Ionic strength dependence of F-actin and glycolytic enzyme associations: a Brownian dynamics simulations approach.
ABSTRACT: The association of glycolytic enzymes with F-actin is proposed to be one mechanism by which these enzymes are compartmentalized, and, as a result, may possibly play important roles for: regulation of the glycolytic pathway, potential substrate channeling, and increasing glycolytic flux. Historically, in vitro experiments have shown that many enzyme/actin interactions are dependent on ionic strength. Herein, Brownian dynamics (BD) examines how ionic strength impacts the energetics of the association of F-actin with the glycolytic enzymes: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase), and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI). The BD simulations are steered by electrostatics calculated by Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The BD results confirm experimental observations that the degree of association diminishes as ionic strength increases but also suggest that these interactions are significant, at physiological ionic strengths. Furthermore, BD agrees with experiments that muscle LDH, aldolase, and GAPDH interact significantly with F-actin whereas TPI does not. BD indicates similarities in binding regions for aldolase and LDH among the different species investigated. Furthermore, the residues responsible for salt bridge formation in stable complexes persist as ionic strength increases. This suggests the importance of the residues determined for these binary complexes and specificity of the interactions. That these interactions are conserved across species, and there appears to be a general trend among the enzymes, support the importance of these enzyme-F-actin interactions in creating initial complexes critical for compartmentation.
Project description:Functional protein-protein interactions are essential for many physiological processes. For example, the association of glycolytic enzymes to F-actin is proposed to be one mechanism through which glycolytic enzymes are compartmentalized, and as a result, play essential roles such as regulation of the glycolytic pathway and increasing glycolytic flux. Many glycolytic enzymes including fructose-1,6-bisphophate aldolase, glyceraldedhye-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase bind F-actin strongly. Other glycolytic enzymes including triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) do not interact with F-actin significantly. Herein, Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations determine the energetics of the association of F-actin with the glycolytic enzyme triose phosphate isomerase as a function of ionic strength. This is the first thorough control study examining how well BD reproduces the experimental observations that the binding of TPI to F-actin is very weak and falls off rapidly as ionic strength increases. The BD results confirm experimental observations that the degree of association diminishes as ionic strength increases and that the interaction of TPI with F-actin is weakly nonspecific to nonexistent.
Project description:Compartmentation of proteins in cells is important to proper cell function. Interactions of F-actin and glycolytic enzymes is one mechanism by which glycolytic enzymes can compartment. Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations of the binding of the muscle form of the glycolytic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase) to F- or G-actin provide first-encounter snapshots of these interactions. Using x-ray structures of aldolase, G-actin, and three-dimensional models of F-actin, the electrostatic potential about each protein was predicted by solving the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for use in BD simulations. The BD simulations provided solution complexes of aldolase with F- or G-actin. All complexes demonstrate the close contacts between oppositely charged regions of the protein surfaces. Positively charged surface regions of aldolase (residues Lys 13, 27, 288, 293, and 341 and Arg 257) are attracted to the negatively charged amino terminus (Asp 1 and Glu 2 and 4) and other patches (Asp 24, 25, and 363 and Glu 361, 364, 99, and 100) of actin subunits. According to BD results, the most important factor for aldolase binding to actin is the quaternary structure of aldolase and actin. Two pairs of adjacent aldolase subunits greatly add to the positive electrostatic potential of each other creating a region of attraction for the negatively charged subdomain 1 of the actin subunit that is exposed to solvent in the quaternary F-actin structure.
