Genetic variants of the nonhomologous end joining gene LIG4 and severe radiation pneumonitis in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy.
ABSTRACT: Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a pathway that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to maintain genomic stability in response to irradiation. The authors hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NHEJ repair genes may affect clinical outcomes in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who receive definitive radio(chemo)therapy.The authors genotyped 5 potentially functional SNPs-x-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 4 (XRCC4) reference SNP (rs) number rs6869366 (-1394 guanine to thymine [-1394G?T] change) and rs28360071 (intron 3, deletion/insertion), XRCC5 rs3835 (guanine to adenine [G?A] change at nucleotide 2408), XRCC6 rs2267437 (-1310 cytosine to guanine [C?G) change], and DNA ligase IV (LIG4) rs1805388 (threonine-to-isoleucine change at codon 9 [T9I])-and estimated their associations with severe radiation pneumonitis (RP) (grade ?3) in 195 patients with NSCLC.A predictive role in radiation pneumonitis (RP) development was observed for the LIG4 SNP rs1805388 (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-4.12; P = .037 for the CT/TT genotype vs the CC genotype). In addition, men with the TT genotype of the XRCC4 rs6869366 SNP and women with AG + AA genotypes of the XRCC5 rs3835 SNP also were at increased risk of developing severe RP.The current results indicated that NHEJ genetic polymorphisms, particularly LIG4 rs1805388, may modulate the risk of RP in patients with NSCLC who receive definitive radio(chemo)therapy. Large studies will be needed to confirm these findings.
Project description:Genetic variations in DNA double-strand break repair genes can influence the ability of a cell to repair damaged DNA and alter an individual's susceptibility to cancer. We studied whether polymorphisms in DNA double-strand break repair genes are associated with an increased risk of glioma development.We genotyped 10 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 DNA double-strand break repair pathway genes (XRCC3, BRCA2, RAG1, XRCC5, LIG4, XRCC4 and ATM) in a case-control study including 384 glioma patients and 384 cancer-free controls in a Chinese Han population. Genotypes were determined using the OpenArray platform.In the single-locus analysis there was a significant association between gliomas and the LIG4 rs1805388 (Ex2 +54C>T, Thr9Ile) TT genotype (adjusted OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.87-5.71), as well as the TC genotype (adjusted OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.20-2.18). We also found that the homozygous variant genotype (GG) of XRCC4 rs1805377 (IVS7-1A>G, splice-site) was associated with a significantly increased risk of gliomas (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.12-2.80). Interestingly, we detected a significant additive and multiplicative interaction effect between the LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377 polymorphisms with an increasing risk of gliomas. When we stratified our analysis by smoking status, LIG4 rs1805388 was associated with an increased glioma risk among smokers.These results indicate for the first time that LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377, alone or in combination, are associated with a risk of gliomas.
Project description:We conducted a case-control study to assess the LIG4 and XRCC4 genes polymorphisms and development of glioma. A case-control study including 162 glioma cases and 324 controls was conducted in a Chinese population. Genotypes of rs10131 and rs1805388 in LIG4 and rs2075685 and rs1805377 in XRCC4 were conducted by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that subjects carrying AA genotype of LIG4 rs10131 was associated with increased risk of glioma when compared with GG genotype, and the OR (95% CI) was 3.26 (1.50-7.23). We found that GA+AA of LIG4 rs10131 was associated with increased risk of glioma in those without family history of cancer, and the OR (95% CI) was 1.78 (1.12-2.83). However, no association was found between variants of LIG4 rs1805388, XRCC4 rs2075685 and XRCC4 rs1805377 and development of glioma. In conclusion, our results suggest that LIG4 rs10131 polymorphism in the DNA repair pathways plays an important role in the risk of glioma in a Chinese population.
Project description:This study aims to explore the correlations of genetic polymorphisms in LIG4 and HSPB1 genes with the radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), especially radiation pneumonitis (RP), in lung cancer patients.A total of 160 lung cancer patients, who were diagnosed with inoperable lung cancer and received radiotherapy, were included in the present study from September 2009 to December 2011. TaqMan Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to verify the SNPs of LIG4 and HSPB1 genes. Chi-square criterion was used to compare the differences in demographic characteristics, exposure to risk factors, and SNPs genotypes. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by logistic regression analysis. All statistical analyses were conducted in SPSS 18.0.A total of 32 (20.0%) lung cancer patients had RP after receiving radiotherapy. Of the 32 cases, 4 cases were of grade 2, 24 cases were of grade 3, and 4 cases were of grade 4. However, our results indicated that the general condition and treatment of all patients had no significant difference with RP risk (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, our results revealed that there was no significant association between the frequencies of LIG4 rs1805388 and HSPB1 rs2868371 genotype distribution and the risk of RP (P > 0.05).In conclusion, we demonstrated that the genetic polymorphisms in LIG4 rs1805388 and HSPB1 rs2868371 were not obviously correlated with the risk of RP and RILI of lung cancer.
