Muscle specific differences in the regulation of myogenic differentiation in chickens genetically selected for divergent growth rates.
ABSTRACT: With the human population predicted to reach 9 billion by 2050, increasing food supplies while maintaining adequate standards of animal welfare has become a global priority. In the poultry industry, broilers are genetically selected for greater pectoral but not leg muscularity yield leading to leg disorders and thereby welfare issues. It is known that the pectoralis major of broilers contains more muscle fibres of larger diameters than egg-layers but little is known about the leg gastrocnemius muscle cellular characteristics. As muscle fibre numbers are set by hatch, the molecular regulation of myogenesis was investigated in pectoral (selected) and gastrocnemius (unselected) muscles of chick embryos to help explain diverging post-hatch phenotypes. Results showed that broilers were more active from embryonic day (ED) 8 and heavier from ED12 to 18 than layers. The pectoral muscle of broilers exhibited increased myoblast proliferation on ED15 (raised myonuclei, MyoD and PCNA) followed by increased differentiation from ED16 (raised myogenin, IGF-I) leading to increased muscle fibre hyperplasia and mass by ED18 compared to layers. In the gastrocnemius muscle of broilers, cell proliferation was also raised up to ED15 accompanied by increased PCNA, MyoD and IGF-I mRNAs. However, from ED16, myogenin and IGF-I mRNAs were similar to that of layers and PCNA was reduced leading to similar fibre area, nuclei numbers and muscle mass at ED18. We conclude that genetic selection for enhanced post-hatch pectoral muscle growth has altered the temporal expression of IGF-I and thereby myogenin transcription affecting cellular characteristics and mass by hatch in a muscle specific manner. These observations should help develop intervention strategies aimed at improving leg muscle strength and thereby animal welfare to meet growing consumer demand.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The growth rate often varies among individual broilers of the same breed under a common management condition. To investigate whether a variation in the growth rate is associated with a difference in hormone levels and myogenic gene expression profile in broilers, a feeding trial was conducted with 10,000 newly hatched Ross 308 chicks in a commercial production facility under standard management. At 38 d of age, 30 fast-, 30 medium-, and 30 slow-growing broilers were selected among 600 healthy male individuals. The levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and growth hormone in the serum or breast muscle were assayed by ELISA or RIA kits, and the expression levels of several representative pro- and anti-myogenic genes in the breast muscle were also measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS:Results showed that both absolute and relative weights of the breast muscle were in linear positive correlations with the body weight of broilers (P?<?0.001). Fast-growing broilers had higher concentrations of IGF-1 than slow-growing broilers (P?<?0.05) in both the serum and breast muscle. The serum concentration of T3 was significantly higher in fast-growing birds than in slow-growing birds (P?<?0.05). However, no difference was observed in growth hormone or T4 concentration among three groups of birds. Additionally, a decreased expression of an anti-myogenic gene (myostatin) and increased expressions of pro-myogenic genes such as myogenic differentiation factor 1, myogenin, muscle regulatory factor 4, myogenic factor 5, IGF-1, and myocyte enhancer factor 2B, C, and D were observed in fast-growing broilers (P?<?0.05), relative to slow-growing broilers. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, these findings suggested that the growth rate is linked to the hormone and myogenic gene expression levels in broiler chickens. Some of these parameters such as serum concentrations of IGF-1 and T3 could be employed to breed for enhanced growth.
Project description:In a rat model of induced intestinal obstruction, a transcriptomic analysis was used to measure global gene expression. Rat fetuses small intestines of different stages of development (ED15, ED17, ED19 and ED21, were studied as non-operated controls and compared to upper and lower segments of rat fetuses small intestine with an induced obstruction (ligature at ED18).