Project description:Interaction of glycolytic enzymes with F-actin is suggested to be a mechanism for compartmentation of the glycolytic pathway. Earlier work demonstrates that muscle F-actin strongly binds glycolytic enzymes, allowing for the general conclusion that "actin binds enzymes", which may be a generalized phenomenon. By taking actin from a lower form, such as yeast, which is more deviant from muscle actin than other higher animal forms, the generality of glycolytic enzyme interactions with actin and the cytoskeleton can be tested and compared with higher eukaryotes, e.g., rabbit muscle. Cosedimentation of rabbit skeletal muscle and yeast F-actin with muscle fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) followed by Scatchard analysis revealed a biphasic binding, indicating high- and low-affinity domains. Muscle aldolase and GAPDH showed low-affinity for binding yeast F-actin, presumably because of fewer acidic residues at the N-terminus of yeast actin; this difference in affinity is also seen in Brownian dynamics computer simulations. Yeast GAPDH and aldolase showed low-affinity binding to yeast actin, which suggests that actin-glycolytic enzyme interactions may also occur in yeast although with lower affinity than in higher eukaryotes. The cosedimentation results were supported by viscometry results that revealed significant cross-linking at lower concentrations of rabbit muscle enzymes than yeast enzymes. Brownian dynamics simulations of yeast and muscle aldolase and GAPDH with yeast and muscle actin compared the relative association free energy. Yeast aldolase did not specifically bind to either yeast or muscle actin. Yeast GAPDH did bind to yeast actin although with a much lower affinity than when binding muscle actin. The binding of yeast enzymes to yeast actin was much less site specific and showed much lower affinities than in the case with muscle enzymes and muscle actin.
Project description:In cancer, glucose uptake and glycolysis are increased regardless of the oxygen concentration in the cell, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. Several (but not all) glycolytic enzymes have been investigated as potential therapeutic targets for cancer treatment using RNAi. Here, four previously untargeted glycolytic enzymes, aldolase A, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, and enolase 1, are targeted using RNAi in Ras-transformed NIH-3T3 cells. Of these enzymes, knockdown of aldolase causes the greatest effect, inhibiting cell proliferation by 90%. This defect is rescued by expression of exogenous aldolase. However, aldolase knockdown does not affect glycolytic flux or intracellular ATP concentration, indicating a non-metabolic cause for the cell proliferation defect. Furthermore, this defect could be rescued with an enzymatically dead aldolase variant that retains the known F-actin binding ability of aldolase. One possible model for how aldolase knockdown may inhibit transformed cell proliferation is through its disruption of actin-cytoskeleton dynamics in cell division. Consistent with this hypothesis, aldolase knockdown cells show increased multinucleation. These results are compared with other studies targeting glycolytic enzymes with RNAi in the context of cancer cell proliferation and suggest that aldolase may be a useful target in the treatment of cancer.
Project description:The extent of binding of glycolytic enzymes to the particulate fraction of homogenates was measured in bovine psoas muscle before and after electrical stimulation. In association with an accelerated glycolytic rate on stimulation, there was a significant increase in the binding of certain glycolytic enzymes, the most notable of which were phosphofructokinase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase. From the known association of glycolytic enzymes with the I-band of muscle it is proposed that electrical stimulation of anaerobic muscle increases enzyme binding to actin filaments. Calculations of the extent of enzyme binding suggest that significant amounts of enzyme protein, particularly aldolase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are associated with the actin filaments. The results also imply that kinetic parameters derived from considerations of the enzyme activity in the soluble state may not have direct application to the situation in the muscle fibre, particularly during accelerated glycolysis.
Project description:The topology of the interfaces between actin monomers in microfilaments and three glycolytic enzymes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase and phosphofructokinase) was investigated using several specific antibodies directed against precisely located sequences in actin. A major contact area for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was characterized in a region near residue 103. This interaction altered, by long-range conformational changes, the reactivity of antigenic epitopes in the C-terminal part of actin. The interface between actin and aldolase appeared to involve a sequence around residue 299 in the C-terminal region of actin. The interaction of phosphofructokinase, in contrast, modified the reactivity of all antibodies tested. Finally, the phosphagen kinases arginine kinase and creatine kinase showed no interaction with the microfilament.
Project description:The human filarial parasite Brugia malayi harbors an endosymbiotic bacterium of the genus Wolbachia. The Wolbachia represent an attractive target for the control of filarial induced disease as elimination of the bacteria affects molting, reproduction and survival of the worms. The molecular basis for the symbiotic relationship between Wolbachia and their filarial hosts has yet to be elucidated. To identify proteins involved in this process, we focused on the Wolbachia surface proteins (WSPs), which are known to be involved in bacteria-host interactions in other bacterial systems. Two WSP-like proteins (wBm0152 and wBm0432) were localized to various host tissues of the B. malayi female adult worms and are present in the excretory/secretory products of the worms. We provide evidence that both of these proteins bind specifically to B. malayi crude protein extracts and to individual filarial proteins to create functional complexes. The wBm0432 interacts with several key enzymes involved in the host glycolytic pathway, including aldolase and enolase. The wBm0152 interacts with the host cytoskeletal proteins actin and tubulin. We also show these interactions in vitro and have verified that wBm0432 and B. malayi aldolase, as well as wBm0152 and B. malayi actin, co-localize to the vacuole surrounding Wolbachia. We propose that both WSP protein complexes interact with each other via the aldolase-actin link and/or via the possible interaction between the host's enolase and the cytoskeleton, and play a role in Wolbachia distribution during worm growth and embryogenesis.
