Therapeutic effects of novel sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist W-061 in murine DSS colitis.
ABSTRACT: Although IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine reportedly involved in various autoimmune inflammatory disorders, its role remains unclear in murine models of colitis. Acute colitis was induced by 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment for 5 days. A novel sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist W-061, a prototype of ONO-4641, was orally administered daily, and histopathological analysis was performed on the colon. The number of lymphocytes and their cytokine production were also evaluated in spleen, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patch and lamina propria of the colon. Daily administration of W-061 resulted in improvement of DSS-induced colitis, and significantly reduced the number of CD4+ T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Numbers of both Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by W-061 treatment. W-061, however, had no influence on the number of Treg cells in lamina propria. Thus, Th17 and Th1 cells in lamina propria were thought to be the key subsets in the pathogenesis of DSS-induced colitis. In conclusion, W-061 may be a novel therapeutic strategy to ameliorate acute aggravation of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Project description:The effects of Streptococcus thermophilus ST28 on cytokine production by murine splenocytes stimulated with transforming growth factor-? plus interleukin- (IL-) 6 were evaluated. The addition of ST28 significantly repressed IL-17 production compared to ATCC 19258 (type strain). ST28 also decreased the number of Th17 cells in the stimulated splenocytes. The anti-inflammatory effects of ST28 administration were evaluated in mice with colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). Oral treatment of mice with ST28 ameliorated the intestinal lesions by DSS. Upon DSS treatment, IL-17 production in lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) was induced, but ST28 significantly decreased its production. ST28 also decreased the percentage of Th17 cells in LPL from DSS-induced colitis. The present results imply that ST28 suppresses the Th17 response in inflamed intestines and would be useful in the treatment of Th17-mediated diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.
Project description:The role of the Th17/Treg balance in the development of experimental colitis remains poorly understood.We exploited the differential response of BALB/c mice and C57BL/6 mice towards drinking water mediated by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) challenge.DSS-resistant BALB/c mice were characterized by low levels of IFN-? and TNF-? but high levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, and colon lamina propria and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells when compared to C57BL/6 mice. Collectively, these data indicate the propensity of BALB/c mice towards a Th2/Th17/Treg-polarized immunity protecting these animals against DSS challenge, whereas Th1-polarization of C57BL/6 mice confers sensitivity to DSS-induced colitis.The intrinsic congenital capacity of mouse strains with respect to T cell proliferation determines sensitivity to experimental colitis.
Project description:The role of intestinal lamina propria (LP) NKG2D+ NK cells is unclear in regulating Th1/Th2 balance in ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we investigated the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells in DSS-induced colitis model and intestinal mucosal samples of UC patients, as well as the secretion of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in NK cell lines after MICA stimulation. The role of Th1 cytokines in UC was validated by bioinformatics analysis. We found that DSS-induced colitis in mice was characterized by a Th2-mediated process. In acute phrase, the frequency of LP NKG2D+ lymphocytes increased significantly and decreased in remission, while the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells decreased significantly in acute phase and increased in remission. No obvious change was found in the frequency of total LP NK cells. Similarly, severe UC patients had a higher expression of mucosal NKG2D and a lower number of NKG2D+ NK cells than mild to moderate UC. In NK cell lines, the MICA stimulation could induce a predominant secretion of Th1 cytokines (TNF, IFN-?). Furthermore, in bioinformatics analysis, mucosal Th1 cytokine of TNF, showed a double-edged role in UC when compared to the Th1-mediated disease of Crohn's colitis. In conclusion, LP NKG2D+ NK cells partially played a regulatory role in UC through secreting Th1 cytokines to regulate the Th2-predominant Th1/Th2 imbalance, despite of the concomitant pro-inflammatory effects of Th1 cytokines.
Project description:Appropriate dendritic cell processing of the microbiota promotes intestinal homeostasis and protects against aberrant inflammatory responses. Mucosal CD103(+) dendritic cells are able to produce retinoic acid from retinal, however their role in vivo and how they are influenced by specific microbial species has been poorly described. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (B. infantis) feeding to mice resulted in increased numbers of CD103(+)retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH)(+) dendritic cells within the lamina propria (LP). Foxp3(+) lymphocytes were also increased in the LP, while TH1 and TH17 subsets were decreased. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral) treatment of mice blocked the increase in CD103(+)RALDH(+) dendritic cells and the decrease in TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes, but not the increase in Foxp3(+) lymphocytes. B. infantis reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, associated with decreased TH1 and TH17 cells within the LP. Citral treatment confirmed that these effects were RALDH mediated. RALDH(+) dendritic cells decreased within the LP of control inflamed animals, while RALDH(+) dendritic cells numbers were maintained in the LP of B. infantis-fed mice. Thus, CD103(+)RALDH(+) LP dendritic cells are important cellular targets for microbiota-associated effects on mucosal immunoregulation.
