Roles of the four DNA polymerases of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus and accessory proteins in DNA replication.
ABSTRACT: The hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 encodes three B-family DNA polymerase genes, B1 (Dpo1), B2 (Dpo2), and B3 (Dpo3), and one Y-family DNA polymerase gene, Dpo4, which are related to eukaryotic counterparts. Both mRNAs and proteins of all four DNA polymerases were constitutively expressed in all growth phases. Dpo2 and Dpo3 possessed very low DNA polymerase and 3' to 5' exonuclease activities in vitro. Steady-state kinetic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) for correct nucleotide insertion by Dpo2 and Dpo3 were several orders of magnitude less than Dpo1 and Dpo4. Both the accessory proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the clamp loader replication factor C facilitated DNA synthesis with Dpo3, as with Dpo1 and Dpo4, but very weakly with Dpo2. DNA synthesis by Dpo2 and Dpo3 was remarkably decreased by single-stranded binding protein, in contrast to Dpo1 and Dpo4. DNA synthesis in the presence of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, replication factor C, and single-stranded binding protein was most processive with Dpo1, whereas DNA lesion bypass was most effective with Dpo4. Both Dpo2 and Dpo3, but not Dpo1, bypassed hypoxanthine and 8-oxoguanine. Dpo2 and Dpo3 bypassed uracil and cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimer, respectively. High concentrations of Dpo2 or Dpo3 did not attenuate DNA synthesis by Dpo1 or Dpo4. We conclude that Dpo2 and Dpo3 are much less functional and more thermolabile than Dpo1 and Dpo4 in vitro but have bypass activities across hypoxanthine, 8-oxoguanine, and either uracil or cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimer, suggesting their catalytically limited roles in translesion DNA synthesis past deaminated, oxidized base lesions and/or UV-induced damage.
Project description:Differentiation of binding accurate DNA replication polymerases over error prone DNA lesion bypass polymerases is essential for the proper maintenance of the genome. The hyperthermophilic archaeal organism Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso) contains both a B-family replication (Dpo1) and a Y-family repair (Dpo4) polymerase and serves as a model system for understanding molecular mechanisms and assemblies for DNA replication and repair protein complexes. Protein cross-linking, isothermal titration calorimetry, and analytical ultracentrifugation have confirmed a previously unrecognized dimeric Dpo4 complex bound to DNA. Binding discrimination between these polymerases on model DNA templates is complicated by the fact that multiple oligomeric species are influenced by concentration and temperature. Temperature-dependent fluorescence anisotropy equilibrium binding experiments were used to separate discrete binding events for the formation of trimeric Dpo1 and dimeric Dpo4 complexes on DNA. The associated equilibria are found to be temperature-dependent, generally leading to improved binding at higher temperatures for both polymerases. At high temperatures, DNA binding of Dpo1 monomer is favored over binding of Dpo4 monomer, but binding of Dpo1 trimer is even more strongly favored over binding of Dpo4 dimer, thus providing thermodynamic selection. Greater processivities of nucleotide incorporation for trimeric Dpo1 and dimeric Dpo4 are also observed at higher temperatures, providing biochemical validation for the influence of tightly bound oligomeric polymerases. These results separate, quantify, and confirm individual and sequential processes leading to the formation of oligomeric Dpo1 and Dpo4 assemblies on DNA and provide for a concentration- and temperature-dependent discrimination of binding undamaged DNA templates at physiological temperatures.
Project description:DNA polymerase ? (pol ?) synthesizes past cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and possibly 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesions during DNA replication. Loss of pol ? is associated with an increase in mutation rate, demonstrating its indispensable role in mutation suppression. It has been recently reported that ?-strand 12 (amino acids 316-324) of the little finger region correctly positions the template strand with the catalytic core of the enzyme. The authors hypothesized that modification of ?-strand 12 residues would disrupt correct enzyme-DNA alignment and alter pol ?'s activity and fidelity. To investigate this, the authors purified proteins containing the catalytic core of the polymerase, incorporated single amino acid changes to select ?-strand 12 residues, and evaluated DNA synthesis activity for each pol ?. Lesion bypass efficiencies and replication fidelities when copying DNA-containing cis-syn cyclobutane thymine-thymine dimer and 8-oxoG lesions were determined and compared with the corresponding values for the wild-type polymerase. The results confirm the importance of the ?-strand in polymerase function and show that fidelity is most often altered when undamaged DNA is copied. Additionally, it is shown that DNA-protein contacts distal to the active site can significantly affect the fidelity of synthesis.
Project description:Sulfolobus islandicus codes for four DNA polymerases: three are of the B-family (Dpo1, Dpo2, and Dpo3), and one is of the Y-family (Dpo4). Western analysis revealed that among the four polymerases, only Dpo2 exhibited DNA damage-inducible expression. To investigate how these DNA polymerases could contribute to DNA damage tolerance in S. islandicus, we conducted genetic analysis of their encoding genes in this archaeon. Plasmid-borne gene expression revealed that Dpo2 increases cell survival upon DNA damage at the expense of mutagenesis. Gene deletion studies showed although dpo1 is essential, the remaining three genes are dispensable. Furthermore, although Dpo4 functions in housekeeping translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), Dpo2, a B-family DNA polymerase once predicted to be inactive, functions as a damage-inducible TLS enzyme solely responsible for targeted mutagenesis, facilitating GC to AT/TA conversions in the process. Together, our data indicate that Dpo2 is the main DNA polymerase responsible for DNA damage tolerance and is the primary source of targeted mutagenesis. Given that crenarchaea encoding a Dpo2 also have a low-GC composition genome, the Dpo2-dependent DNA repair pathway may be conserved in this archaeal lineage.
