Molecular population genetics of the OBP83 genomic region in Drosophila subobscura and D. guanche: contrasting the effects of natural selection and gene arrangement expansion in the patterns of nucleotide variation.
ABSTRACT: Chromosomal inversion polymorphism play a major role in the evolutionary dynamics of populations and species because of their effects on the patterns of genetic variability in the genomic regions within inversions. Though there is compelling evidence for the adaptive character of chromosomal polymorphisms, the mechanisms responsible for their maintenance in natural populations is not fully understood. For this type of analysis, Drosophila subobscura is a good model species as it has a rich and extensively studied chromosomal inversion polymorphism system. Here, we examine the patterns of DNA variation in two natural populations segregating for chromosomal arrangements that differentially affect the surveyed genomic region; in particular, we analyse both nucleotide substitutions and insertion/deletion variations in the genomic region encompassing the odorant-binding protein genes Obp83a and Obp83b (Obp83 region). We show that the two main gene arrangements are genetically differentiated, but are consistent with a monophyletic origin of inversions. Nevertheless, these arrangements interchange some genetic information, likely by gene conversion. We also find that the frequency spectrum-based tests indicate that the pattern of nucleotide variation is not at equilibrium; this feature probably reflects the rapid increase in the frequency of the new gene arrangement promoted by positive selection (that is an adaptive change). Furthermore, a comparative analysis of polymorphism and divergence patterns reveals a relaxation of the functional constraints at the Obp83b gene, which might be associated with particular ecological or demographic features of the Canary island endemic species D. guanche.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC3183857 | BioStudies |