Project description:Background:Clinical data suggest that enteral nutrition (EN) effectively decreases disease activity and maintains remission in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the modulatory effects of EN on the intestinal mucosal immune system remain unclear. Aims:This study first aimed at comparing the therapeutic effects of three EN formulas on ameliorating dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced chronic colitis; with the most effective formula, we then examined its influence on the mucosal inflammatory response and epithelial barrier function. Methods:The effect of EN formulas on colitis in mice was assessed by body weight, disease activity index scores, colon length, and H&E staining for pathological examination. Colonic and circulating cytokine expression levels and the frequencies of immune cells were also analyzed. Intestinal epithelial barrier function was evaluated by detecting tight junction proteins. Results:We found that among the three EN formulas, an elemental diet (ED) containing enriched amino acids restored the colitis-related reduction in body weight better than the other two EN formulas. ED amino acids suppressed the release of colonic proinflammatory mediators and maintained the expression of tight junction proteins in these mice. ED amino acid treatment mitigated the colitis-induced increase in CD103+CD11b+ dendritic cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and inhibited the predominant Th1/Th17 responses particularly in the colonic mucosal lamina propria of mice with colitis. Conclusions:We showed that ED amino acids can be an effective immunomodulatory agent to reduce colitis-related inflammation by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators and Th1/Th17 cell responses and by repairing the disrupted epithelial barrier.
Project description:Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) synthesis is enhanced in the colonic mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). BLT1, a high-affinity receptor for LTB4, exhibits no effect on the progression of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, which mostly relies on innate immunity. Here, we reported that BLT1 regulates trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, which reflects CD4+ T-cell-dependent adaptive immune mechanisms of IBD. We found that BLT1 signaling enhanced the progression of colitis through controlling the production of proinflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells (DCs) and modulating the differentiation of Th1 and Th17. BLT1-/- mice displayed an alleviated severity of TNBS-induced colitis with reduced body weight loss and infiltrating cells in the lamina propria. BLT1 deficiency in DCs led to reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-12, and these results were further confirmed via treatment with a BLT1 antagonist. The impaired cytokine production by BLT1-/- DCs subsequently led to reduced Th1 and Th17 differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. We further performed a conditional DC reconstitution experiment to assess whether BLT1 in DCs plays a major role in regulating the pathogenesis of TNBS-induced colitis, and the results indicate that BLT1 deficiency in DCs also significantly reduces disease severity. The mechanistic study demonstrated that BLT1-regulated proinflammatory cytokine production through the G?i ?? subunit-phospholipase C? (PLC?)-PKC pathway. Notably, we found that treatment with the BLT1 antagonist also reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood DCs. Our findings reveal the critical role of BLT1 in regulating adaptive immunity and TNBS-induced colitis, which further supports BLT1 as a potential drug target for adaptive immunity-mediated IBD.
Project description:During colon inflammation, Th17 cells and immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg) are thought to play promotive and preventative roles, respectively. Dietary (n-3) PUFA favorably modulate intestinal inflammation in part by downregulating T-cell activation and functionality. We used the Fat-1 mouse, a genetic model that synthesizes long-chain (n-3) PUFA de novo, to test the hypothesis that (n-3) PUFA protect against colonic inflammation by modulating the polarization of Treg and Th17 cells during colitis. Male and female wild-type (WT) and Fat-1 mice were administered dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water (2.5%) to induce acute (5 d DSS) or chronic (3 cycles DSS) colitis and the percentage of Treg and Th17 cells residing locally [colonic lamina propria (cLP)] and systemically (spleen) was determined by flow cytometry. The percentage of Treg in either tissue site was unaffected by genotype (P > 0.05); however, during chronic colitis, the percentage of Th17 cells residing in both the spleen and cLP was lower in Fat-1 mice compared to WT mice (P < 0.05). Colonic mucosal mRNA expression of critical Th17 cell cytokines and chemokine receptors (IL-17F, IL-21, and CCR6) were lower, whereas expression of the Th17 cell suppressive cytokine, IL-27, was greater in Fat-1 mice compared to WT mice during chronic colitis (P < 0.05). Moreover, colon histological scores were improved in Fat-1 mice (P < 0.05). Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that (n-3) PUFA can modulate the colonic mucosal microenvironment to suppress Th17 cell accumulation and inflammatory damage following the induction of chronic colitis.
