Generation of an infectious clone of HuN4-F112, an attenuated live vaccine strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nowadays, PRRS has become one of the most economically important infectious diseases of pig worldwide. To better characterize and understand the molecular basis of PRRSV virulence determinants, it would be important to develop the infectious cDNA clones. In this regard, HuN4-F112, a live-attenuated North-American-type PRRSV vaccine strain, could serve as an excellent model. RESULTS: In the study, genomic sequence of HuN4-F112, an attenuated vaccine virus derived from the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) HuN4 strain, was determined and its full-length cDNA was cloned. Capped RNA was transcribed in vitro from the cDNA clone and transfected into BHK-21 cells. The supernatant from transfected monolayers were serially passaged in Marc-145 cells. The rescued virus exhibited a similar growth pattern to its parental virus in Marc-145 cells with peak titers at 48 h post-infection. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we rescued virus from an infectious cDNA clone of attenuated vaccine. It is possible in the future that a new attenuated PRRSV vaccine with broader specificity and good immunogenicity can be designed in vitro via an infectious cDNA clone platform coupled with validated information on virulence determinants.
Project description:Currently, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important viral pathogens in swine in most countries, especially China. Two PRRSV attenuated live vaccine strains (HuN4-F112 and CH-1R) are currently widely used in China. Our previous study showed that HuN4-F112, but not CH-1R, induced high anti-nucleocapsid (N) antibody and neutralizing antibody (NA) titers. Additionally, sera from HuN4-F112 inoculated pigs induced low cross neutralization of CH-1R.In the present study, 6 chimeric viruses through exchanging 5' untranslated region (UTR) + open reading frame (ORF)1a, ORF1b, and ORF2-7 + 3'UTR between HuN4-F112 and CH-1R were constructed and rescued based on the infectious clones of rHuN4-F112 and rCH-1R. The characteristics of these viruses were investigated in vitro and vivo.All the three fragments, 5'UTR + ORF1a, ORF1b, and ORF2-7 + 3'UTR, could affect the replication efficiencies of rHuN4-F112 and rCH-1R in vitro. Additionally, both 5'UTR + ORF1a and ORF2-7 + 3'UTR affected the anti-N antibody and NA responses targeting rHuN4-F112 and rCH-1R in piglets.The 5'UTR + ORF1a region of HuN4-F112 played a key role in inducing NAs in piglets. Furthermore, we confirmed for the first time that ORF1a contains a neutralization region. This study provides important information that can be used for further study of the generation of anti-PRRSV NAs.
Project description:The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) continues to pose one of the greatest threats to the swine industry. M protein is the most conserved and important structural protein of PRRSV. However, information about the host cellular proteins that interact with M protein remains limited.Host cellular proteins that interact with the M protein of HP-PRRSV were immunoprecipitated from MARC-145 cells infected with PRRSV HuN4-F112 using the M monoclonal antibody (mAb). The differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. The screened proteins were used for bioinformatics analysis including Gene Ontology, the interaction network, and the enriched KEGG pathways. Some interested cellular proteins were validated to interact with M protein by CO-IP.The PRRSV HuN4-F112 infection group had 10 bands compared with the control group. The bands included 219 non-redundant cellular proteins that interact with M protein, which were identified by LC-MS/MS with high confidence. The gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway bioinformatic analyses indicated that the identified proteins could be assigned to several different subcellular locations and functional classes. Functional analysis of the interactome profile highlighted cellular pathways associated with protein translation, infectious disease, and signal transduction. Two interested cellular proteins-nuclear factor of activated T cells 45 kDa (NF45) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-that could interact with M protein were validated by Co-IP and confocal analyses.The interactome data between PRRSV M protein and cellular proteins were identified and contribute to the understanding of the roles of M protein in the replication and pathogenesis of PRRSV. The interactome of M protein will aid studies of virus/host interactions and provide means to decrease the threat of PRRSV to the swine industry in the future.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection induces both humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study, we investigated the changes in cytokine levels in peripheral blood between the highly pathogenic PRRSV HuN4 strain and its derivative strain HuN4-F112 obtained by serial propagation in MARC145 cells to 112 passages. The results demonstrated that pigs infected with HuN4 showed a loss of appetite, decrease in body weight, raised body temperature, and respiratory symptoms, along with interstitial pneumonia lesions. The PRRSV amounts in the pigs infected with HuN4 were 10(5) to 10(9) copies/ml in the blood and 10(10) to 10(11) copies/g in the lung tissues, whereas the virus amounts with HuN4-F112 were 10(2.15) to 10(3.13) copies/ml in the blood and 10(3.0) to 10(3.6) copies/g in the lungs. Moreover, the levels of interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) in peripheral blood were upregulated 7 days postinoculation with HuN4, which was earlier than in the HuN4-F112 group. Furthermore, cytokine levels in the pigs infected with HuN4 returned to normal on the 21st day postinoculation, while the levels in those infected with HuN4-F112 continued to increase. These results demonstrated that the pigs infected with the highly pathogenic PRRSV HuN4 strain generated earlier and higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, and the results also indicated that HuN4 may aggravate inflammation and damage tissues and organs. The low-pathogenic PRRSV HuN4-F112 strain induced lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, which may enhance the immune responses against the infection.
