?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate reduces myonuclear apoptosis during recovery from hind limb suspension-induced muscle fiber atrophy in aged rats.
ABSTRACT: ?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite shown to reduce protein catabolism in disease states and promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to loading exercise. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of HMB to reduce muscle wasting and promote muscle recovery following disuse in aged animals. Fisher 344×Brown Norway rats, 34 mo of age, were randomly assigned to receive either Ca-HMB (340 mg/kg body wt) or the water vehicle by gavage (n = 32/group). The animals received either 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HS, n = 8/diet group) or 14 days of unloading followed by 14 days of reloading (R; n = 8/diet group). Nonsuspended control animals were compared with suspended animals after 14 days of HS (n = 8) or after R (n = 8). HMB treatment prevented the decline in maximal in vivo isometric force output after 2 wk of recovery from hindlimb unloading. The HMB-treated animals had significantly greater plantaris and soleus fiber cross-sectional area compared with the vehicle-treated animals. HMB decreased the amount of TUNEL-positive nuclei in reloaded plantaris muscles (5.1% vs. 1.6%, P < 0.05) and soleus muscles (3.9% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.05). Although HMB did not significantly alter Bcl-2 protein abundance compared with vehicle treatment, HMB decreased Bax protein abundance following R, by 40% and 14% (P < 0.05) in plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively. Cleaved caspase-3 was reduced by 12% and 9% (P < 0.05) in HMB-treated reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, compared with vehicle-treated animals. HMB reduced cleaved caspase-9 by 14% and 30% (P < 0.05) in reloaded plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively, compared with vehicle-treated animals. Although, HMB was unable to prevent unloading-induced atrophy, it attenuated the decrease in fiber area in fast and slow muscles after HS and R. HMB's ability to protect against muscle loss may be due in part to putative inhibition of myonuclear apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial-associated caspase signaling.
Project description:Aging exacerbates muscle loss and slows the recovery of muscle mass and function after disuse. In this study we investigated the potential that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), an abundant catechin in green tea, would reduce signaling for apoptosis and promote skeletal muscle recovery in the fast plantaris muscle and the slow soleus muscle after hindlimb suspension (HLS) in senescent animals. Fischer 344 × Brown Norway inbred rats (age 34 months) received either EGCg (50 mg/kg body weight), or water daily by gavage. One group of animals received HLS for 14 days and a second group of rats received 14 days of HLS, then the HLS was removed and they recovered from this forced disuse for 2 weeks. Animals that received EGCg over the HLS followed by 14 days of recovery, had a 14% greater plantaris muscle weight (p<0.05) as compared to the animals treated with the vehicle over this same period. Plantaris fiber area was greater after recovery in EGCg (2715.2±113.8 ?m(2)) vs. vehicle treated animals (1953.0±41.9 ?m(2)). In addition, activation of myogenic progenitor cells was improved with EGCg over vehicle treatment (7.5% vs. 6.2%) in the recovery animals. Compared to vehicle treatment, the apoptotic index was lower (0.24% vs. 0.52%), and the abundance of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax (-22%), and FADD (-77%) was lower in EGCg treated plantaris muscles after recovery. While EGCg did not prevent unloading-induced atrophy, it improved muscle recovery after the atrophic stimulus in fast plantaris muscles. However, this effect was muscle specific because EGCg had no major impact in reversing HLS-induced atrophy in the slow soleus muscle of old rats.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Successful strategies to halt or reverse sarcopenia require a basic understanding of the factors that cause muscle loss with age. Acute periods of muscle loss in older individuals have an incomplete recovery of muscle mass and strength, thus accelerating sarcopenic progression. The purpose of the current study was to further understand the mechanisms underlying the failure of old animals to completely recover muscle mass and function after a period of hindlimb unloading.<h4>Methods</h4>Hindlimb unloading was used to induce muscle atrophy in Fischer 344-Brown Norway (F344BN F1) rats at 24, 28, and 30 months of age. Rats were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded at 24 months (Reloaded 24), 28 months (Reloaded 28), and 24 and 28 months (Reloaded 24/28) of age. Isometric torque was determined at 24 months of age (24 months), at 28 months of age (28 months), immediately after 14 days of reloading, and at 30 months of age (30 months). During control or reloaded conditions, rats were labelled with deuterium oxide (D<sub>2</sub> O) to determine rates of muscle protein synthesis and RNA synthesis.