Phage display of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2): identification of selective inhibitors of collagenase-1 (metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1)).
ABSTRACT: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) is a broad spectrum inhibitor of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which function in extracellular matrix catabolism. Here, phage display was used to identify variants of human TIMP-2 that are selective inhibitors of human MMP-1, a collagenase whose unregulated action is linked to cancer, arthritis, and fibrosis. Using hard randomization of residues 2, 4, 5, and 6 (L1) and soft randomization of residues 34-40 (L2) and 67-70 (L3), a library was generated containing 2 × 10(10) variants of TIMP-2. Five clones were isolated after five rounds of selection with MMP-1, using MMP-3 as a competitor. The enriched phages selectively bound MMP-1 relative to MMP-3 and contained mutations only in L1. The most selective variant (TM8) was used to generate a second library in which residues Cys(1)-Gln(9) were soft-randomized. Four additional clones, selected from this library, showed a similar affinity for MMP-1 as wild-type TIMP-2 but reduced affinity for MMP-3. Variants of the N-terminal domain of TIMP-2 (N-TIMP-2) with the sequences of the most selective clones were expressed and characterized for inhibitory activity against eight MMPs. All were effective inhibitors of MMP-1 with nanomolar K(i) values, but TM8, containing Ser(2) to Asp and Ser(4) to Ala substitutions, was the most selective having a nanomolar K(i) value for MMP-1 but no detectable inhibitory activity toward MMP-3 and MMP-14 up to 10 ?M. This study suggests that phage display and selection with other MMPs may be an effective method for discovering tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase variants that discriminate between specified MMPs as targets.
Project description:The tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are endogenous inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Since unregulated MMP activities are linked to arthritis, cancer, and atherosclerosis, TIMP variants that are selective inhibitors of disease-related MMPs have potential therapeutic value. The structures of TIMP/MMP complexes reveal that most interactions with the MMP involve the N-terminal pentapeptide of TIMP and the C-D beta-strand connector which occupy the primed and unprimed regions of the active site. The loop between beta-strands A and B forms a secondary interaction site for some MMPs, ranging from multiple contacts in the TIMP-2/membrane type-1 (MT1)-MMP complex to none in the TIMP-1/MMP-1 complex. TIMP-1 and its inhibitory domain, N-TIMP-1, are weak inhibitors of MT1-MMP; inhibition is not improved by grafting the longer AB loop from TIMP-2 into N-TIMP-1, but this change impairs binding to MMP-3 and MMP-7. Mutational studies with N-TIMP-1 suggest that its weak inhibition of MT1-MMP, as compared to other N-TIMPs, arises from multiple (>3) sequence differences in the interaction site. Substitutions for Thr2 of N-TIMP-1 strongly influence MMP selectivity; Arg and Gly, that generally reduce MMP affinity, have less effect on binding to MMP-9. When the Arg mutation is added to the N-TIMP-1(AB2) mutant, it produces a gelatinase-specific inhibitor with Ki values of 2.8 and 0.4 nM for MMP-2 and -9, respectively. Interestingly, the Gly mutant has a Ki of 2.1 nM for MMP-9 and >40 muM for MMP-2, indicating that engineered TIMPs can discriminate between MMPs in the same subfamily.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are strongly implicated in tumour invasion and metastasis. AIMS: To investigate the presence of individual MMPs and TIMPs in gastric cancer. METHODS: The presence of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 was identified in a group of gastric cancers (n=74) by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were effective on formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded sections. RESULTS: A large proportion (94%) of gastric cancers contained MMP-2; MMP-1 and MMP-9 were also detected in 73% and 70% of tumours respectively. MMP-3 was only present in 27% of tumours. MMP-1 and MMP-9 were found predominantly in intestinal type tumours. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were identified in 41% and 57% of tumours respectively. Immunoreactivity for individual MMPs or TIMPs was not identified in normal stomach. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the presence of matrix metalloproteinases, particularly MMP-2, and TIMPs in stomach cancer. Antibodies which are effective in formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded sections are useful for the identification of MMPs and TIMPs in diagnostic specimens.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) function in the degradation of extracellular matrix and are considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson disease (PD). MMPs activities are modulated by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). This study examined whether the genetic polymorphisms of MMP-3, gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9), TIMP-2, and TIMP-1 were associated with PD in Taiwan.A total of 359 PD patients and 332 controls were enrolled. The candidate genetic variants included MMP-2 rs2285053 (-735 C > T), MMP-3 rs3025058 (-1171 5A > 6A), MMP-9 rs3918241 (-1831 T > A), rs17576 (G > A, R279Q), and rs3787268 (G > A, intron), TIMP-1 rs4898 (T > C, F124F), and TIMP-2 rs7503607 (-269 G > T). Associations were tested by logistic regression, adjusted with gender and age at onset.Minor allele frequency of TIMP-1 rs4898 (36.0%) was significantly lower in the male PD patients than in the male controls (51.2%) (χ test, P = 0.004). When adjusted with gender and age at onset, MMP-9 rs17576 AA genotype was associated with PD susceptibility in a recessive fashion (odds ratios [OR] = 2.28, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 1.12-4.62, P = 0.02). In males, TIMP-1 rs4898 C allele was associated with a protective effect on PD (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.60-0.94, P = 0.014). We did not find association between the examined genetic variants of MMP-2, MMP-3, and TIMP-2 and PD susceptibility.This is the first study that demonstrated a protective effect of TIMP-1 rs4898 C allele on male PD and a modest association of MMP-9 rs17576 AA genotype with PD susceptibility in the Taiwan population. Further replication is needed for confirmation.
