Helping hands: a cluster randomised trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two different strategies for promoting hand hygiene in hospital nurses.
ABSTRACT: Hand hygiene prescriptions are the most important measure in the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Yet, compliance rates are generally below 50% of all opportunities for hand hygiene. This study aims at evaluating the short- and long-term effects of two different strategies for promoting hand hygiene in hospital nurses.This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial with inpatient wards as the unit of randomisation. Guidelines for hand hygiene will be implemented in this study. Two strategies will be used to improve the adherence to guidelines for hand hygiene. The state-of-the-art strategy is derived from the literature and includes education, reminders, feedback, and targeting adequate products and facilities. The extended strategy also contains activities aimed at influencing social influence in groups and enhancing leadership. The unique contribution of the extended strategy is built upon relevant behavioural science theories. The extended strategy includes all elements of the state-of-the-art strategy supplemented with gaining active commitment and initiative of ward management, modelling by informal leaders at the ward, and setting norms and targets within the team. Data will be collected at four points in time, with six-month intervals. An average of 3,000 opportunities for hand hygiene in approximately 900 nurses will be observed at each time point.Performing and evaluating an implementation strategy that also targets the social context of teams may considerably add to the general body of knowledge in this field. Results from our study will allow us to draw conclusions on the effects of different strategies for the implementation of hand hygiene guidelines, and based on these results we will be able to define a preferred implementation strategy for hospital based nursing.The study is registered as a Clinical Trial in ClinicalTrials.gov, dossier number: NCT00548015.
Project description:There is only limited understanding of why hand hygiene improvement strategies are successful or fail. It is therefore important to look inside the 'black box' of such strategies, to ascertain which components of a strategy work well or less well. This study examined which components of two hand hygiene improvement strategies were associated with increased nurses' hand hygiene compliance.A process evaluation of a cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in which part of the nursing wards of three hospitals in the Netherlands received a state-of-the-art strategy, including education, reminders, feedback, and optimising materials and facilities; another part received a team and leaders-directed strategy that included all elements of the state-of-the-art strategy, supplemented with activities aimed at the social and enhancing leadership. This process evaluation used four sets of measures: effects on nurses' hand hygiene compliance, adherence to the improvement strategies, contextual factors, and nurses' experiences with strategy components. Analyses of variance and multiple regression analyses were used to explore changes in nurses' hand hygiene compliance and thereby better understand trial effects.Both strategies were performed with good adherence to protocol. Two contextual factors were associated with changes in hand hygiene compliance: a hospital effect in long term (p < 0.05), and high hand hygiene baseline scores were associated with smaller effects (p < 0.01). In short term, changes in nurses' hand hygiene compliance were positively correlated with experienced feedback about their hand hygiene performance (p < 0.05). In the long run, several items of the components 'social influence' (i.e., addressing each other on undesirable hand hygiene behaviour p < 0.01), and 'leadership' (i.e., ward manager holds team members accountable for hand hygiene performance p < 0.01) correlated positively with changes in nurses' hand hygiene compliance.This study illustrates the use of a process evaluation to uncover mechanisms underlying change in hand hygiene improvement strategies. Our study results demonstrate the added value of specific aspects of social influence and leadership in hand hygiene improvement strategies, thus offering an interpretation of the trial effects.The study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, dossier number: NCT00548015.