Project description:Classical Non-homologous End Joining (NHEJ) pathway is the mainstay of cellular response to DNA double strand breaks. While aberrant expression of genes involved in this pathway has been linked with genomic instability and drug resistance in several cancers, limited information is available about its clinical significance in colon cancer. We performed a comprehensive analysis of seven essential genes, including XRCC5, XRCC6, PRKDC, LIG4, XRCC4, NHEJ1, and PAXX of this pathway, in colon cancer using multi-omics datasets, and studied their associations with molecular and clinicopathological features, including age, gender, stage, KRAS mutation, BRAF mutation, microsatellite instability status and promoter DNA methylation in TCGA colon cancer dataset. This analysis revealed upregulation of XRCC5, PRKDC, and PAXX in colon cancer compared to normal colon tissues, while LIG4 and NHEJ1 (XLF) displayed downregulation. The expression of these genes was independent of age and KRAS status, while XRCC5, PRKDC, and LIG4 exhibited reduced expression in BRAF mutant tumors. Interestingly, we observed a strong association between XRCC6, XRCC5, PRKDC and LIG4 overexpression and microsatellite instability status of the tumors. In multivariate analysis, high PAXX expression emerged as an independent prognostic marker for poor overall and disease specific survival. We also observed hypomethylation of PAXX promoter in tumors, which exhibited a strong correlation with its overexpression. Furthermore, PAXX overexpression was also associated with several oncogenic pathways as well as a reduction in numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Project description:Failing to repair DNA double-strand breaks by either nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) poses a threat to genome integrity, and may have roles in the onset of aging and age-related diseases. Recent work indicates an age-related decrease of NHEJ efficiency in mouse models, but whether NHEJ and HR change with age in humans and the underlying mechanisms of such a change remain uncharacterized. Here, using 50 eyelid fibroblast cell lines isolated from healthy donors at the age of 16-75?years, we demonstrate that the efficiency and fidelity of NHEJ, and the efficiency of HR decline with age, leading to increased IR sensitivity in cells isolated from old donors. Mechanistic analysis suggests that decreased expression of XRCC4, Lig4 and Lig3 drives the observed, age-associated decline of NHEJ efficiency and fidelity. Restoration of XRCC4 and Lig4 significantly promotes the fidelity and efficiency of NHEJ in aged fibroblasts. In contrast, essential HR-related factors, such as Rad51, do not change in expression level with age, but Rad51 exhibits a slow kinetics of recruitment to DNA damage sites in aged fibroblasts. Further rescue experiments indicate that restoration of XRCC4 and Lig4 may suppress the onset of stress-induced premature cellular senescence, suggesting that improving NHEJ efficiency and fidelity by targeting the NHEJ pathway holds great potential to delay aging and mitigate aging-related pathologies.
Project description:The association of DNA Ligase IV (Lig4) with XRCC4 is essential for repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) in humans. DSBs cytotoxicity is largely exploited in anticancer therapy. Thus, NHEJ is an attractive target for strategies aimed at increasing the sensitivity of tumors to clastogenic anticancer treatments. However the high affinity of the XRCC4/Lig4 interaction and the extended protein-protein interface make drug screening on this target particularly challenging. Here, we conducted a pioneering study aimed at interfering with XRCC4/Lig4 assembly. By Molecular Dynamics simulation using the crystal structure of the complex, we first delineated the Lig4 clamp domain as a limited suitable target. Then, we performed in silico screening of ~95,000 filtered molecules on this Lig4 subdomain. Hits were evaluated by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry, Saturation Transfer Difference-NMR spectroscopy and interaction assays with purified recombinant proteins. In this way we identified the first molecule able to prevent Lig4 binding to XRCC4 in vitro. This compound has a unique tripartite interaction with the Lig4 clamp domain that suggests a starting chemotype for rational design of analogous molecules with improved affinity.
Project description:Classical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ) repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) throughout interphase but predominates in G1 phase when homologous recombination is unavailable. Complexes containing the Ku70/80 ("Ku") and XRCC4/ligase IV (Lig4) core C-NHEJ factors are required, respectively, for sensing and joining DSBs. While XRCC4/Lig4 are absolutely required for joining RAG1/2 endonuclease ("RAG")-initiated DSBs during V(D)J recombination in G1-phase progenitor lymphocytes, cycling cells deficient for XRCC4/Lig4 also can join chromosomal DSBs by alternative end-joining (A-EJ) pathways. Restriction of V(D)J recombination by XRCC4/Lig4-mediated joining has been attributed to RAG shepherding V(D)J DSBs exclusively into the C-NHEJ pathway. Here, we report that A-EJ of DSB ends generated by RAG1/2, Cas9:gRNA, and Zinc finger endonucleases in Lig4-deficient G1-arrested progenitor B cell lines is suppressed by Ku. Thus, while diverse DSBs remain largely as free broken ends in Lig4-deficient G1-arrested progenitor B cells, deletion of Ku70 increases DSB rejoining and translocation levels to those observed in Ku70-deficient counterparts. Correspondingly, while RAG-initiated V(D)J DSB joining is abrogated in Lig4-deficient G1-arrested progenitor B cell lines, joining of RAG-generated DSBs in Ku70-deficient and Ku70/Lig4 double-deficient lines occurs through a translocation-like A-EJ mechanism. Thus, in G1-arrested, Lig4-deficient progenitor B cells are functionally end-joining suppressed due to Ku-dependent blockage of A-EJ, potentially in association with G1-phase down-regulation of Lig1. Finally, we suggest that differential impacts of Ku deficiency versus Lig4 deficiency on V(D)J recombination, neuronal apoptosis, and embryonic development results from Ku-mediated inhibition of A-EJ in the G1 cell cycle phase in Lig4-deficient developing lymphocyte and neuronal cells.