Project description:In broiler chickens, genetic success for desired production traits is often shadowed by welfare concerns related to musculoskeletal health. Whilst these concerns are clear, a viable solution is still elusive. Part of the solution lies in knowing how anatomical changes in afflicted body systems that occur across ontogeny influence standing and moving. Here, to demonstrate these changes we quantify the segment inertial properties of the whole body, trunk (legs removed) and the right pelvic limb segments of five broilers at three different age groups across development. We also consider how muscle architecture (mass, fascicle length and other properties related to mechanics) changes for selected muscles of the pelvic limb. All broilers used had no observed lameness, but we document the limb pathologies identified post mortem, since these two factors do not always correlate, as shown here. The most common leg disorders, including bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and rotational and angular deformities of the lower limb, were observed in chickens at all developmental stages. Whole limb morphology is not uniform relative to body size, with broilers obtaining large thighs and feet between four and six weeks of age. This implies that the energetic cost of swinging the limbs is markedly increased across this growth period, perhaps contributing to reduced activity levels. Hindlimb bone length does not change during this period, which may be advantageous for increased stability despite the increased energetic costs. Increased pectoral muscle growth appears to move the centre of mass cranio-dorsally in the last two weeks of growth. This has direct consequences for locomotion (potentially greater limb muscle stresses during standing and moving). Our study is the first to measure these changes in the musculoskeletal system across growth in chickens, and reveals how artificially selected changes of the morphology of the pectoral apparatus may cause deficits in locomotion.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the molecular pathways involved in muscle wasting in an animal model of osteoarthritis (OA) induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) in rats. Reduction of protein syntheses, increased proteolysis and impaired muscle regeneration are important pathways related to muscle wasting, and myogenin, MyoD, myostatin and MuRF-1 are some of their markers. Female Wistar rats were allocated into two groups: OA (submitted to the ACLT) and SHAM (submitted to surgery without ACLT). Nociception, spontaneous exploratory locomotion and body weight of animals were evaluated weekly. Twelve weeks after the disease induction, animals were euthanized, and the right knee joints were collected. Gastrocnemius muscle of the right hind paw were dissected and weighed. Gastrocnemius was used for evaluation of muscle atrophy and expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, Pax7, myogenin, MyoD, myostatin and MuRF-1. Histopathology of the knee confirmed the development of the disease in animals of OA group. Gastrocnemius of OA animals showed a reduction of about 10% in area and an increased IL-1? expression compared to animals of SHAM group. Expression of myostatin was increased in OA group, while myogenin expression was decreased. TNF-?, Pax7, MuRF-1 and MyoD expression was similar in both OA and SHAM groups. Nociception was significantly elevated in OA animals in the last two weeks of experimental period. Spontaneous exploratory locomotion, body weight and weight of gastrocnemius showed no difference between OA and SHAM groups. Gastrocnemius atrophy in OA induced by ACLT involves elevated expression of IL-1? within the muscle, as well as increased expression of myostatin and decreased expression of myogenin. Therefore, muscle wasting may be linked to impaired muscle regeneration.
Project description:Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA Array was used to globally identify different expression miRNAs in hypothalamus, liver, breast muscle and abdominal fat between commercial broilers and indigenous chickens at seven-week old with hypertrophic pectoral muscle or normal pectoral muscle. Overall design: A total of 24 microarrays were performed on 4 tissues with 3 replications from 2 different breeds at the 7-week old age.
Project description:Non-coding RNAs especially miRNAs have been found to play important roles during skeletal muscle development. Our previous RNA-Seq performed on breast muscle tissue from 7 weeks old Recessive White Rock and Xinhua Chicken and leg muscle tissue from female Xinghua Chicken at three development time points (11 embryo age, 16 embryo age, and 1 day post hatch) (accession number GSE62971 and GSE89355, respectively) showed that miR-205a and CDH11 were differentially expressed genes. In this study, we found that overexpression of CDH11 significantly facilitated Quail muscle clone (QM7) and chicken primary myoblast (CPM) proliferation and hampered CPM differentiation. MiR-205a can directly binding to the 3'UTR of CDH11 and the overexpression of miR-205a could inhibit both cell lines (QM7) and CPM proliferation, at the meantime promote the differentiation of myoblasts. The Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay results and qRT-PCR results showed that myogenin (MyoG) could regulate the expression of miR-205a by binding to the active region of miR-205a. Altogether our data suggest that MyoG could stimulate miR-205a expression to suppress CDH11, which promotes myoblasts proliferation while represses the differentiation.
Project description:Inexperienced vigorous exercise, including eccentric contraction (ECC), causes muscle pain and damage. Similar prior light exercise suppresses the development of muscle pain (repeated-bout effect), but the molecular mechanisms behind this are not sufficiently understood. In this study, the influence of a nondamaging preconditioning ECC load (Precon) on muscle pain-related molecules and satellite cell-activating factors was investigated at the mRNA expression level. Nine-week-old male Wistar rats (n=36) were divided into 2 groups: a group receiving only a damaging ECC (100 contractions) load (non-Precon) and a group receiving a nondamaging ECC (10 contractions) load 2 days before receiving the damaging ECC load (Precon). ECC was loaded on the left leg, and the right leg was regarded as the intact control (CTL). The medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle from all rats was excised 2 or 4 days after the damaging ECC loading, and the relative mRNA expression levels of muscle pain- and satellite cell-related molecules were quantitated using real-time RT PCR. Precon suppressed increases in MHC-embryonic and MHC-neonatal mRNA expressions. Enhancement of HGF, Pax7, MyoD, and myogenin mRNA expression was also suppressed, suggesting that Precon decreased the degree of muscle damage and no muscle regeneration or satellite cell activation occurred. Similarly, increases in mRNA expression of muscle pain-related molecules (BKB2 receptor, COX-2, and mPGEC-1) were also suppressed. This study clearly demonstrated that at the mRNA level, prior light ECC suppressed muscle damage induced by later damaging ECC and promoted recovery from muscle pain.
