Interleukin-34 selectively enhances the neuroprotective effects of microglia to attenuate oligomeric amyloid-? neurotoxicity.
ABSTRACT: Microglia, macrophage-like resident immune cells in the brain, possess both neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties and have a critical role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the function of Interleukin-34 (IL-34), a newly discovered cytokine, on microglia because it reportedly induces proliferation of monocytes and macrophages. We observed that the neuronal cells primarily produce IL-34 and that microglia express its receptor, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor. IL-34 promoted microglial proliferation and clearance of soluble oligomeric amyloid-? (oA?), which mediates synaptic dysfunction and neuronal damage in AD. IL-34 increased the expression of insulin-degrading enzyme, aiding the clearance of oA?, and induced the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 in microglia to reduce oxidative stress, without producing neurotoxic molecules. Consequently, microglia treated with IL-34 attenuated oA? neurotoxicity in primary neuron-microglia co-cultures. In vivo, intracerebroventricular administration of IL-34 ameliorated impairment of associative learning and reduced oA? levels through up-regulation of insulin-degrading enzyme and heme oxygenase-1 in an APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD. These findings support the idea that enhancement of the neuroprotective property of microglia by IL-34 may be an effective approach against oA? neurotoxicity in AD.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive neuronal loss and cognitive decline. Oligomeric amyloid ? (oA?) is involved in the pathogenesis of AD by affecting synaptic plasticity and inhibiting long-term potentiation. Although several lines of evidence suggests that microglia, the resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are neurotoxic in the development of AD, the mechanism whether or how oA? induces microglial neurotoxicity remains unknown. Here, we show that oA? promotes the processing of pro-interleukin (IL)-1? into mature IL-1? in microglia, which then enhances microglial neurotoxicity. The processing is induced by an increase in activity of caspase-1 and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and partially via NADPH oxidase-induced ROS. The caspase-1 inhibitor Z-YVAD-FMK inhibits the processing of IL-1?, and attenuates microglial neurotoxicity. Our results indicate that microglia can be activated by oA? to induce neuroinflammation through processing of IL-1?, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in AD.
Project description:Soluble oligomeric amyloid beta (oAbeta) 1-42 causes synaptic dysfunction and neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although accumulation of microglia around senile plaques is a hallmark of AD pathology, the role of microglia in oAbeta1-42 neurotoxicity is not fully understood. Here, we showed that oAbeta but not fibrillar Abeta was neurotoxic, and microglia activated with unmethylated DNA CpG motif (CpG), a ligand for Toll-like receptor 9, attenuated oAbeta1-42 neurotoxicity in primary neuron-microglia co-cultures. CpG enhanced microglial clearance of oAbeta1-42 and induced higher levels of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 in microglia without producing neurotoxic molecules such as nitric oxide and glutamate. Among subclasses of CpGs, class B and class C activated microglia to promote neuroprotection. Moreover, intracerebroventricular administration of CpG ameliorated both the cognitive impairments induced by oAbeta1-42 and the impairment of associative learning in Tg2576 mouse model of AD. We propose that CpG may be an effective therapeutic strategy for limiting oAbeta1-42 neurotoxicity in AD.
Project description:Neuron-microglia co-cultures treated with pro-inflammatory agents are a useful tool to study neuroinflammation in vitro, where to test the potential neuroprotective effect of anti-inflammatory compounds. However, a great diversity of experimental conditions can be found in the literature, making difficult to select the working conditions when considering this approach for the first time. We compared the use of neuron-primary microglia and neuron-BV2 cells (a microglial cell line) co-cultures, using different neuron:microglia ratios, treatments and time post-treatment to induce glial activation and derived neurotoxicity. We show that each model requires different experimental conditions, but that both neuron-BV2 and neuron-primary microglia LPS/IFN-γ-treated co-cultures are good to study the potential neuroprotective effect of anti-inflammatory agents. The contribution of different pro-inflammatory parameters in the neurotoxicity induced by reactive microglial cells was determined. IL-10 pre-treatment completely inhibited LPS/IFN-γ-induced TNF-α and IL-6 release, and COX-2 expression both in BV2 and primary microglial cultures, but not NO production and iNOS expression. However, LPS/IFN-γ induced neurotoxicity was not inhibited in IL-10 pre-treated co-cultures. The inhibition of NO production using the specific iNOS inhibitor 1400 W totally abolished the neurotoxic effect of LPS/IFN-γ, suggesting a major role for NO in the neurotoxic effect of activated microglia. Consequently, among the anti-inflammatory agents, special attention should be paid to compounds that inhibit NO production.