Project description:Importance:Hand hygiene adherence monitoring and feedback can reduce health care-acquired infections in hospitals. Few low-cost hand hygiene adherence monitoring tools exist in low-resource settings. Objective:To pilot an open-source application for mobile devices and an interactive analytical dashboard for the collection and visualization of health care workers' hand hygiene adherence data. Design, Setting, and Participants:This prospective multicenter quality improvement study evaluated preintervention and postintervention adherence with the 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene, as suggested by the World Health Organization, among health care workers from April 23 to May 25, 2018. A novel data collection form, the Hand Hygiene Observation Tool, was developed in open-source software and used to measure adherence with hand hygiene guidelines among health care workers in the inpatient therapeutic feeding center and pediatric ward of Anka General Hospital, Anka, Nigeria, and the postoperative ward of Noma Children's Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria. Qualitative data were analyzed throughout data collection and used for immediate feedback to staff. A more formal analysis of the data was conducted during October 2018. Exposures:Multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy with increased availability and accessibility of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, staff training and education, and evaluation and feedback in near real-time. Main Outcomes and Measures:Hand hygiene adherence before and after the intervention in 3 hospital wards, stratified by health care worker role, ward, and moment of hand hygiene. Results:A total of 686 preintervention adherence observations and 673 postintervention adherence observations were conducted. After the intervention, overall hand hygiene adherence increased from 32.4% to 57.4%. Adherence increased in both wards in Anka General Hospital (inpatient therapeutic feeding center, 24.3% [54 of 222 moments] to 63.7% [163 of 256 moments]; P?<?.001; pediatric ward, 50.9% [132 of 259 moments] to 68.8% [135 of 196 moments]; P?<?.001). Adherence among nurses in Anka General Hospital also increased in both wards (inpatient therapeutic feeding center, 17.7% [28 of 158 moments] to 71.2% [79 of 111 moments]; P?<?.001; pediatric ward, 45.9% [68 of 148 moments] to 68.4% [78 of 114 moments]; P?<?.001). In Noma Children's Hospital, the overall adherence increased from 17.6% (36 of 205 moments) to 39.8% (88 of 221 moments) (P?<?.001). Adherence among nurses in Noma Children's Hospital increased from 11.5% (14 of 122 moments) to 61.4% (78 of 126 moments) (P?<?.001). Adherence among Noma Children's Hospital physicians decreased from 34.2% (13 of 38 moments) to 8.6% (7 of 81 moments). Lowest overall adherence after the intervention occurred before patient contact (53.1% [85 of 160 moments]), before aseptic procedure (58.3% [21 of 36 moments]), and after touching a patient's surroundings (47.1% [124 of 263 moments]). Conclusions and Relevance:This study suggests that tools for the collection and rapid visualization of hand hygiene adherence data are feasible in low-resource settings. The novel tool used in this study may contribute to comprehensive infection prevention and control strategies and strengthening of hand hygiene behavior among all health care workers in health care facilities in humanitarian and low-resource settings.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia.<h4>Methods</h4>This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs' perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR?=?6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR?=?5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR?=?4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR?=?2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR?=?2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3). In the perceptions survey, 64.0% of HCWs indicated preference for commercially manufactured hand sanitizer and 71.4% indicated their hand hygiene adherence would improve with commercial hand sanitizer.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among Ethiopian HCWs following the implementation of a WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign. Dissatisfaction with the current WHO-formulation for hand sanitizer was identified as a barrier to hand hygiene adherence in our setting.
Project description:Hand hygiene (HH) is recognized as the single most effective strategy for preventing health care-associated infections. In developing countries, data on hand hygiene compliance is available only for few health-care facilities. This study aimed to assess hand hygiene compliance among health-care workers in Debre Berhan referral hospital, Ethiopia.This study employed the WHO hand hygiene observation method. Direct observation of the health care workers (HCWs) was conducted using an observation record form in five different wards. Trained and validated observers watched HCWs while they had direct contact with patients or their surroundings, and the observers then recorded all possible hand hygiene opportunities and hand hygiene actions. Observation was conducted over a 24 h period to minimize selection bias. More than 200 opportunities per ward