Project description:Archaeal and eukaryotic B-family DNA polymerases (pols) mainly replicate chromosomal DNA but stall at lesions, which are often bypassed with Y-family pols. In this study, a B-family pol Vent (exo(-)) from the euryarchaeon Thermococcus litoralis was studied with three types of DNA lesions-N(2)-alkylG, O(6)-alkylG, and an abasic (AP) site-in comparison with a model Y-family pol Dpo4 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, to better understand the effects of various DNA modifications on binding, bypass efficiency, and fidelity of pols. Vent (exo(-)) readily bypassed N(2)-methyl(Me)G and O(6)-MeG, but was strongly blocked at O(6)-benzyl(Bz)G and N(2)-BzG, whereas Dpo4 efficiently bypassed N(2)-MeG and N(2)-BzG and partially bypassed O(6)-MeG and O(6)-BzG. Vent (exo(-)) bypassed an AP site to an extent greater than Dpo4, corresponding with steady-state kinetic data. Vent (exo(-)) showed ~110-, 180-, and 300-fold decreases in catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) for nucleotide insertion opposite an AP site, N(2)-MeG, and O(6)-MeG but ~1800- and 5000-fold decreases opposite O(6)-BzG and N(2)-BzG, respectively, as compared to G, whereas Dpo4 showed little or only ~13-fold decreases opposite N(2)-MeG and N(2)-BzG but ~260-370-fold decreases opposite O(6)-MeG, O(6)-BzG, and the AP site. Vent (exo(-)) preferentially misinserted G opposite N(2)-MeG, T opposite O(6)-MeG, and A opposite an AP site and N(2)-BzG, while Dpo4 favored correct C insertion opposite those lesions. Vent (exo(-)) and Dpo4 both bound modified DNAs with affinities similar to unmodified DNA. Our results indicate that Vent (exo(-)) is as or more efficient as Dpo4 in synthesis opposite O(6)-MeG and AP lesions, whereas Dpo4 is much or more efficient opposite (only) N(2)-alkylGs than Vent (exo(-)), irrespective of DNA-binding affinity. Our data also suggest that Vent (exo(-)) accepts nonbulky DNA lesions (e.g., N(2)- or O(6)-MeG and an AP site) as manageable substrates despite causing error-prone synthesis, whereas Dpo4 strongly favors minor-groove N(2)-alkylG lesions over major-groove or noninstructive lesions.
Project description:Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is a DNA damage tolerance mechanism carried out by low-fidelity DNA polymerases that bypass DNA lesions, which overcomes replication stalling. Despite the miscoding nature of most common DNA lesions, several of them are bypassed in mammalian cells in a relatively accurate manner, which plays a key role maintaining a low mutation load. Whereas it is generally agreed that TLS across the major UV and sunlight induced DNA lesion, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), is accurate, there were conflicting reports on whether the same is true for the thymine-thymine pyrimidine-pyrimidone(6-4) ultraviolet light photoproduct (TT6-4PP), which represents the second most common class of UV lesions. Using a TLS assay system based on gapped plasmids carrying site-specific TT6-4PP lesions in defined sequence contexts we show that the DNA sequence context markedly affected both the extent and accuracy of TLS. The sequence exhibiting higher TLS exhibited also higher error-frequency, caused primarily by semi-targeted mutations, at the nearest nucleotides flanking the lesion. Our results resolve the discrepancy reported on TLS across TT6-4PP, and suggest that TLS is more accurate in human cells than in mouse cells.
Project description:DNA polymerases select for the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) using amino acid side-chains that act as a "steric-gate" to bar improper incorporation of rNTPs. An additional factor in the selection of nucleotide substrates resides in the preferred geometry for the furanose moiety of the incoming nucleotide triphosphate. We have probed the role of sugar geometry during nucleotide selection by model DNA polymerases from Sulfolobus solfataricus using fixed conformation nucleotide analogues. North-methanocarba-dATP (N-MC-dATP) locks the central ring into a RNA-type (C2'-exo, North) conformation near a C3'-endo pucker, and South-methanocarba-dATP (S-MC-dATP) locks the central ring system into a (C3'-exo, South) conformation near a C2'-endo pucker. Dpo4 preferentially inserts N-MC-dATP and in the crystal structure of Dpo4 in complex with N-MC-dAMP, the nucleotide analogue superimposes almost perfectly with Dpo4 bound to unmodified dATP. Biochemical assays indicate that the S. solfataricus B-family DNA polymerase Dpo1 can insert and extend from both N-MC-dATP and S-MC-dATP. In this respect, Dpo1 is unexpectedly more tolerant of substrate conformation than Dpo4. The crystal structure of Dpo4 bound to S-MC-dADP shows that poor incorporation of the Southern pucker by the Y-family polymerase results from a hydrogen bond between the 3'-OH group of the nucleotide analogue and the OH group of the steric gate residue, Tyr12, shifting the S-MC-dADP molecule away from the dNTP binding pocket and distorting the base pair at the primer-template junction. These results provide insights into substrate specificity of DNA polymerases, as well as molecular mechanisms that act as a barrier against insertion of rNTPs.