Project description:A full-length cDNA clone of the prototypical North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolate VR-2332 was assembled in the plasmid vector pOK(12). To rescue infectious virus, capped RNA was transcribed in vitro from the pOK(12) clone and transfected into BHK-21C cells. The supernatant from transfected monolayers were serially passaged on Marc-145 cells and porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Infectious PRRSV was recovered on Marc-145 cells as well as porcine pulmonary macrophages; thus, the cloned virus exhibited the same cell tropism as the parental VR-2332 strain. However, the cloned virus was clearly distinguishable from the parental VR-2332 strain by an engineered marker, a BstZ17I restriction site. The full-length cDNA clone had 11 nucleotide changes, 2 of which affected coding, compared to the parental VR-2332 strain. Additionally, the transcribed RNA had an extra G at the 5' end. To examine whether these changes influenced viral replication, we examined the growth kinetics of the cloned virus in vitro. In Marc-145 cells, the growth kinetics of the cloned virus reflected those of the parental isolate, even though the titers of the cloned virus were consistently slightly lower. In experimentally infected 5.5-week-old pigs, the cloned virus produced blue discoloration of the ears, a classical clinical symptom of PRRSV. Also, the seroconversion kinetics of pigs infected with the cloned virus and VR-2332 were very similar. Hence, virus derived from the full-length cDNA clone appeared to recapitulate the biological properties of the highly virulent parental VR-2332 strain. This is the first report of an infectious cDNA clone based on American-type PRRSV. The availability of this cDNA clone will allow examination of the molecular mechanisms behind PRRSV virulence and attenuation, which might in turn allow the production of second-generation, genetically engineered PRRSV vaccines.
Project description:Significant differences exist between the highly pathogenic (HP) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and its attenuated pathogenic (AP) strain in the ability to infect host cells. The mechanisms by which different virulent strains invade host cells remain relatively unknown. In this study, pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) are infected with HP-PRRSV (HuN4) and AP-PRRSV (HuN4-F112) for 24 h, then harvested and subjected to label-free quantitative MS. A total of 2849 proteins are identified, including 95 that are differentially expressed. Among them, 26 proteins are located on the membrane. The most differentially expressed proteins are involved in response to stimulus, metabolic process, and immune system process, which mainly have the function of binding and catalytic activity. Cluster of differentiation CD163, vimentin (VIM), and nmII as well as detected proteins are assessed together by string analysis, which elucidated a potentially different infection mechanism. According to the function annotations, PRRSV with different virulence may mainly differ in immunology, inflammation, immune evasion as well as cell apoptosis. This is the first attempt to explore the differential characteristics between HP-PRRSV and its attenuated PRRSV infected PAMs focusing on membrane proteins which will be of great help to further understand the different infective mechanisms of HP-PRRSV and AP-PRRSV.
Project description:Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is a member of the genus Arterivirus within the family Arteriviridae. N and GP3 proteins are the immunodominance regions of the PRRSV viral proteins. To identify the B-cell linear antigenic epitopes within HP-PRRSV N and GP3 proteins, two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against N and GP3 proteins were generated and characterized, designated as 3D7 and 1F10 respectively. The mAb 3D7 recognized only HuN4-F112 not the corresponding virulent strain (HuN4-F5). It also recognized two other commercial vaccines (JXA1-R and TJM-F92), but not two other HP-PRRSV strains (HNZJJ-F1 and HLJMZ-F2). The B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb 3D7 was localized to N protein amino acids 7-33. Western blot showed that the only difference amino acid between HuN4-F112-N and HuN4-F5-N did not change the mAb 3D7 recognization to N protein. The epitope targeted by the mAb 1F10 was mapped by truncated proteins. We found a new epitope (68-76aa) can be recognized by the mAb. However, the epitope could not be recognized by the positive sera, suggesting the epitope could not induce antibody in pigs. These results should extend our understanding of the antigenic structure of the N protein and antigen-antibody reactions of the GP3 protein in different species.
