Triethylsilyl Perfluoro-Tetraphenylborate, [Et(3)Si][F(20)-BPh(4)], a widely used Non-Existent Compound.
ABSTRACT: The commonly used triethylsilyl per-fluoro-tetraphenylborate salt, [Et(3)Si(+)][F(20)-BPh(4) (-)], has been misidentified. As prepared, the cation is a hydride-bridged silane adduct [R(3)Si-H-SiR(3) (+)]. Under favorable circumstances it can be an effective source of the triethylsilylium ion Et(3)Si(+) but in the absence of a stabilizing base the potent electrophilicity of Et(3)Si(+) decomposes the "inert" F(20)-BPh(4) (-) counterion.
Project description:Transcriptome analysis of BPH-resistant and BPH-susceptible rice seedlings in response to BPH infestation. RH vs. 02428: a microarray analysis of genes that were differentially expressed in a BPH-resistant cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RH) and a susceptible cultivar 02428 after infestation with BPH for 24h. RB vs. SB: a microarray analysis of genes that were differentially expressed in resistant seedling pool and susceptible seedling pool both infested with BPH for 24h. RB vs. RN: a microarray analysis of genes that were differentially expressed in resistant seedling pool infested with BPH for 24h and resistant seedling pool without BPH infestation. Goal was to explore the molecular basis underlying BPH-resistance in rice. Overall design: RH vs. 02428: 2 Biological replicates; RB vs. SB: 3 Biological replicates; RB vs. RN: 3 Biological replicates.
Project description:Yeast-like symbiotes (YLS), harbored in the abdomen fat-body cells of the rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), are vital to the growth and reproduction of their host. It is feasible to manipulate BPH infestation on rice by inhibiting YLS using fungicide. In this study, the fungicide propiconazole was injected into the hemolymph of BPH thorax via microinjection to investigate its effect on YLS, especially the dominant species, Hypomyces chrysospermus, and their host BPH. Propiconazole markedly reduced the total number of YLS and H. chrysospermus in BPH hemolymph and fat body, thereby leading to an obvious higher mortality and lower fecundity of BPH than the negative control (PBS, phosphate buffer solution). After microinjecting propiconazole, the survival rate of BPH nymphs at the 5th instar was significantly lower than that obtained after PBS treatment. Eight days after propiconazole microinjection, the BPH survival rate dropped to 40%, only half of BPH survival rate treated with PBS microinjection. For female adults (1-day-old), there were significant differences in the survival rates between BPHs treated with propiconazole and those treated with PBS at days 5-8. The fecundity of BPH decreased significantly by microinjecting propiconazole and averaged only 229 eggs per female, which was 20% less than that of the negative control. Furthermore, we reared BPH on the susceptible variety TN1 sprayed with propiconazole to prove the feasibility manipulating field occurrence of BPH by inhibiting YLS using fungicides. The number of YLS and H. chrysospermus in BPH obviously declined. Subsequently, the survival rate and fecundity of BPH significantly decreased after feeding on rice treated with propiconazole. Meanwhile, the propiconazole residue was detected in the hemolymph and gut of BPH by HPLC analysis within 1 day of feeding. Inhibiting YLS using fungicides was a novel and effective way to control BPH infestation.
Project description:KMD is genetically engenered to be highly resistant to lepidopteran pests through expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene and its parent non-transgenic rice is Xiushui 11.The developmental duration of BPH feeding on KMD2 was significantly delayed. And moreover, the fecundity of BPH was significantly lower when fed on Bt rice than on the non-Bt parental plants.To investigate unintended effects in KMD2 that causes changes in BPH performance, we performed microarray (GeneChip) analysis to compare the gene expression profiles between Bt rice and non-transgenic parental plants in response to BPH infestation. We used microarrays to detect Bt-independent variation, which might render Bt rice more defensive or less nutritious to BPH. For BPH treatment, 10 second-instar nymphs were infested onto each 30-day-old seedling. After 72 h, the BPH nymphs were carefully removed and rice shoots of both BPH-infested and non-infested plants were sampled for microarray analysis. There were four treatments: Xiushui 11-non infested, Xiushui 11-BPH infested, KMD2-non infested, KMD2-BPH infested, three biological replications.