Project description:Cyclobutane thymine dimers (T-T) comprise the majority of DNA damage caused by short wavelength ultraviolet radiation. These lesions generally block replicative DNA polymerases and are repaired by nucleotide excision repair or bypassed by translesion polymerases in the nucleus. Mitochondria lack nucleotide excision repair, and therefore, it is important to understand how the sole mitochondrial DNA polymerase, pol ?, interacts with irreparable lesions such as T-T. We performed in vitro DNA polymerization assays to measure the kinetics of incorporation opposite the lesion and bypass of the lesion by pol ? with a dimer-containing template. Exonuclease-deficient pol ? bypassed thymine dimers with low relative efficiency; bypass was attenuated but still detectable when using exonuclease-proficient pol ?. When bypass did occur, pol ? misincorporated a guanine residue opposite the 3'-thymine of the dimer only 4-fold less efficiently than it incorporated an adenine. Surprisingly, the pol ? exonuclease-proficient enzyme excised the incorrectly incorporated guanine at similar rates irrespective of the nature of the thymines in the template. In the presence of all four dNTPs, pol ? extended the primer after incorporation of two adenines opposite the lesion with relatively higher efficiency compared with extension past either an adenine or a guanine incorporated opposite the 3'-thymine of the T-T. Our results suggest that T-T usually stalls mitochondrial DNA replication but also suggest a mechanism for the introduction of point mutations and deletions in the mitochondrial genomes of chronically UV-exposed cells.
Project description:Genetic disorders can arise from single base substitutions in a single gene. A single base substitution for wild type guanine in the twelfth codon of KRAS2 mRNA occurs frequently to initiate lung, pancreatic, and colon cancer. We have observed single base mismatch specificity in radioimaging of mutant KRAS2 mRNA in tumors in mice by in vivo hybridization with radiolabeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) dodecamers. We hypothesized that multimutant specificity could be achieved with a PNA dodecamer incorporating hypoxanthine, which can form Watson-Crick base pairs with adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. Using molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations, we show that hypoxanthine substitutions in PNAs are tolerated in KRAS2 RNA:PNA duplexes where wild type guanine is replaced by mutant uracil or adenine in RNA. To validate our predictions, we synthesized PNA dodecamers with hypoxanthine, and then measured the thermal stability of RNA:PNA duplexes. Circular dichroism thermal melting results showed that hypoxanthine-containing PNAs are more stable in duplexes where hypoxanthine-adenine and hypoxanthine-uracil base pairs are formed than single mismatch duplexes or duplexes containing hypoxanthine-guanine opposition.
Project description:Human DNA polymerase ? (HsPol?) plays an important role in translesion synthesis (TLS), which allows for replication past DNA damage such as UV-induced cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). Here, we characterized ApPol? from the thermophilic worm Alvinella pompejana, which inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys. ApPol? shares sequence homology with HsPol? and contains domains for binding ubiquitin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Sun-induced UV does not penetrate Alvinella's environment; however, this novel DNA polymerase catalyzed efficient and accurate TLS past CPD, as well as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine and isomers of thymine glycol induced by reactive oxygen species. In addition, we found that ApPol? is more thermostable than HsPol?, as expected from its habitat temperature. Moreover, the activity of this enzyme was retained in the presence of a higher concentration of organic solvents. Therefore, ApPol? provides a robust, human-like Pol? that is more active after exposure to high temperatures and organic solvents.
Project description:In eukaryotic cells, the Rad6/Rad18-dependent monoubiquitination of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays an essential role in the switching between replication and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). The DNA polymerase Pol? binds to PCNA via a consensus C-terminal PCNA-interacting protein (PIP) motif. It also specifically interacts with monoubiquitinated PCNA thanks to a recently identified ubiquitin-binding domain (UBZ). To investigate whether the TLS activity of Pol? is always coupled to PCNA monoubiquitination, we monitor the ability of cell-free extracts to perform DNA synthesis across different types of lesions. We observe that a cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimer (TT-CPD), but not a N-2-acetylaminofluorene-guanine (G-AAF) adduct, is efficiently bypassed in extracts from Rad18-deficient cells, thus demonstrating the existence of a Pol?-dependent and Rad18-independent TLS pathway. In addition, by complementing Pol?-deficient cells with PIP and UBZ mutants, we show that each of these domains contributes to Pol? activity. The finding that the bypass of a CPD lesion in vitro does not require Ub-PCNA but nevertheless depends on the UBZ domain of Pol?, reveals that this domain may play a novel role in the TLS process that is not related to the monoubiquitination status of PCNA.