Project description:Gastrointestinal mucosa reserves abundant Th17 cells where host response to commensal bacteria maintains Th17-cell generation. Although functional heterogeneity and dynamic plasticity of Th17 cells appear to be involved in chronic inflammatory disorders, how their plasticity is regulated in intestinal mucosa is unknown. Here we show that innate TRIF signaling regulates intestinal Th17-cell generation and plasticity during colitis. Absence of TRIF in mice resulted in increased severity of experimental colitis, which was associated with aberrant generation of Th17 cells especially of interferon (IFN)-?-expressing Th17 cells in the lamina propria. The abnormal generation and plasticity of Th17 cells involved impaired expression of interleukin (IL)-27p28 by lamina propria macrophages but not dendritic cells. Treatment of TRIF-deficient mice with IL-27p28 during colitis reduced the number and IFN-? expression of Th17 cells in the intestine. In vitro, TRIF-deficient macrophages induced more Th17 cells than wild-type (WT) macrophages during co-culture with WT naive T cells in response to cecal bacterial antigen. Many of Th17 cells induced by TRIF-deficient macrophages expressed IFN-? due to impaired expression of IL-27p28 by macrophages and defective activation of STAT1 in T cells. These results outline TRIF-dependent regulatory mechanism by which host response to intestinal bacteria maintains Th17-cell-mediated pathology during colitis.
Project description:In T cells, the Tec kinases IL-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) and resting lymphocyte kinase (RLK) are activated by TCR stimulation and are required for optimal downstream signaling. Studies of CD4(+) T cells from Itk(-/-) and Itk(-/-)Rlk(-/-) mice have indicated differential roles of ITK and RLK in Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation and cytokine production. However, these findings are confounded by the complex T cell developmental defects in these mice. In this study, we examine the consequences of ITK and RLK inhibition using a highly selective and potent small molecule covalent inhibitor PRN694. In vitro Th polarization experiments indicate that PRN694 is a potent inhibitor of Th1 and Th17 differentiation and cytokine production. Using a T cell adoptive transfer model of colitis, we find that in vivo administration of PRN694 markedly reduces disease progression, T cell infiltration into the intestinal lamina propria, and IFN-? production by colitogenic CD4(+) T cells. Consistent with these findings, Th1 and Th17 cells differentiated in the presence of PRN694 show reduced P-selectin binding and impaired migration to CXCL11 and CCL20, respectively. Taken together, these data indicate that ITK plus RLK inhibition may have therapeutic potential in Th1-mediated inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor of the bHLH/PAS family, is well characterized to regulate the biochemical and toxic effects of environmental chemicals. More recently, AhR activation has been shown to regulate the differentiation of Foxp3(+) Tregs as well as Th17 cells. However, the precise mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AhR ligand, on epigenetic regulation leading to altered Treg/Th17 differentiation, and consequent suppression of colitis.Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) administration induced acute colitis in C57BL/6 mice, as shown by significant weight loss, shortening of colon, mucosal ulceration, and increased presence of CXCR3(+) T cells as well as inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, a single dose of TCDD (25 µg/kg body weight) was able to attenuate all of the clinical and inflammatory markers of colitis. Analysis of T cells in the lamina propria (LP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), during colitis, revealed decreased presence of Tregs and increased induction of Th17 cells, which was reversed following TCDD treatment. Activation of T cells from AhR(+/+) but not AhR (-/-) mice, in the presence of TCDD, promoted increased differentiation of Tregs while inhibiting Th17 cells. Analysis of MLN or LP cells during colitis revealed increased methylation of CpG islands of Foxp3 and demethylation of IL-17 promoters, which was reversed following TCDD treatment.These studies demonstrate for the first time that AhR activation promotes epigenetic regulation thereby influencing reciprocal differentiation of Tregs and Th17 cells, and amelioration of inflammation.