Project description:The mechanisms by which androgens ameliorate glucocorticoid-induced muscle wasting are still under investigation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that androgen's effects in reversing muscle wasting are related to activating the signaling pathways downstream of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I)/insulin.Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, dexamethasone (DEX) group, testosterone (TES) group, and TES + DEX group. Each group was injected with saline or DEX (0.1 mg/100 g/d) for 10 days and sesame oil or TES (0.5 mg/100 g/d) for 13 days. Several downstream targets of IGF-I/insulin in skeletal muscle including protein kinase B (Akt), p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) that are associated with protein synthesis were examined. Two proteolysis-related ubiquitin E3-ligases, muscle atrophy F-box, and muscle RING finger-1 that are also regulated by IGF-I/insulin were also assessed.TES attenuated gastrocnemius muscle atrophy induced by DEX. TES prevented the DEX-induced decrease of IGF-I expression in gastrocnemius muscle, but not in serum. TES ameliorated DEX-induced dephosphorylation of Akt and p70S6K and promoted the phosphorylation of GSK-3beta in gastrocnemius muscle. The total amount of Akt, p70S6K, or GSK-3beta proteins was not changed among these groups. TES did not show any effects on the DEX-induced upregulation of muscle atrophy F-box, and muscle RING finger-1 mRNA in gastrocnemius muscle.This findings suggest that the effects of TES in reversing DEX-induced muscle atrophy are related to signaling pathways downstream of IGF-I/insulin that are associated with protein synthesis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on the energy metabolism in thigh muscle of embryos and neonatal broilers. METHODS:A total of 960 eggs were randomly assigned to three treatments: i) non-injected control group, ii) saline group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%), and iii) CrPyr group injected with 0.6 mL of physiologi-cal saline (0.75%) containing 12 mg CrPyr/egg on 17.5 d of incubation. After hatching, 120 male chicks (close to the average body weight of the pooled group) in each group were randomly assigned to eight replications. The feeding experiment lasted 7 days. RESULTS:The results showed that IOF of CrPyr increased glucose concentrations in the thigh muscle of broilers on 2 d after injection (p<0.05). Compared with the control and saline groups, the concentration of creatine in CrPyr group was increased on 2 d after injection and the day of hatch (p<0.05). Moreover, IOF of CrPyr increased the creatine kinase activity at hatch and increased the activities of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase on 2 d after injection and the day of hatch (p<0.05). Chicks in CrPyr group showed higher mRNA expressions of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) and GLUT8 on the day of hatch (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:These results demonstrated that IOF of CrPyr was beneficial to enhance muscle energy reserves of em-bryos and hatchlings.
Project description:1. Citrate inhibits the activities of phosphofructokinase from muscles and nervous tissues from different animals across the Animal Kingdom except for the insects. The enzymes from the flight muscle of nine different insects and the cerebral ganglion of the locust were investigated: no inhibition by citrate was observed. Inhibition was observed with the enzymes from both aerobic (e.g. pectoral muscle of pigeon) and anaerobic (e.g. fish muscle, pectoral muscle of the game birds) muscles. It is suggested that this inhibition is of physiological importance in decreasing the rate of glucose utilization in skeletal muscle of animals during starvation and/or prolonged exercise. 2. The rates of glucose utilization by the sartorius and gastrocnemius muscles of the frog were markedly decreased by ketone bodies. The latter elevated the glucose 6-phosphate and citrate contents of the gastrocnemius muscle, indicating that citrate inhibition of phosphofructokinase could be, in part, responsible for the decreased rate of glycolysis. 3. These findings provide evidence that the concept of the glucose-fatty acid-ketone-body cycle involves both aerobic and anaerobic skeletal muscle and nervous tissue from a wide range of animals except the insects. In the latter the concept of the cycle may not be applicable.