Project description:The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is still a serious threat to the swine industry. However, the pathogenic mechanism of HP-PRRSV remains unclear. We infected host porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) with the virulent HuN4 strain and the attenuated HuN4-F112 strain and then utilized fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to screen for intracellular proteins that were differentially expressed in host cells infected with the two strains. There were 153 proteins with significant different expression (P<0.01) observed, 42 of which were subjected to mass spectrometry, and 24 proteins were identified. PAM cells infected with the virulent strain showed upregulated expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), and proteasome subunit alpha type 6 (PSMA6), which were downregulated in cells infected with the attenuated strain. The upregulation of PKM2 provides sufficient energy for viral replication, and the upregulation of HSPB1 inhibits host cell apoptosis and therefore facilitates mass replication of the virulent strain, while the upregulation of PSMA6 facilitates the evasion of immune surveillance by the virus. Studying on those molecules mentioned above may be able to help us to understand some unrevealed details of HP-PRRSV infection, and then help us to decrease its threat to the swine industry in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be an important problem for the swine industry. Inactivated vaccines and modified-live virus vaccines are widely used in the field; however, the efficacy of these PRRSV vaccines is suboptimal due to poor immunogenicity. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been extensively used as an effective genetic and protein adjuvant to enhance the efficiencies vaccines expressing tumor or pathogen antigens. The purpose of this study was to determine if GM-CSF could increase the efficiency of PRRSV vaccine. METHODS: The GM-CSF gene was inserted in the HuN4-F112 vaccine strain by overlap PCR. The expression of GM-CSF by the recombinant virus was confirmed with methods of indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and Western blotting. The stability of recombinant virus was assessed by cDNA sequence and IFA after 20 passages. To detect the biological activity of GM-CSF expressed by the recombinant virus, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were isolated and co-cultured with the recombinant virus or parental virus and the surface phenotypes of BMDCs were examined by flow cytometric analysis. The cytokines secreted by BMDCs infected with PRRSV, or treated with LPS, GM-CSF or medium alone were evaluated by ProcartaPlexTM Multiplex Immunoassays and qRT-PCR. RESULTS: A novel modified-live PRRSV vaccine strain expressing GM-CSF (rHuN4-GM-CSF) was successfully constructed and rescued. The GM-CSF protein was stable expressed in recombinant virus-infected cells after 20 passages. Analysis of virus replication kinetics showed that the novel vaccine strain expressing GM-CSF had a similar replication rate as the parental virus. In vitro studies showed that infection of porcine BMDCs with rHuN4-GM-CSF resulted in increased surface expression of MHCI+, MHCII?+?and CD80/86+ that was dependent on virus expressed GM-CSF. The expression of representative cytokines was significantly up-regulated when BMDCs were incubated with the recombinant GM-CSF expressing virus. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that the expression of GM-CSF during infection with a vaccine strain could enhance the activation of BMDCs and increase cytokine response, which is expected to result in higher immune responses and may improve vaccine efficacy against PRRSV infection.
Project description:Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) possesses greater replicative capacity and pathogenicity than classical PRRSV. However, the factors that lead to enhanced replication and pathogenicity remain unclear. In our study, an alignment of all available full-length sequences of North American-type PRRSVs (n = 204) revealed two consistent amino acid mutations that differed between HP-PRRSV and classical PRRSV and were located at positions 519 and 544 in nonstructural protein 9. Next, a series of mutant viruses with either single or double amino acid replacements were generated from HP-PRRSV HuN4 and classical PRRSV CH-1a infectious cDNA clones. Deletion of either of the amino acids led to a complete loss of virus viability. In both Marc-145 and porcine alveolar macrophages, the replicative efficiencies of mutant viruses based on HuN4 were reduced compared to the parent, whereas the replication level of CH-1a-derived mutant viruses was increased. Plaque growth assays showed clear differences between mutant and parental viruses. In infected piglets, the pathogenicity of HuN4-derived mutant viruses, assessed through clinical symptoms, viral load in sera, histopathology examination, and thymus atrophy, was reduced. Our results indicate that the amino acids at positions 519 and 544 in NSP9 are involved in the replication efficiency of HP-PRRSV and contribute to enhanced pathogenicity. This study is the first to identify specific amino acids involved in PRRSV replication or pathogenicity. These findings will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of PRRSV replication and pathogenicity, leading to better therapeutic and prognostic options to combat the virus.IMPORTANCE Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), is a significant threat to the global pig industry. Highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) first emerged in China in 2006 and has subsequently spread across Asia, causing considerable damage to local economies. HP-PRRSV strains possess a greater replication capacity and higher pathogenicity than classical PRRSV strains, although the mechanisms that underlie these characteristics are unclear. In the present study, we identified two mutations in HP-PRRSV strains that distinguish them from classical PRRSV strains. Further experiments that swapped the two mutations in an HP-PRRSV strain and a classical PRRSV strain demonstrated that they are involved in the replication efficiency of the virus and its virulence. Our findings have important implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms of PRRSV replication and pathogenicity and also provide new avenues of research for the study of other viruses.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN) genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc), green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively) and several interferons (IFNs), were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. In contrast, replication of IFN-expressing viruses was attenuated, similar to the level of replication observed after the addition of exogenous IFN. Furthermore, the IFN expressing viruses inhibited the replication of a second PRRS virus co-transfected or co-infected. Inhibition by the different IFN subtypes corresponded to their anti-PRRSV activity, i.e., IFN?5 ° IFN?1 > IFN-? > IFN?3. In summary, the indicator-expressing viruses provided an efficient means for real-time monitoring of viral replication thus allowing high?throughput elucidation of the role of host factors in PRRSV infection. This was shown when they were used to clearly demonstrate the involvement of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) in the early stage of PRRSV infection. In addition, replication?competent IFN-expressing viruses may be good candidates for development of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines, which are capable of reversing subverted innate immune responses and may induce more effective adaptive immunity against PRRSV infection.