<h4>Results</h4>After 14 days of reloading, in vivo isometric torque returned to baseline in Reloaded 24, but not Reloaded 28 and Reloaded 24/28. Despite the failure of Reloaded 28 and Reloaded 24/28 to regain peak force, all groups were equally depressed in peak force generation at 30 months. Increased age did not decrease muscle protein synthesis rates, and in fact, increased resting rates of protein synthesis were measured in the myofibrillar fraction (Fractional synthesis rate (FSR): %/day) of the plantaris (24 months: 2.53 ± 0.17; 30 months: 3.29 ± 0.17), and in the myofibrillar (24 months: 2.29 ± 0.07; 30 months: 3.34 ± 0.11), collagen (24 months: 1.11 ± 0.07; 30 months: 1.55 ± 0.14), and mitochondrial (24 months: 2.38 ± 0.16; 30 months: 3.20 ± 0.10) fractions of the tibialis anterior (TA). All muscles increased myofibrillar protein synthesis (%/day) in Reloaded 24 (soleus: 3.36 ± 0.11, 5.23 ± 0.19; plantaris: 2.53 ± 0.17, 3.66 ± 0.07; TA: 2.29 ± 0.14, 3.15 ± 0.12); however, in Reloaded 28, only the soleus had myofibrillar protein synthesis rates (%/day) >28 months (28 months: 3.80 ± 0.10; Reloaded 28: 4.86 ± 0.19). Across the muscles, rates of protein synthesis were correlated with RNA synthesis (all muscles combined, R<sup>2</sup> = 0.807, P < 0.0001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data add to the growing body of literature that indicate that changes with age, including following disuse atrophy, differ by muscle. In addition, our findings lead to additional questions of the underlying mechanisms by which some muscles are maintained with age while others are not.
Project description:Prior work established that exercise alleviates muscle function loss in a clinically relevant rodent model mimicking the clinical sequelae of severely burned patients. On the basis of these data, we posit that pharmacologic treatment with insulin combined with exercise further mitigates loss of muscle function following severe burn with immobilization. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed and trained to complete a climbing exercise. All rats followed a standardized protocol to mimic severe burn patients (40% total body surface area scald burn); all rats were immediately placed into a hindlimb unloading apparatus to simulate bedrest. The rats were then randomly assigned to four treatment groups: saline vehicle injection without exercise (VEH/NEX), insulin (5 U/kg) injection without exercise (INS/NEX), saline vehicle with daily exercise (VEH/EX), and insulin with daily exercise (INS/EX). The animals were assessed for 14 days following injury. The groups were compared for multiple variables. Isometric tetanic (Po) and twitch (Pt) forces were significantly elevated in the plantaris and soleus muscles of the INS/EX rats (P < 0.05). Genomic analysis revealed mechanistic causes with specific candidate changes. Molecular analysis of INS/EX rats revealed Akt phosphorylated by PDPK1 was increased with this treatment, and it further activated downstream signals mTOR, eEF2, and GSK3-? (P < 0.05). Furthermore, muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF-1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, was reduced in the INS/EX group (P < 0.05). Insulin and resistance exercise have a positive combined effect on the muscle function recovery in this clinically relevant rodent model of severe burn. Both treatments altered signaling pathways of increasing protein synthesis and decreasing protein degradation.
Project description:This study tested the hypothesis that aging exacerbates apoptotic signaling in rat fast plantaris muscle during muscle unloading. Plantaris muscle mass was 22% lower in aged animals and the apoptotic index was 600% higher, when compared to those in young adult animals. Following 14 days of hind-limb unloading, absolute plantaris muscle mass was 20% lower in young adult animals with a corresponding 200% higher elevation of the apoptotic index. Unloading had no affect on muscle weight or apoptotic index of aged plantaris muscles. The changes in pro-apoptotic messenger RNA (mRNA) for apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), Bax, and inhibitor of differentiation protein-2 (Id2) were exacerbated with aging. Bax and Bcl-2 protein levels were also altered differently in aged muscle, compared to young. Significant positive correlations were observed between the changes in Id2 and Bax mRNA, and Id2 and caspase-9 mRNA. These data suggest that a pro-apoptotic environment may contribute to aging-associated atrophy in fast skeletal muscle, but apoptotic signaling differs by age.