Project description:Activation of microglia and inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity are suggested to have key roles in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. We recently published an article in Nature revealing an unexpected role for executioner caspases in the microglia activation process. We showed that caspases 8 and 3/7, commonly known to have executioner roles for apoptosis, can promote microglia activation in the absence of death. We found these caspases to be activated in microglia of PD and AD subjects. Inhibition of this signaling pathway hindered microglia activation and importantly reduced neurotoxicity in cell and animal models of disease. Here we review evidence suggesting that microglia can have a key role in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. We discuss possible underlying mechanisms regulating their activation and neurotoxic effect. We focus on the provocative hypothesis that caspase inhibition can be neuroprotective by targeting the microglia rather than the neurons themselves.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the primary form of dementia in the elderly. One of the main features of AD is the increase in amyloid-beta (A?) peptide production and aggregation, leading to oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Polyphenols are well known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and have been proposed as possible therapeutic agents against AD. Here, we investigated the effects of a polyphenolic extract of Arabidopsis thaliana (a plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family) on inflammatory response induced by A?. BV2 murine microglia cells treated with both A?25?35 peptide and extract showed a lower pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?) and a higher anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13) cytokine production compared to cells treated with A? only. The activation of the Nrf2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway in treated cells resulted in the upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 mRNA and in an increase of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 activity. To establish whether the extract is also effective against A?-induced neurotoxicity in vivo, we evaluated its effect on the impaired climbing ability of AD Drosophila flies expressing human A?1?42. Arabidopsis extract significantly restored the locomotor activity of these flies, thus confirming its neuroprotective effects also in vivo. These results point to a protective effect of the Arabidopsis extract in AD, and prompt its use as a model in studying the impact of complex mixtures derived from plant-based food on neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:Glutamate-induced excito-neurotoxicity likely contributes to non-cell autonomous neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases. Microglial clearance of dying neurons and associated debris is essential to maintain healthy neural networks in the central nervous system. In fact, the functions of microglia are regulated by various signaling molecules that are produced as neurons degenerate. Here, we show that the soluble CX3C chemokine fractalkine (sFKN), which is secreted from neurons that have been damaged by glutamate, promotes microglial phagocytosis of neuronal debris through release of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8, a mediator of apoptotic cell clearance. In addition, sFKN induces the expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in microglia in the absence of neurotoxic molecule production, including NO, TNF, and glutamate. sFKN treatment of primary neuron-microglia co-cultures significantly attenuated glutamate-induced neuronal cell death. Using several specific MAPK inhibitors, we found that sFKN-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression was primarily mediated by activation of JNK and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. These results suggest that sFKN secreted from glutamate-damaged neurons provides both phagocytotic and neuroprotective signals.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular amyloid-? (A?) deposition, which activates microglia, induces neuroinflammation and drives neurodegeneration. Recent evidence indicates that soluble pre-fibrillar A? species, rather than insoluble fibrils, are the most toxic forms of A?. Preventing soluble A? formation represents, therefore, a major goal in AD. We investigated whether microvesicles (MVs) released extracellularly by reactive microglia may contribute to AD degeneration. We found that production of myeloid MVs, likely of microglial origin, is strikingly high in AD patients and in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and that AD MVs are toxic for cultured neurons. The mechanism responsible for MV neurotoxicity was defined in vitro using MVs produced by primary microglia. We demonstrated that neurotoxicity of MVs results from (i) the capability of MV lipids to promote formation of soluble A? species from extracellular insoluble aggregates and (ii) from the presence of neurotoxic A? forms trafficked to MVs after A? internalization into microglia. MV neurotoxicity was neutralized by the A?-interacting protein PrP and anti-A? antibodies, which prevented binding to neurons of neurotoxic soluble A? species. This study identifies microglia-derived MVs as a novel mechanism by which microglia participate in AD degeneration, and suggest new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the disease.