Project description:There is currently a vast amount of evidence in the literature suggesting that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory airways diseases, such as asthma and COPD. Despite this, the majority of reports only focus on single MMPs, often only in one model system. This study aimed to investigate the profile of an extensive range of MMP/TIMP levels in three different pre-clinical models of airways disease. These models each have a different and very distinct inflammatory profile, each exhibiting inflammatory characteristics that are similar to that observed in asthma or COPD. Since these models have their own characteristic pathophysiological phenotype, one would speculate that the MMP/TIMP expression profile would also be different.With the use of designed and purchased MMP/TIMP assays, investigation of rat MMP-2, 3, 714 and TIMP-14 mRNA expression was undertaken by Real Time PCR. The three rodent models of airways disease investigated were the endotoxin model, elastase model, and the antigen model.Intriguingly, we demonstrated that despite the distinct inflammatory profile observed by each model, the MMP/TIMP expression profile is similar between the models, in that the same MMPs/TIMPs were observed to be generally increased or decreased in all three models. It could therefore be speculated that in a particular disease, it may be a complex network of MMPs, rather than an individual MMP, together with inflammatory cytokines and other mediators, that results in the distinct phenotype of inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and COPD.We believe our data may provide key information necessary to understand the role of various MMPs/TIMPs in different inflammatory airway diseases, and aid the development of more selective therapeutics without the side effect profile of current broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a central role in many biological processes such as development, morphogenesis and wound healing, but their unbalanced activities are implicated in numerous disease processes such as arthritis, cancer metastasis, atherosclerosis, nephritis and fibrosis. One of the key mechanisms to control MMP activities is inhibition by endogenous inhibitors called tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). This review highlights the structures and inhibition mechanism of TIMPs, the biological activities of TIMPs, the unique properties of TIMP-3, and the altered specificity towards MMPs achieved by mutagenesis. A potential therapeutic use of TIMP variants is discussed.
Project description:Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are natural inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that contribute to cancer and many inflammatory and degenerative diseases. The TIMP N-terminal domain binds and inhibits an MMP catalytic domain, but the role of the TIMP C-terminal domain in MMP inhibition is poorly understood. Here, we employed yeast surface display for directed evolution of full-length human TIMP-1 to develop MMP-3-targeting ultrabinders. By simultaneously incorporating diversity into both domains, we identified TIMP-1 variants that were up to 10-fold improved in binding MMP-3 compared with WT TIMP-1, with inhibition constants (Ki ) in the low picomolar range. Analysis of individual and paired mutations from the selected TIMP-1 variants revealed cooperative effects between distant residues located on the N- and C-terminal TIMP domains, positioned on opposite sides of the interaction interface with MMP-3. Crystal structures of MMP-3 complexes with TIMP-1 variants revealed conformational changes in TIMP-1 near the cooperative mutation sites. Affinity was strengthened by cinching of a reciprocal "tyrosine clasp" formed between the N-terminal domain of TIMP-1 and proximal MMP-3 interface and by changes in secondary structure within the TIMP-1 C-terminal domain that stabilize interdomain interactions and improve complementarity to MMP-3. Our protein engineering and structural studies provide critical insight into the cooperative function of TIMP domains and the significance of peripheral TIMP epitopes in MMP recognition. Our findings suggest new strategies to engineer TIMP proteins for therapeutic applications, and our directed evolution approach may also enable exploration of functional domain interactions in other protein systems.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in invasion and metastasis of various malignancies. The study evaluated a comprehensive profile of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), respectively in 50 controls and 75 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Blood samples from controls and patients as well as malignant and adjacent normal tissues from the patients were collected. The study examined pro, active and total forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 using zymography. Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were carried out to evaluate protein levels and mRNA expression; respectively, for the MMPs and TIMPs. Plasma pro, active and total MMP-2, MMP-9 as well as TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were significantly higher in oral cancer patients as compared to the controls. mRNA expression of the MMPs and TIMPs was significantly higher in malignant tissues as compared to adjacent normal tissues. A significant positive correlation was observed between levels of proMMP-9 and active MMP-9 with differentiation, stage and infiltration. ProMMP-2 and active MMP-2 exhibited significant positive correlation with differentiation and lymph node involvement. The multivariate analysis of ELISA results revealed a significant positive correlation between MMP-2, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels with lymph node involvement, stage and differentiation. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed that the levels of MMPs and TIMPs have significant discriminatory efficacy to differentiate between controls and patients. The results indicate that MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 have significant clinical usefulness for oral cancer patients. Zymographic analysis is a simple, cost effective, rapid and sensitive alternative assay.