Project description:Recovery from burn injury is associated with stimulated whole-body protein turnover. Since skeletal muscle and liver are the tissues most likely to influence whole-body measurements, we studied protein kinetics in soleus and plantaris muscles as well as liver 3 days after a 3 s burn on one hindlimb of the rat. Muscles from both the burned and unburned limbs of burned rats were compared with those of uninjured controls to distinguish between local and systemic factors involved. The following measurements were performed: (1) fractional growth rate of the tissue protein pool, determined from tissue protein content on days 2, 3 and 4; (2) fractional protein-synthetic rate, measured by [14C]tyrosine constant infusion on day 3; (3) fractional protein-degradation rate, calculated from the difference between the rates of protein synthesis and growth. Protein growth by soleus and plantaris muscles of control rats and unburned limb of burned rats was not paralleled by those in the burned limb, which showed progressive atrophy between 2 and 4 days post-burn (P less than 0.005). Protein synthesis by soleus but not plantaris muscle in the unburned limb of burned rats was enhanced by 62% (P less than 0.04) above control. Protein synthesis by burned-limb soleus and plantaris muscles was elevated by 114% (P less than 0.001) and 67% (P less than 0.02) respectively above control. Protein degradation by both soleus and plantaris muscles in the unburned limb of burned rats did not differ from control. In contrast, that of soleus and plantaris muscles in the burned limb was stimulated by 230% (P less than 0.001) and 164% (P less than 0.001) respectively compared with controls. Protein turnover of soleus muscles in both control and burned rats was more rapid than in corresponding plantaris muscles. Liver protein mass exhibited steady growth in control rats, but remained unchanged in burned animals between 2 and 4 days post-burn. Liver protein synthesis in burned rats was elevated by 56% (P less than 0.01) and protein breakdown was stimulated by 61% (P less than 0.002) above those of controls. The data indicate that both local and systemic factors influence tissue protein turnover in animals recovering from a single-hindlimb scald.
Project description:Aging is associated with poor skeletal muscle regenerative ability following extended periods of hospitalization and other forms of muscular disuse. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural phytoalexin which has been shown in skeletal muscle to improve oxidative stress levels in muscles of aged rats. As muscle disuse and reloading after disuse increases oxidative stress, we hypothesized that resveratrol supplementation would improve muscle regeneration after disuse. A total of thirty-six male Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats (32 mo.) were treated with either a water vehicle or resveratrol via oral gavage. The animals received hindlimb suspension for 14 days. Thereafter, they were either sacrificed or allowed an additional 14 day period of cage ambulation during reloading. A total of six rats from the vehicle and the resveratrol treated groups were used for the hindlimb suspension and recovery protocols. Furthermore, two groups of 6 vehicle treated animals maintained normal ambulation throughout the experiment, and were used as control animals for the hindlimb suspension and reloading groups. The data show that resveratrol supplementation was unable to attenuate the decreases in plantaris muscle wet weight during hindlimb suspension but it improved muscle mass during reloading after hindlimb suspension. Although resveratrol did not prevent fiber atrophy during the period of disuse, it increased the fiber cross sectional area of type IIA and IIB fibers in response to reloading after hindlimb suspension. There was a modest enhancement of myogenic precursor cell proliferation in resveratrol-treated muscles after reloading, but this failed to reach statistical significance. The resveratrol-associated improvement in type II fiber size and muscle mass recovery after disuse may have been due to decreases in the abundance of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved caspase 9 in reloaded muscles. Resveratrol appears to have modest therapeutic benefits for improving muscle mass after disuse in aging.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine if levels of repressors to myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) differ between muscles from young adult and aged animals. Total RNA from plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles of Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats aged 9 mo (young adult, n = 10) and 37 mo (aged, n = 10) was reverse transcribed and then amplified by PCR. To obtain a semiquantitative measure of the mRNA levels, PCR signals were normalized to cyclophilin or 18S signals from the corresponding reverse transcription product. Normalization to cyclophilin and 18S gave similar results. The mRNA levels of MyoD and myogenin were approximately 275-650% (P < 0.001) and approximately 500-1,100% (P < 0.001) greater, respectively, in muscles from aged compared with young adults. In contrast, the protein levels were lower in plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles and similar in the soleus muscle of aged vs. young adult rats. Id repressor mRNA levels were approximately 300-900% greater in fast and slow muscles of aged animals (P < or = 0.02), and Mist 1 mRNA was approximately 50% greater in the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles (P < 0.01). The mRNA level of Twist mRNA was not significantly affected by aging. Id-1, Id-2, and Id-3 protein levels were approximately 17-740% greater (P < 0.05) in hindlimb muscles of aged rats compared with young adult rats. The elevated levels of Id mRNA and protein suggest that MRF repressors may play a role in gene regulation of fast and slow muscles in aged rats.