggregated DP dispersed into homogeneous small-sized nanoparticles (average diameter: 128.6±42.3 nm, PDI: 0.21). DPMC could target to angiogenic endothelial cells in tumor region <i>via</i> ?<sub>v</sub>?<sub>3</sub>-mediated recognition and subsequently facilitate its specific binding to tumor cells mediated <i>via</i> recognition of folate receptor (FR) after US exposure. <i>In vitro</i> experiments showed higher tumor specificity and killing ability of DPMC with US than free DOX and DP for breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, significant accumulation and specificity for tumor tissues of DPMC with US were detected using <i>in vivo</i> fluorescence and ultrasound molecular imaging, indicating its potential to integrate tumor imaging and therapy. In particular, through inducing apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and antagonizing angiogenesis, DPMC with US produced higher tumor inhibition rates than DOX or DPMC without US in MCF-7 xenograft tumor-bearing mice while inducing no obvious body weight loss. Our strategy provides an effective platform for the delivery of large-sized or aggregated particles to tumor sites, thereby extending their therapeutic applications <i>in vivo</i>.
Project description:We developed a novel, pH-sensitive drug delivery microparticle based on N-palmitoyl chitosan (NPCS) to transport the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The characteristics of NPCS were characterized through nuclear magnetic resonance. Our results based on testing of volume swelling in multiple pH aqueous solutions revealed that the modified chitosan had a pH-sensitive property. The morphology and size of the DOX-SPIO/NPCS microparticles were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The statistical result of microparticles had diameter of 185 ± 87 nm. Surface chemical moieties of DOX-SPIO/NPCS microparticles were confirmed using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and indicated the existence of mostly hydrophilic groups such as -OH, -C=O, and -C-O-C-. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the dark contrast of SPIO dots encapsulated in the NPCS matrix. Nuclear magnetic resonance T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging confirmed that the produced DOX-SPIO/NPCS microparticles still exhibited T2 relaxation durations as short as 37.68 ± 8.69 ms (under administration of 2.5 ?g/mL), which is comparable to the clinically required dosage. In the drug release profile, the DOX-SPIO/NPCS drug delivery microparticle was accelerated in an acidic environment (pH 6.5) compared with that in a basic environment. Microparticles in a cytotoxicity assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay) revealed that DOX-SPIO/NPCS microparticles had better antitumor ability than did free-form of DOX. Additionally, microparticles loaded with 0.5-5 ?g/mL DOX in an acidic environment (pH 6.5) demonstrated higher efficacy against Hep G2 cell growth, possibly because of the swelling effect of NPCS, resulting in volume expansion and easy drug release. Accordingly, these large DOX-SPIO/NPCS microparticles showed potential for application as a pH-sensitive drug delivery system and as chemoembolization particles for hepatic carcinoma therapy.