were observed according to WHO recommendation, except in neonatal intensive care unit. HH compliance was calculated by dividing the number of times hand hygiene was performed by the total number of opportunities for hand hygiene. A 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed for compliance with the exact binomial method.A total of 917 hand hygiene opportunities were observed during the study. Overall HH compliance was 22.0% (95% CI: 19.4-24.9). HH compliance was similar across all professional categories and did not vary by shift. Levels of compliance were lower before patient contact (2.4%; 95% CI: 0.9-5.3), before an aseptic procedure (3.6%; 95% CI: 1.6-7.6) and after contact with patient surroundings (3.3%; 95% CI: 1.2-7.9), whereas better levels of compliance were found after body fluid exposure (75.8%; 95% CI: 68.0-82.3) and after patient contact (42.8%; 95% CI: 35.2-50.7).HH compliance of HCWs was found to be low in Debre Berhan referral hospital. Compliance with indications that protect patients from infection was lower than that protect the HCWs. The findings of this study indicate that HH compliance needs further improvement.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Reliable reports on hand hygiene performance throughout the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking as most hospitals continue to rely on direct observation to measure this quality indicator. Using group electronic hand hygiene monitoring, we sought to assess the impact of COVID-19 on adherence to hand hygiene.<h4>Methods</h4>Across 12 Ontario hospitals (5 university and 7 community teaching hospitals), a group electronic hand hygiene monitoring system was installed before the pandemic to provide continuous measurement of hand hygiene adherence across 978 ward and 367 critical care beds. We performed an interrupted time-series study of institutional hand hygiene adherence in association with a COVID-19 inpatient census and the Ontario daily count of COVID-19 cases during a baseline period (Nov. 1, 2019, to Feb. 29, 2020), the pre-peak period of the first wave of the pandemic (Mar. 1 to Apr. 24, 2020), and the post-peak period of the first wave (Apr. 25 to July 5, 2020). We used a Poisson regression model to assess the association between the hospital COVID-19 census and institutional hand hygiene adherence while adjusting for the correlation within inpatient units.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, the rate of hand hygiene adherence was 46.0% (6 325 401 of 13 750 968 opportunities) and this improved beginning in March 2020 to a daily peak of 79.3% (66 640 of 84 026 opportunities) on Mar. 30, 2020. Each patient admitted with COVID-19 was associated with improved hand hygiene adherence (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.0621, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0619-1.0623). Increasing Ontario daily case count was similarly associated with improved hand hygiene (IRR 1.0026, 95% CI 1.0021-1.0032). After peak COVID-19 community and inpatient numbers, hand hygiene adherence declined and returned to baseline.<h4>Interpretation</h4>The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significant improvement in hand hygiene adherence, measured using a group electronic monitoring system. Future research should seek to determine whether strategies that focus on health care worker perception of personal risk can achieve sustainable improvements in hand hygiene performance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Healthcare-associated infection compromises patient safety. Compliance with hand hygiene (HH) guidelines has been shown to be an effective method of reducing infection; however, it remains suboptimal and poorer among doctors compared to other healthcare workers. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between an individualised observational hand hygiene audit (OHHA) and feedback intervention with observed HH compliance.<h4>Methods</h4>We used a retrospective interrupted time series design using OHHA data from a five-year period, 2011-2015. OHHA indicated poorer HH compliance among doctors than other healthcare workers in a 345-bed acute private hospital. An increase in orthopaedic surgical site infection prompted additional auditing of the orthopaedic unit further identifying substandard HH compliance among orthopaedic surgeons. In addition to ongoing HH interventions, an individualised hand hygiene audit and feedback intervention focusing on consultant orthopaedic surgeons was implemented. Observed HH compliance improved. The intervention was then extended to include all consultant doctors at the study site. Audit was implemented by trained clinical nurse managers during clinical rounds. Written audit feedback was provided by the infection prevention and control team.<h4>Results</h4>HH compliance increased significantly among both orthopaedic surgeons and other consultant doctors, <i>P</i> < 0.05.<h4>Conclusion</h4>An individualised audit and feedback intervention was effective in improving compliance. Incorporation of OHHA with individualised feedback into routine daily practice needs to be considered as a quality improvement opportunity. This study has the potential to inform other audit and feedback interventions to maximise effectiveness and ensure implementation.
