Adaptive MscS gating in the osmotic permeability response in E. coli: the question of time.
ABSTRACT: Microorganisms adapt to osmotic downshifts by releasing small osmolytes through mechanosensitive (MS) channels. We want to understand how the small mechanosensitive channel's (MscS) activation and inactivation, both driven by membrane tension, optimize survival in varying hypoosmotic shock situations. By measuring light scattering with a stopped-flow device, we estimate bacterial swelling time as 30-50 ms. A partial solute equilibration follows within 150-200 ms, during which optical responses from cells with WT MscS deviate from those lacking MS channels. MscS opening rates estimated in patch clamp show the channels readily respond to tensions below the lytic limit with a time course faster than 20 ms and close promptly upon tension release. To address the role of the tension-insensitive inactivated state in vivo, we applied short, long, and two-step osmotic shock protocols to WT, noninactivating G113A, and fast-inactivating D62N mutants. WT and G113A showed a comparable survival in short 1 min 800 mOsm downshock experiments, but G113A was at a disadvantage under a long 60 min shock. Preshocking cells carrying WT MscS for 15 s to 15 min with a 200 mOsm downshift did not sensitize them to the final 500 mOsm drop in osmolarity of the second step. However, these two-step shocks induced death in D62N more than just a one-step 700 mOsm downshift. We conclude MscS is able to activate and exude osmolytes faster than lytic pressure builds inside the cell under abrupt shock. During prolonged shocks, gradual inactivation prevents continuous channel activity and assists recovery. Slow kinetics of inactivation in WT MscS ensures that mild shocks do not inactivate the entire population, leaving some protection should conditions worsen.
Project description:We describe a mechanosensitive (MS) channel that has mechanosensitive channel of miniconductance (MscM) activity, and displays unique properties with respect to gating. Mechanosensitive channels respond to membrane tension, are ubiquitous from bacteria to man, and exhibit a great diversity in structure and function. These channels protect Bacteria and Archaea against hypoosmotic shock and are critical determinants of shape in chloroplasts. Given the dominant roles played in bacteria by the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) and the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL), the role of the multiple MS channel homologs observed in most organisms remains obscure. Here we demonstrate that a MscS homolog, YbdG, extends the range of hypoosmotic shock that Escherichia coli cells can survive, but its expression level is insufficient to protect against severe shocks. Overexpression of the YbdG protein provides complete protection. Transcription and translation of the ybdG gene are enhanced by osmotic stress consistent with a role for the protein in survival of hypoosmotic shock. Measurement of the conductance of the native channel by standard patch clamp methods was not possible. However, a fully functional YbdG mutant channel, V229A, exhibits a conductance in membrane patches consistent with MscM activity. We find that MscM activities arise from more than one gene product because ybdG deletion mutants still exhibit an occasional MscM-like conductance. We propose that ybdG encodes a low-abundance MscM-type MS channel, which in cells relieves low levels of membrane tension, obviating the need to activate the major MS channels, MscS and MscL.
Project description:Persistence of Vibrio cholerae in waters of fluctuating salinity relies on the capacity of this facultative enteric pathogen to adapt to varying osmotic conditions. In an event of osmotic downshift, osmolytes accumulated inside the bacterium can be quickly released through tension-activated channels. With the newly established procedure of giant spheroplast preparation from V. cholerae, we performed the first patch-clamp characterization of its cytoplasmic membrane and compared tension-activated currents with those in Esherichia coli. Saturating pressure ramps revealed two waves of activation belonging to the ?1-nS mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS)-like channels and ?3-nS mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL)-like channels, with a pressure midpoint ratio p0.5MscS/p0.5MscL of 0.48. We found that MscL-like channels in V. cholerae present at a density three times higher than in E. coli, and yet, these vibrios were less tolerant to large osmotic downshocks. The Vibrio MscS-like channels exhibit characteristic inward rectification and subconductive states at depolarizing voltages; they also adapt and inactivate at subsaturating tensions and recover within 2 s upon tension release, just like E. coli MscS. Trehalose, a compatible internal osmolyte accumulated under hypertonic conditions, significantly shifts activation curves of both MscL- and MscS-like channels toward higher tensions, yet does not freely partition into the channel pore. Direct electrophysiology of V. cholerae offers new avenues for the in situ analysis of membrane components critical for osmotic survival and electrogenic transport in this pathogen.