Project description:used to identify differences between tissues from patients undergoing surgery for BPH with unresolved symptoms compared to incidental BPH from patients with prostate cancer cohorts are based on surgical distinction
Project description:We identified a BPH transcriptional signature that included 392 significantly differential expressed genes between BPH and control samples, and validated this BPH transcriptional signature using two independent study cohorts. By performing integrative analysis using transcriptional and methylation profiling, we identified two distinct BPH subtypes, supporting robust biologically distinct subgroups across different data types. To validate these BPH subtypes, we tested our signature via k-means clustering in two independent cohorts, and identified nearly identical subgroups. To nominate potential subtype specific therapeutic options, we utilized a Connectivity Map analysis, and found 50% of nominated compounds in one subgroup were related to inhibition of mTOR signaling. Overall design: Identification of BPH and subgroup transcriptional signatures
Project description:The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a migratory and destructive sucking insect pest of rice. Silicon (Si) amendment to plants can confer enhanced resistance to herbivores and is emerging as a novel approach for pest management. In the present study, we tested the effects of Si addition at 0.16 (low) and 0.32 (high) g Si/kg soil on sucking behaviors and population growth in BPH. Si amendment increased Si content in rice stems and extended non-probing event and phloem puncture followed by sustained phloem ingestion over that in the no-Si-addition control. High Si addition rate prolonged the stylet pathway and the time needed to reach the first phloem puncture, shortened durations of phloem puncture and phloem ingestion, and decreased the proportion of individuals that produced sustained phloem ingestion. BPH female feeding on and preference for plants with the high Si addition rate were also reduced. As a result, Si application significantly decreased BPH population growth rates while increased population doubling time. These results indicate that Si amendment, especially at the high rate, confers enhanced rice plant resistance to BPH through impairment of BPH feeding. Our results highlight the potential of Si amendment as an alternative for BPH management.
Project description:BACKGROUND:BPH is a common disease associated with age and obesity. However, the biological pathways between obesity and BPH are unknown. Our objective was to investigate biomarkers of systemic and prostate tissue inflammation as potential mediators of the obesity and BPH association. METHODS:Participants included 191 men without prostate cancer at prostate biopsy. Trained staff measured weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis. Systemic inflammation was estimated by serum IL-6, IL-1?, IL-8, and TNF-?; and by urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite (PGE-M), F2-isoprostane (F2iP), and F2-isoprostane metabolite (F2iP-M) levels. Prostate tissue was scored for grade, aggressiveness, extent, and location of inflammatory regions, and also stained for CD3 and CD20 positive lymphocytes. Analyses investigated the association between multiple body composition scales, systemic inflammation, and prostate tissue inflammation against BPH outcomes, including prostate size at ultrasound and LUTS severity by the AUA-symptom index (AUA-SI). RESULTS:Prostate size was significantly associated with all obesity measures. For example, prostate volume was 5.5 to 9.0 mls larger comparing men in the 25th vs. 75th percentile of % body fat, fat mass (kg) or lean mass (kg). However, prostate size was not associated with proinflammatory cytokines, PGE-M, F2iP, F2iP-M, prostate tissue inflammation scores or immune cell infiltration. In contrast, the severity of prostate tissue inflammation was significantly associated with LUTS, such that there was a 7 point difference in AUA-SI between men with mild vs. severe inflammation (p = 0.004). Additionally, men with a greater waist-hip ratio (WHR) were significantly more likely to have severe prostate tissue inflammation (p = 0.02), and a high WHR was significantly associated with moderate/severe LUTS (OR = 2.56, p = 0.03) among those participants with prostate tissue inflammation. CONCLUSION:The WHR, an estimate of centralized obesity, was associated with the severity of inflammatory regions in prostate tissue and with LUTS severity among men with inflammation. Our results suggest centralized obesity advances prostate tissue inflammation to increase LUTS severity. Clinically targeting centralized fat deposition may reduce LUTS severity. Mechanistically, the lack of a clear relationship between systemic inflammatory or oxidative stress markers in blood or urine with prostate size or LUTS suggests pathways other than systemic inflammatory signaling may link body adiposity to BPH outcomes.