Project description:Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a key cellular process ensuring genome integrity. Mutations in several components of the NHEJ pathway have been identified, often associated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), consistent with the requirement for NHEJ during V(D)J recombination to ensure diversity of the adaptive immune system. In contrast, we have recently found that biallelic mutations in LIG4 are a common cause of microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD), a phenotype characterized by prenatal-onset extreme global growth failure. Here we provide definitive molecular genetic evidence supported by biochemical, cellular, and immunological data for mutations in XRCC4, encoding the obligate binding partner of LIG4, causing MPD. We report the identification of biallelic mutations in XRCC4 in five families. Biochemical and cellular studies demonstrate that these alterations substantially decrease XRCC4 protein levels leading to reduced cellular ligase IV activity. Consequently, NHEJ-dependent repair of ionizing-radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks is compromised in XRCC4 cells. Similarly, immunoglobulin junctional diversification is impaired in cells. However, immunoglobulin levels are normal, and individuals lack overt signs of immunodeficiency. Additionally, in contrast to individuals with LIG4 mutations, pancytopenia leading to bone marrow failure has not been observed. Hence, alterations that alter different NHEJ proteins give rise to a phenotypic spectrum, from SCID to extreme growth failure, with deficiencies in certain key components of this repair pathway predominantly exhibiting growth deficits, reflecting differential developmental requirements for NHEJ proteins to support growth and immune maturation.
Project description:Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is the main means for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells. Molecular understanding of NHEJ has benefited from analyses in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In human cells, the DNA ligation reaction of the classical NHEJ pathway is carried out by a protein complex composed of DNA ligase IV (LigIV) and XRCC4. In S. cerevisiae, this reaction is catalyzed by a homologous complex composed of Dnl4 and Lif1. Intriguingly, no homolog of XRCC4 has been found in S. pombe, raising the possibility that such a factor may not always be required for classical NHEJ. Here, through screening the ionizing radiation (IR) sensitivity phenotype of a genome-wide fission yeast deletion collection in both the vegetative growth state and the spore state, we identify Xrc4, a highly divergent homolog of human XRCC4. Like other fission yeast NHEJ factors, Xrc4 is critically important for IR resistance of spores, in which no homologous recombination templates are available. Using both extrachromosomal and chromosomal DSB repair assays, we show that Xrc4 is essential for classical NHEJ. Exogenously expressed Xrc4 colocalizes with the LigIV homolog Lig4 at the chromatin region of the nucleus in a mutually dependent manner. Furthermore, like their human counterparts, Xrc4 and Lig4 interact with each other and this interaction requires the inter-BRCT linker and the second BRCT domain of Lig4. Our discovery of Xrc4 suggests that an XRCC4 family protein is universally required for classical NHEJ in eukaryotes.
Project description:Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is critical for the maintenance of genetic integrity and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. NHEJ is regulated by a series of interactions between core components of the pathway, including Ku heterodimer, XLF/Cernunnos, and XRCC4/DNA Ligase 4 (Lig4). However, the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble into functional protein-DNA complexes are not fully understood. Here, we show that the von Willebrand (vWA) domain of Ku80 fulfills a critical role in this process by recruiting Aprataxin-and-PNK-Like Factor (APLF) into Ku-DNA complexes. APLF, in turn, functions as a scaffold protein and promotes the recruitment and/or retention of XRCC4-Lig4 and XLF, thereby assembling multi-protein Ku complexes capable of efficient DNA ligation in vitro and in cells. Disruption of the interactions between APLF and either Ku80 or XRCC4-Lig4 disrupts the assembly and activity of Ku complexes, and confers cellular hypersensitivity and reduced rates of chromosomal DSB repair in avian and human cells, respectively. Collectively, these data identify a role for the vWA domain of Ku80 and a molecular mechanism by which DNA ligase proficient complexes are assembled during NHEJ in mammalian cells, and reveal APLF to be a structural component of this critical DSB repair pathway.