Project description:Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are molecular sensors that detect and transduce signals across prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell membranes arising from external mechanical stimuli or osmotic gradients. They play an integral role in mechanosensory responses including touch, hearing, and proprioception by opening or closing in order to facilitate or prevent the flow of ions and organic osmolytes. In this study we use a linear force model of MS channel gating to determine the gating membrane tension (?) and the gating area change (?A) associated with the energetics of MscS channel gating in giant spheroplasts and azolectin liposomes. Analysis of Boltzmann distribution functions describing the dependence of MscS channel gating on membrane tension indicated that the gating area change (?A) was the same for MscS channels recorded in both preparations. The comparison of the membrane tension (?) gating the channel, however, showed a significant difference between the MscS channel activities in these two preparations.
Project description:Mechanosensitive (MS) channels allow cells to sense and respond to environmental changes. In bacteria, these channels are believed to protect against an osmotic shock. The physiological function of these channels has been characterized primarily by a standardized assay, where aliquots of batch-cultured cells are rapidly pipetted into a hypotonic medium. Under this method, it has been inferred many types of MS channels (MscS homologs in Escherichia coli) demonstrate limited effectiveness against shock, typically rescuing less than 10% of the cells when expressed at native levels. We introduce a single-cell-based assay which allows us to control how fast the osmolarity changes, over time scales ranging from a fraction of a second to several minutes. We find that the protection provided by MS channels depends strongly on the rate of osmotic change, revealing that, under a slow enough osmotic drop, MscS homologs can lead to survival rates comparable to those found in wild-type strains. Further, after the osmotic downshift, we observe multiple death phenotypes, which are inconsistent with the prevailing paradigm of how cells lyse. Both of these findings require a reevaluation of our basic understanding of the physiology of MS channels.
Project description:Detailed knowledge of tissue response to both systolic and diastolic shock is critical for understanding defibrillation. Diastolic field stimulation has been much less studied than systolic stimulation, particularly regarding transient virtual anodes. Here we investigated high-voltage-induced polarization and activation patterns in response to strong diastolic shocks of various durations and of both polarities, and tested the hypothesis that the activation versus shock duration curve contains a local minimum for moderate shock durations, and it grows for short and long durations. We found that 0.1-0.2-ms shocks produced slow and heterogeneous activation. During 0.8-1 ms shocks, the activation was very fast and homogeneous. Further shock extension to 8 ms delayed activation from 1.55 ± 0.27 ms and 1.63 ± 0.21 ms at 0.8 ms shock to 2.32 ± 0.41 ms and 2.37 ± 0.3 ms (N = 7) for normal and opposite polarities, respectively. The traces from hyperpolarized regions during 3-8 ms shocks exhibited four different phases: beginning negative polarization, fast depolarization, slow depolarization, and after-shock increase in upstroke velocity. Thus, the shocks of >3 ms in duration created strong hyperpolarization associated with significant delay (P < 0.05) in activation compared with moderate shocks of 0.8 and 1 ms. This effect appears as a dip in the activation-versus-shock-duration curve.
Project description:Mechanosensitive channels, inner membrane proteins of bacteria, open and close in response to mechanical stimuli such as changes in membrane tension during osmotic stress. In bacteria, these channels act as safety valves preventing cell lysis upon hypoosmotic cell swelling: the channels open under membrane tension to release osmolytes along with water. The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance, MscS, consists, in addition to the transmembrane channel, of a large cytoplasmic domain (CD) that features a balloon-like, water filled chamber opening to the cytoplasm through seven side pores and a small distal pore. The CD is apparently a molecular sieve covering the channel that optimizes loss of osmolytes during osmoadaptation. We employ diffusion theory and molecular dynamics simulations to explore the transport kinetics of Glu(-) and K(+) as representative osmolytes. We suggest that the CD indeed acts as a filter that actually balances passage of Glu(-) and K(+), and possibly other positive and negative osmolytes, to yield a largely neutral efflux and, thereby, reduce cell depolarization in the open state and conserve to a large degree the essential metabolite Glu(-).