Project description:Silicon (Si) uptake by Poaceae plants has beneficial effects on herbivore defense. Increased plant physical barrier and altered herbivorous feeding behaviors are documented to reduce herbivorous arthropod feeding and contribute to enhanced plant defense. Here, we show that Si amendment to rice (Oryza sativa) plants contributes to reduced feeding in a phloem feeder, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), through modulation of callose deposition. We associated the temporal dynamics of BPH feeding with callose deposition on sieve plates and further with callose synthase and hydrolase gene expression in plants amended with Si. Biological assays revealed that BPH feeding was lower in Si-amended than in nonamended plants in the early stages post-BPH infestation. Histological observation showed that BPH infestation triggered fast and strong callose deposition in Si-amended plants compared with nonamended plants. Analysis using qRT-PCR revealed that expression of the callose synthase gene OsGSL1 was up-regulated more and that the callose hydrolase (?-1,3-glucanase) gene Gns5 was up-regulated less in Si-amended than in nonamended plants during the initial stages of BPH infestation. These dynamic expression levels of OsGSL1 and Gns5 in response to BPH infestation correspond to callose deposition patterns in Si-amended versus nonamended plants. It is demonstrated here that BPH infestation triggers differential gene expression associated with callose synthesis and hydrolysis in Si-amended and nonamended rice plants, which allows callose to be deposited more on sieve tubes and sieve tube occlusions to be maintained more thus contributing to reduced BPH feeding on Si-amended plants.
Project description:Plant resistance to herbivores is a key component in integrated pest management. In most cases, silicon (Si) amendment to plants enhances resistance to herbivorous insects. The increase of plant physical barrier and altered insect behaviors are proposed as mechanisms for the enhanced resistance in Si-amended plants, but our understanding of the induced mechanisms involved in Si-enhanced plant resistance to phloem-feeding insects remains unclear. Here, we show that Si amendment to rice (Oryza sativa) plants impacts multiple plant defense responses induced by a phloem-feeder, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH). Si amendment improved silicification of leaf sheaths that BPH feed on. Si addition suppressed the increase of malondialdehyde concentration while encouraged increase of H2O2 concentration in plants attacked by BPH. Higher activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were recorded in Si-amended than in non-amended BPH-infested plants. BPH infestation activated synthases for secondary metabolites, polyphenol oxidase and pheny-lalanine ammonia-lyase, and ?-1,3-glucanase, but the activation was greater in Si-amended than in non-amended plants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Si amendment interacts with BPH infestation in the induction of plant defense responses and consequently, to confer enhanced rice plant resistance.
Project description:The conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play vital roles in plant defense responses against pathogens and insects. In the current study, the expression profiles of 17 OsMPKs were determined in the TN1 and IR56 rice varieties under the infestation of brown planthopper (BPH), one of the most destructive hemimetabolous rice pests. The virulent IR56 BPH population (IR56-BPH) and the avirulent TN1 BPH population (TN-BPH) were used to reveal the roles of OsMPKs in the compatible (IR56-BPH infested on the TN1 and IR56 rice varieties, and TN1-BPH infested on the TN1 rice variety) and the incompatible (TN1-BPH infested on the IR56 rice variety) interaction. The statistical analysis revealed that rice variety, BPH population type, and infestation period have significant effects on the transcription of OsMPKs. Out of these genes, five OsMPKs (OsMPK1, OsMPK3, OsMPK7, OsMPK14, and OsMPK16) were found to exhibit upregulated expression only during incompatible interaction. Six OsMPKs (OsMPK4, OsMPK5, OsMPK8, OsMPK9, OsMPK12, and OsMPK13) were associated with both incompatible and compatible interactions. The transcription analysis of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene phytohormone signaling genes revealed their roles during the rice?BPH interactions. The upregulated expression of OsC4H, OsCHS, and OsCHI in the incompatible interaction implied the potential defense regulatory roles of phenylpropanoids. In both varieties, the elevated transcript accumulations of OsGST and OsSOD, and the increased enzyme activities of POD, SOD, and GST at 1 day post-infestation (dpi), but not at 3 dpi, indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling might be an early event in rice?BPH interactions. Furthermore, upregulated transcription of OsLecRK3 and OsLecRK4 was found only during an incompatible interaction, suggesting their involvement in the BPH resistance response in the IR56 rice variety. Lastly, based on the findings of this study, we have proposed a model of interactions of IR56 rice with TN1-BPH and IR56-BPH that depicts the resistance and susceptibility reactions, respectively.