Project description:Because senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) contain reactive microglia in addition to potentially neurotoxic aggregates of amyloid-beta (Abeta), we examined the influence of microglia on the viability of rodent neurons in culture exposed to aggregated Abeta 1-40. Microglia enhanced the toxicity of Abeta by releasing glutamate through the cystine-glutamate antiporter system Xc-. This may be relevant to Abeta toxicity in AD, because the system Xc(-)-specific xCT gene is expressed not only in cultured microglia but also in reactive microglia within or surrounding amyloid plaques in transgenic mice expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein or in wild-type mice injected with Abeta. Inhibition of NMDA receptors or system Xc- prevented the microglia-enhanced neurotoxicity of Abeta but also unmasked a neuroprotective effect of microglia mediated by microglial secretion of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the culture medium. Immunodepletion of apoE or targeted inactivation of the apoE gene in microglia abrogated neuroprotection by microglial conditioned medium, whereas supplementation by human apoE isoforms restored protection, which was potentiated by the presence of microglia-derived cofactors. These results suggest that inhibition of microglial system Xc- might be of therapeutic value in the treatment of AD. Its inhibition not only prevents glutamate excitotoxicity but also facilitates neuroprotection by apoE.
Project description:Neuroinflammation and associated neuronal dysfunction mediated by activated microglia play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Microglia are activated by aggregated forms of amyloid-? protein (A?), usually demonstrated in vitro by stimulating microglia with micromolar concentrations of fibrillar A?, a major component of amyloid plaques in AD brains. Here we report that amyloid-? oligomer (A?O), at 5-50 nm, induces a unique pattern of microglia activation that requires the activity of the scavenger receptor A and the Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel KCa3.1. A?O treatment induced an activated morphological and biochemical profile of microglia, including activation of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor ?B. Interestingly, although increasing nitric oxide (NO) production, A?O did not increase several proinflammatory mediators commonly induced by lipopolyliposaccharides or fibrillar A?, suggesting that A?O stimulates both common and divergent pathways of microglia activation. A?O at low nanomolar concentrations, although not neurotoxic, induced indirect, microglia-mediated damage to neurons in dissociated cultures and in organotypic hippocampal slices. The indirect neurotoxicity was prevented by (i) doxycycline, an inhibitor of microglia activation; (ii) TRAM-34, a selective KCa3.1 blocker; and (iii) two inhibitors of inducible NO synthase, indicating that KCa3.1 activity and excessive NO release are required for A?O-induced microglial neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that A?O, generally considered a neurotoxin, may more potently cause neuronal damage indirectly by activating microglia in AD.
Project description:Bidirectional interactions between astrocytes and neurons have physiological roles in the central nervous system and an altered state or dysfunction of such interactions may be associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Astrocytes exert structural, metabolic and functional effects on neurons, which can be either neurotoxic or neuroprotective. Their neurotoxic effect is mediated via the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) involving pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6), while their neuroprotective effect is attributed to neurotrophic growth factors (e.g., NGF). We here demonstrate that the p53 isoforms ?133p53 and p53? are expressed in astrocytes and regulate their toxic and protective effects on neurons. Primary human astrocytes undergoing cellular senescence upon serial passaging in vitro showed diminished expression of ?133p53 and increased p53?, which were attributed to the autophagic degradation and the SRSF3-mediated alternative RNA splicing, respectively. Early-passage astrocytes with ?133p53 knockdown or p53? overexpression were induced to show SASP and to exert neurotoxicity in co-culture with neurons. Restored expression of ?133p53 in near-senescent, otherwise neurotoxic astrocytes conferred them with neuroprotective activity through repression of SASP and induction of neurotrophic growth factors. Brain tissues from AD and ALS patients possessed increased numbers of senescent astrocytes and, like senescent astrocytes in vitro, showed decreased ?133p53 and increased p53? expression, supporting that our in vitro findings recapitulate in vivo pathology of these neurodegenerative diseases. Our finding that ?133p53 enhances the neuroprotective function of aged and senescent astrocytes suggests that the p53 isoforms and their regulatory mechanisms are potential targets for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative diseases.