Project description:Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations test for channeling of the substrate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP), as it passes between the enzymes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). First, BD simulations determined the favorable complexes between aldolase and GAPDH; two adjacent subunits of GAPDH form salt bridges with two subunits of aldolase. These intermolecular contacts provide a strong electrostatic interaction between the enzymes. Second, BD simulates GAP moving out of the active site of the A or D aldolase subunit and entering any of the four active sites of GAPDH. The efficiency of transfer is determined as the relative number of BD trajectories that reached any active site of GAPDH. The distribution functions of the transfer time were calculated based on the duration of successful trajectories. BD simulations of the GAP binding from solution to aldolase/GAPDH complex were compared to the channeling simulations. The efficiency of transfer of GAP within an aldolase/GAPDH complex was 2 to 3% compared to 1.3% when GAP was binding to GAPDH from solution. There is a preference for GAP channeling between aldolase and GAPDH when compared to binding from solution. However, this preference is not large enough to be considered as a theoretical proof of channeling between these proteins.
Project description:ABSTRACT Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) catalyzes the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). This reaction is required for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, and tpi has been predicted to be essential for growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, when studying a conditionally regulated tpi knockdown mutant, we noticed that depletion of TPI reduced growth of M. tuberculosis in media containing a single carbon source but not in media that contained both a glycolytic and a gluconeogenic carbon source. We used such two-carbon-source media to isolate a tpi deletion (?tpi) mutant. The ?tpi mutant did not survive with single carbon substrates but grew like wild-type (WT) M. tuberculosis in the presence of both a glycolytic and a gluconeogenic carbon source. (13)C metabolite tracing revealed the accumulation of TPI substrates in ?tpi and the absence of alternative triosephosphate isomerases and metabolic bypass reactions, which confirmed the requirement of TPI for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in M. tuberculosis. The ?tpi strain was furthermore severely attenuated in the mouse model of tuberculosis, suggesting that M. tuberculosis cannot simultaneously access sufficient quantities of glycolytic and gluconeogenic carbon substrates to establish infection in mice. IMPORTANCE The importance of central carbon metabolism for the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis has recently been recognized, but the consequences of depleting specific metabolic enzymes remain to be identified for many enzymes. We investigated triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) because it is central to both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis and had been predicted to be essential for growth of M. tuberculosis. This work identified metabolic conditions that make TPI dispensable for M. tuberculosis growth in culture and proved that M. tuberculosis relies on a single TPI enzyme and has no metabolic bypass for the TPI-dependent interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Finally, we demonstrate that TPI is essential for growth of the pathogen in mouse lungs.
Project description:Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In eukaryotes, the textbook view is that glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. However, fusion proteins comprised of two glycolytic enzymes, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), were found in members of the stramenopiles (diatoms and oomycetes) and shown to possess amino-terminal mitochondrial targeting signals. Here we show that mitochondrial TPI-GAPDH fusion protein genes are widely spread across the known diversity of stramenopiles, including non-photosynthetic species (Bicosoeca sp. and Blastocystis hominis). We also show that TPI-GAPDH fusion genes exist in three cercozoan taxa (Paulinella chromatophora, Thaumatomastix sp. and Mataza hastifera) and an apusozoan protist, Thecamonas trahens. Interestingly, subcellular localization predictions for other glycolytic enzymes in stramenopiles and a cercozoan show that a significant fraction of the glycolytic enzymes in these species have mitochondrial-targeted isoforms. These results suggest that part of the glycolytic pathway occurs inside mitochondria in these organisms, broadening our knowledge of the diversity of mitochondrial metabolism of protists.