Project description:Hand hygiene and aseptic techniques are essential preventives in combating hospital-acquired infections. However, implementation of these strategies in the operating room remains suboptimal. There is a paucity of intervention studies providing detailed information on effective methods for change. This study aimed to evaluate the process of implementing a theory-driven knowledge translation program for improved use of hand hygiene and aseptic techniques in the operating room.The study was set in an operating department of a university hospital. The intervention was underpinned by theories on organizational learning, culture and person centeredness. Qualitative process data were collected via participant observations and analyzed using a thematic approach.Doubts that hand-hygiene practices are effective in preventing hospital acquired infections, strong boundaries and distrust between professional groups and a lack of psychological safety were identified as barriers towards change. Facilitated interprofessional dialogue and learning in "safe spaces" worked as mechanisms for motivation and engagement. Allowing for the free expression of different opinions, doubts and viewing resistance as a natural part of any change was effective in engaging all professional categories in co-creation of clinical relevant solutions to improve hand hygiene.Enabling nurses and physicians to think and talk differently about hospital acquired infections and hand hygiene requires a shift from the concept of one-way directed compliance towards change and learning as the result of a participatory and meaning-making process. The present study is a part of the Safe Hands project, and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT02983136 ). Date of registration 2016/11/28, retrospectively registered.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hand transmission of harmful microorganisms may lead to infections and poses a major threat to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The most effective countermeasure against these transmissions is the adherence to spatiotemporal hand hygiene policies, but adherence rates are relatively low and vary over space and time. The spatiotemporal effects on hand transmission and spread of these microorganisms for varying hand hygiene compliance levels are unknown. This study aims to (1) identify a healthcare worker occupancy group of potential super-spreaders and (2) quantify spatiotemporal effects on the hand transmission and spread of harmful microorganisms for varying levels of hand hygiene compliance caused by this group.<h4>Methods</h4>Spatiotemporal data were collected in a hospital ward of an academic hospital using radio frequency identification technology for 7 days. A potential super-spreader healthcare worker occupation group was identified using the frequency identification sensors' contact data. The effects of five probability distributions of hand hygiene compliance and three harmful microorganism transmission rates were simulated using a dynamic agent-based simulation model. The effects of initial simulation assumptions on the simulation results were quantified using five risk outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>Nurses, doctors and patients are together responsible for 81.13% of all contacts. Nurses made up 70.68% of all contacts, which is more than five times that of doctors (10.44%). This identifies nurses as the potential super-spreader healthcare worker occupation group. For initial simulation conditions of extreme lack of hand hygiene compliance (5%) and high transmission rates (5% per contact moment), a colonised nurse can transfer microbes to three of the 17 healthcare worker or patients encountered during the 98.4?min of visiting 23 rooms while colonised. The harmful microorganism transmission potential for nurses is higher during weeknights (5?pm - 7?am) and weekends as compared to weekdays (7?am - 5?pm).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Spatiotemporal behaviour and social mixing patterns of healthcare can change the expected number of hand transmissions and spread of harmful microorganisms by super-spreaders in a closed healthcare setting. These insights can be used to evaluate spatiotemporal safety behaviours and develop infection prevention and control strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hand hygiene (HH) is considered the most important measure to tackle the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens. However, compliance with recommendations is usually low and effective improvement strategies are needed. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention targeting hand hygiene promotion among healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS:We conducted a pre-post interventional study design in the university hospital Sahloul, Sousse, Tunisia, from January 2015 to December 2016. The intervention program consisted of training sessions and distribution of posters of hand hygiene guidelines. To assess the evolution of HH observance at pre- and post-intervention, the same observation form was distributed and collected at healthcare workers' workplace. RESULTS:Of the 1201 and 1057 opportunities for hand hygiene observed among all categories of HCWs, overall compliance enhanced significantly from 32.1 to 39.4% (p < 0.001) respectively at pre- and post-intervention. Nurses were the most compliant with a significant improvement from 34.1 to 45.7% (p < 0.001) respectively at pre- and post-intervention. Furthermore, analysis by department showed significant improvement of compliance in orthopedic department (p < 0.001), maxillofacial-surgery department (p < 0.001), pediatrics department (p = 0.013), and emergencies (p = 0.038). CONCLUSION:This study showed the feasibility and effectiveness of a health-setting-based intervention to enhance hand hygiene observance in the context of a developing country.
Project description:Over the last years, a number of stochastic models have been proposed for analysing the spread of nosocomial infections in hospital settings. These models often account for a number of factors governing the spread dynamics: spontaneous patient colonization, patient-staff contamination/colonization, environmental contamination, patient cohorting or healthcare workers (HCWs) hand-washing compliance levels. For each model, tailor-designed methods are implemented in order to analyse the dynamics of the nosocomial outbreak, usually by means of studying quantities of interest such as the reproduction number of each agent in the hospital ward, which is usually computed by means of stochastic simulations or deterministic approximations. In this work, we propose a highly versatile stochastic modelling framework that can account for all these factors simultaneously, and which allows one to exactly analyse the reproduction number of each agent at the hospital ward during a nosocomial outbreak. By means of five representative case studies, we show how this unified modelling framework comprehends, as particular cases, many of the existing models in the literature. We implement various numerical studies via which we (i) highlight the importance of maintaining high hand-hygiene compliance levels by HCWs, (ii) support infection control strategies including to improve environmental cleaning during an outbreak and (iii) show the potential of some HCWs to act as super-spreaders during nosocomial outbreaks.