Project description:In our article, we evaluated the regulatory effects of the infusions of rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20(+) B cells, on the serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) not responding to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy. Twelve RA patients were planned to receive four infusions of 1,000 mg of rituximab at weeks 0, 2, 24 and 26. The therapy was combined with methotrexate (MTX) (20-30 mg/week). Seven patients were refractory to previously received infliximab, and five to etanercept. Serum concentrations of interstitial collagenase (MMP-1), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), gelatinase B (MMP-9) and TIMP-1 were measured by ELISA on weeks 0, 2, 12, 24, 36 and 52. Initial infusion of rituximab downregulated serum MMP-1 (p < 0.01), MMP-3 (p < 0.001), MMP-9 (p < 0.001) and TIMP-1 (p < 0.05) levels. Second drug administration caused even more remarkable reduction of measured MMPs (p < 0.001 in all cases) and TIMP-1 level (p < 0.01). These findings were accompanied by significantly decreased ratios of measured MMPs to TIMP-1. Next rituximab infusions on weeks 24 and 26 sustained the suppression of serum MMPs levels. Prior to the initial rituximab infusion, serum concentrations of studied MMPs and TIMP-1 significantly correlated with markers of RA activity such as disease activity score (DAS28) and CRP levels. Rituximab therapy, beside a rapid clinical improvement, reduced serum MMPs concentrations in RA patients refractory to anti-TNF treatment. Repeated infusions of rituximab maintained initial serum MMPs suppression.
Project description:The association between obesity and inflammation is well documented in epidemiological studies. Proteolysis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is involved in adipose tissue enlargement, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) collectively cleave all ECM proteins. Here, we examined the effects of C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, on the expression of MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), which are natural inhibitors of MMPs, in adipocyte-differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. We analyzed the expression of Fc? receptor (Fc?R) IIb and Fc?RIII, which are candidates for CRP receptors, and the effects of anti-CD16/CD32 antibodies, which can act as Fc?RII and Fc?RIII blockers on CRP-induced alteration of MMP and TIMP expression. Moreover, we examined the effects of CRP on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which is involved in MMP and TIMP expression, in the presence or absence of anti-CD16/CD32 antibodies. Stimulation with CRP increased MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-11, MMP-14, and TIMP-1 expression but did not affect MMP-2, TIMP-2, and TIMP-4 expression; TIMP-3 expression was not detected. Adipocyte-differentiated 3T3-L1cells expressed Fc?RIIb and Fc?RIII; this expression was upregulated on stimulation with CRP. Anti-CD16/CD32 antibodies inhibited CRP-induced expression of MMPs, except MMP-11, and TIMP-1. CRP induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38 MAPK but did not affect SAPK/JNK phosphorylation, and Anti-CD16/CD32 attenuated the CRP-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not that of ERK1/2. These results suggest that CRP facilitates ECM turnover in adipose tissue by increasing the production of multiple MMPs and TIMP-1 in adipocytes. Moreover, Fc?RIIb and Fc?RIII are involved in the CRP-induced expression of MMPs and TIMP-1 and the CRP-induced phosphorylation of p38, whereas the Fc?R-independent pathway may regulate the CRP-induced MMP-11 expression and the CRP-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation.
Project description:Although past studies observed the changes of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in end-stage heart failure (HF) patients, a consistent and clear pattern of type-specific MMPs and/or TIMPs has yet to be further defined. In this study, proteomic approach of human protein antibody arrays was used to compare MMP and TIMP expression levels of left ventricular (LV) myocardial samples from end-stage HF patients due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with those from age- and sex- matched non-failing patients. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and ELISA were used for validation of our results. We observed that MMP-10 and -7 abundance increased, accompanied by decreased TIMP-4 in DCM failing hearts (n= 8) compared with non-failing hearts (n= 8). The results were further validated in a cohort of 34 end-stage HF patients derived from three forms of cardiomyopathies. Cardiac and plasma MMP-10 levels were positively correlated with the LV end-diastolic dimension in this HF cohort. In addition, we observed that insulin-like growth factor-2 promoted MMP-10 production in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a selective up-regulation of MMP-10 and -7 along with a discordant change of TIMP-4, and a positive correlation between MMP-10 levels and the degree of LV dilation in end-stage HF patients. Our findings suggest that type-specific dysregulation of MMPs and TIMPs is associated with LV remodelling in end-stage HF patients, and MMP-10 may act as a novel biomarker for LV remodelling.