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO), produced by NO-synthases via L-arginine oxidation, is an essential trigger for signaling processes involved in structural and metabolic changes in muscle fibers. Recently, it was shown that L-arginine administration prevented the decrease in levels of the muscle cytoskeletal proteins, desmin and dystrophin, in rat soleus muscle after 14 days of hindlimb unloading. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of L-arginine administration on the degree of atrophy changes in the rat soleus muscles under unloading conditions, and on the content, gene expression, and phosphorylation level of titin, the giant protein of striated muscles, able to form a third type of myofilaments-elastic filaments. A 7-day gravitational unloading [hindlimb suspension (HS) group] resulted in a decrease in the soleus weight:body weight ratio (by 31.8%, p < 0.05), indicating muscle atrophy development. The content of intact titin (T1) decreased (by 22.4%, p < 0.05) and the content of proteolytic fragments of titin (T2) increased (by 66.7%, p < 0.05) in the soleus muscle of HS rats, compared to control rats. The titin gene expression and phosphorylation level of titin between these two groups were not significantly different. L-Arginine administration under 7-day gravitational unloading decreased the degree of atrophy changes and also prevented the decrease in levels of T1 in the soleus muscle as compared to HS group. Furthermore, L-arginine administration under unloading resulted in increased titin mRNA level (by 76%, p < 0.05) and decreased phosphorylation level of T2 (by 28%, p < 0.05), compared to those in the HS group. These results suggest that administration of L-arginine, the NO precursor, under unloading decreased the degree of atrophy changes, increased gene expression of titin and prevented the decrease in levels of T1 in the rat soleus muscle. The results can be used to search for approaches to reduce the development of negative changes caused by gravitational unloading in the muscle.
Project description:The rate of protein synthesis was measured in muscles of the perfused rat hemicorpus, and values were compared with rates obtained in whole animals. In gastrocnemius muscle of fed rats the rate of synthesis measured in the hemicorpus was the same as that in the whole animal. However, in plantaris, quadriceps and soleus muscles rates were higher in the hemicorpus than those in vivo. In the hemicorpus, starvation for 1 day decreased the rate of protein synthesis in gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles, in parallel with decreases in the RNA content, but the soleus remained unaffected. Similar effects of starvation were observed in vivo, so that the relationships between rates in vivo and in the hemicorpus were the same as those in fed rats. Proteins of quadriceps and plantaris muscles were separated into sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions. The rate of synthesis in the sarcoplasmic fraction of the hemicorpus from fed rats was similar to that in vivo, but synthesis in the myofibrillar fraction was greater. In the plantaris of starved rats the rates of synthesis in both fractions were lower, but the relationships between rates measured in vivo and in the perfused hemicorpus were similar to those seen in fed rats. The addition of insulin to the perfusate of the hemicorpus prepared from 1-day-starved animals increased the rates of protein synthesis per unit of RNA in gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles to values above those seen in fed animals when measured in vivo or in the hemicorpus. Insulin had no effect on the soleus. Overall, the rates of protein synthesis in the hemicorpus differed from those in vivo. However, the effect of starvation when measured in the whole animal was very similar to that measured in the isolated rat hemicorpus when insulin was omitted from the perfusate.
Project description:Intracellular signaling exhibits circadian variation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and liver. However, it is unclear whether circadian regulation also extends to intracellular signaling pathways in the cardiac and skeletal muscles. Here, we examined circadian variation in the intracellular mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, which regulate protein synthesis in rat cardiac and skeletal muscles. Seven-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to six groups: Zeitgeber time (ZT) 2, ZT6, ZT10, ZT14, ZT18, and ZT22 (ZT0, lights on; ZT12, lights off). The cardiac, plantaris, and soleus muscles were removed after a 12-h fasting period, and signal transducers involved in protein synthesis (mTOR, p70S6K, and ERK) were analyzed by western blotting. Circadian rhythms of signal transducers were observed in both cardiac (mTOR, p70S6K, and ERK) and plantaris (p70S6K and ERK) muscles (p<0.05), but not in the soleus muscle. In the cardiac muscle, the phosphorylation rate of mTOR was significantly higher at ZT6 (peak) than at ZT18 (bottom), and the phosphorylation rate of p70S6K was significantly higher at ZT2 (peak) than at ZT18 (bottom). In contrast, in the plantaris muscle, the phosphorylation rate of ERK was significantly lower at ZT2 (bottom) than at ZT18 (peak). Our data suggested that protein synthesis via mTOR/p70S6K and ERK signaling molecules exhibits circadian variation in rat cardiac and fast-type plantaris muscles.