Project description:AIM:Amplitude Spectrum Area (AMSA) and Median Slope (MS) are ventricular fibrillation (VF) waveform measures that predict defibrillation shock success. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) obscures electrocardiograms and must be paused for analysis. Studies suggest waveform measures better predict subsequent shock success when combined with prior shock success. We determined whether this relationship applies during CPR. METHODS:AMSA and MS were calculated from 5-second pre-shock segments with and without CPR, and compared to logistic models combining each measure with prior return of organized rhythm (ROR). RESULTS:VF segments from 692 patients were analyzed during CPR before 1372 shocks and without CPR before 1283 shocks. Combining waveform measures with prior ROR increased areas under receiver operating characteristic curves for AMSA/MS with CPR (0.66/0.68 to 0.73/0.74, p<0.001) and without CPR (0.71/0.72 to 0.76/0.76, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Prior ROR improves prediction of shock success during CPR, and may enable waveform measure calculation without chest compression pauses.
Project description:Defibrillation therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF) and flutter (AFl) is limited by pain induced by high-energy shocks. Thus, lowering the defibrillation energy for AFl/AF is desirable.In this study we applied low-voltage multiple-shock defibrillation therapy in a rabbit model of atrial tachyarrhythmias comparing its efficacy to single shocks and antitachycardia pacing (ATP).Optical mapping was performed in Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts (n = 18). Acetylcholine (7 ± 5 to 17 ± 16 ?M) was administered to promote sustained AFl and AF, respectively. Single and multiple monophasic shocks were applied within 1 or 2 cycle lengths (CLs) of the arrhythmia.We observed AFl (CL = 83 ± 15 ms, n = 17) and AF (CL = 50 ± 8 ms, n = 11). ATP had a success rate of 66.7% in the case of AFl, but no success with AF (n = 9). Low-voltage multiple shocks had 100% success for both arrhythmias. Multiple low-voltage shocks terminated AFl at 0.86 ± 0.73 V/cm (within 1 CL) and 0.28 ± 0.13 V/cm (within 2 CLs), as compared with single shocks at 2.12 ± 1.31 V/cm (P < .001) and AF at 3.46 ± 3 V/cm (within 1 CL), as compared with single shocks at 6.83 ± 3.12 V/cm (P =.06). No ventricular arrhythmias were induced. Optical mapping revealed that termination of AFl was achieved by a properly timed, local shock-induced wave that collides with the arrhythmia wavefront, whereas AF required the majority of atrial tissue to be excited and reset for termination.Low-voltage multiple-shock therapy terminates AFl and AF with different mechanisms and thresholds based on spatiotemporal characteristics of the arrhythmias.
Project description:Mechanosensitive (MS) channels are universal cellular membrane pores. Bacterial MS channels, as typified by MS channel of small conductance (MscS) from Escherichia coli (EcMscS), release osmolytes under hypoosmotic conditions. MS channels are known to be ion selective to different extents, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we identify an anion-selective MscS channel from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (TtMscS). The structure of TtMscS closely resembles that of EcMscS, but it lacks the large cytoplasmic equatorial portals found in EcMscS. In contrast, the cytoplasmic pore formed by the C-terminal ?-barrel of TtMscS is larger than that of EcMscS and has a strikingly different pattern of electrostatic surface potential. Swapping the ?-barrel region between TtMscS and EcMscS partially switches the ion selectivity. Our study defines the role of the ?-barrel in the ion selection of an anion-selective MscS channel and provides a structural basis for understanding the ion selectivity of MscS channels.
Project description:Electrical defibrillation is a well-established treatment for cardiac dysrhythmias. Studies have suggested that shock-induced spatial sawtooth patterns and virtual electrodes are responsible for defibrillation efficacy. We hypothesize that high-frequency shocks enhance defibrillation efficacy by generating temporal sawtooth patterns and using rapid virtual electrodes synchronized with shock frequency. High-speed optical mapping was performed on isolated rat hearts at 2000 frames/s. Two defibrillation electrodes were placed on opposite sides of the ventricles. An S1-S2 pacing protocol was used to induce ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTA). High-frequency shocks of equal energy but varying frequencies of 125-1000 Hz were used to evaluate VTA vulnerability and defibrillation success rate. The 1000-Hz shock had the highest VTA induction rate in the shorter S1-S2 intervals (50 and 100 ms) and the highest VTA defibrillation rate (70%) among all frequencies. Temporal sawtooth patterns and synchronous shock-induced virtual electrode responses could be observed with frequencies of up to 1000 Hz. The improved defibrillation outcome with high-frequency shocks suggests a lower energy requirement than that of low-frequency shocks for successful ventricular defibrillation.