ICOS gene polymorphisms are associated with sporadic breast cancer: a case-control study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Inducible costimulator (ICOS), a costimulatory molecular of the CD28 family, provides positive signal to enhance T cell proliferation. Its abnormal expression can disturb the immune response and entail an increased risk of cancer. To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ICOS gene are associated with sporadic breast cancer susceptibility and progression in Chinese women, a case-control study was conducted. METHODS: In the study cohort, we genotyped five SNPs (rs11889031, rs10932029, rs4675374, rs10183087 and rs10932037) in ICOS gene among 609 breast cancer patients and 665 age-matched healthy controls. Furthermore, the positive results were replicated in an independent validation cohort of 619 patients and 682 age-matched healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine the genotypes. RESULTS: In rs10932029, compared with TT genotype and T allele, the CT genotype and C allele showed a significantly increased risk of breast cancer (P = 0.030, OR = 1.467, 95% CI 1.037-2.077; P = 0.017, OR = 1.481, 95% CI 1.070-2.049, respectively), and the associations were also significant in the validation cohort (P = 0.002, OR = 1.693, 95% CI 1.211-2.357; P = 0.003, OR = 1.607, 95% CI 1.171-2.204, respectively). Haplotype analysis showed that CTCAC haplotype containing rs10932029 T allele had a lower frequency in cases than in controls (P = 0.015), whereas haplotype CCCAC containing rs10932029 C allele was more common in cases than in controls (P = 0.013). In the analysis of clinicopathologic features, rs11889031 CT genotype and T allele were associated with progesterone receptor (PR) status and lymph node metastasis, which were further supported by our validation cohort. Moreover, some haplotypes were associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and PR statuses. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ICOS gene polymorphisms may affect the risk of breast cancer and show that some SNPs are associated with breast cancer characteristics in a northern Chinese population.
Project description:Background/Aims: Obesity has been consistently associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Proteins secreted by adipose tissue or involved in regulating obesity may play a role in breast tumor development. We conducted a nested case- control study among white, postmenopausal women from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS -II) Nutrition Cohort to determine whether genes associated with obesity increase risk of breast cancer. Methods: Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) were selected to capture common variation across seven candidate genes that encode adipose- related proteins: ADRB2, ADRB3, GHRL, HSD11B1, IRS1, IRS2, SHC1. Thirty-nine SNPs were genotyped in 648 cases and 659 controls. Logistic regression models and haplotype analysis were used to examine the association between each tagSNP and risk of breast cancer while adjusting for matching factors and potential confounders. We also examined whether these SNPs were associated with measures of adult adiposity. Results: Two of five tagSNPs in HSD11B1 were associated with breast cancer (rs11807619, P=0.006; rs932335, P=0.0002). The rs932335 C allele was associated with a nearly two-fold increased risk of breast cancer (OR=1.83; 95% CI: 1.01–3.33 for C/C versus G/G). The rs11807619 and rs932335 were highly correlated (r2=0.74), and when modeled as a haplotype, only haplotypes containing the rs932335 C allele were associated with breast cancer. Three of the eleven SNPs for IRS2 were associated with breast cancer (rs4773082, P=0.007; rs2289046, P=0.016; rs754204, P=0.03). When these 3 SNPs were examined as a haplotype, only the haplotype that included the G allele of rs2289046 was associated with breast cancer (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.62–0.90 for TGC compared to CAT). IRS2 rs2289046 and rs754204 were also associated with adult weight gain. None of the other SNPs in any gene investigated were associated with breast cancer or adiposity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that these tagSNPs in HSD11B1 and IRS2 mark regions of the genome that may harbor risk alleles for breast cancer, and these associations are likely independent of adiposity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Observational and experimental studies suggest that vitamin D may influence breast cancer etiology. Most known effects of vitamin D are mediated via the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Few polymorphisms in the VDR gene have been well studied in relation to breast cancer risk and results have been inconsistent. METHODS:We investigated VDR polymorphisms and haplotypes in relation to breast cancer risk by genotyping 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that (i) had known/suspected impact on VDR function, (ii) were tagging SNPs for the three VDR haplotype blocks among whites, or (iii) were previously associated with breast cancer risk. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in relation to breast cancer risk among 270 incident cases and 554 matched controls within the Agricultural Health Study cohort. RESULTS:In individual SNP analyses, homozygous carriers of the minor allele for rs2544038 had significantly increased breast cancer risk (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.5) and homozygous carriers of the minor allele for rs11168287 had significantly decreased risk (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-1.0). Carriers of the minor allele for rs2239181 exhibited marginally significant association with risk (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.9-2.0). Haplotype analyses revealed three haplotype groups (blocks "A," "B," and "C"). Haplotype GTCATTTCCTA in block B was significantly associated with reduced risk (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.9). CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that variation in VDR may be associated with breast cancer risk. IMPACT:Our findings may help guide future research needed to define the role of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention.
Project description:Estrogen metabolism and growth factor signaling pathway genes play key roles in breast cancer development. We evaluated associations between breast cancer and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of 107 candidate genes of these pathways using single allele- and haplotype-based tests. We first sought concordance of associations between two study populations: the Nashville Breast Cohort (NBC; 510 cases, 988 controls), and the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) breast cancer study (1,145 cases, 1,142 controls). Findings across the two study populations were concordant at tagging SNPs of six genes, and at previously published SNPs of FGFR2. We sought further replication of results for EGFR, NCOA7, and FGFR2 in the independent Collaborative Breast Cancer Study (CBCS; 1,552 cases, 1,185 controls). Associations at NCOA7 and FGFR2 replicated across all three studies. The association at NCOA7 on 6q22.32, detected by a haplotype spanning the initial protein-coding exon (5'-rs9375411, rs11967627, rs549438, rs529858, rs490361, rs17708107-3'), has not been previously reported. The haplotype had a significant inverse association with breast cancer in each study [OR(Het): 0.69 (NBC), 0.76 (CGEMS), 0.79 (CBCS)], and a meta-analysis OR(Het) of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.65-0.87, P = 1.4 × 10(-4)) in the combined study populations. The haplotype frequency was 0.07 among cases, and 0.09 among controls; homozygotes were infrequent and each OR(Hom) was not significant. NCOA7 encodes a nuclear receptor coactivator that interacts with estrogen receptor ? to modulate its activity. These observations provide consistent evidence that genetic variants at the NCOA7 locus may confer a reduced risk of breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The interaction of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) with its receptors: TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B is critical for the promotion of tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. To better understand the roles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNF-?, TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B genes in the development of breast cancer, we explored the associations between SNPs in these three genes and breast cancer susceptibility in northeast Chinese Han women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This case-control study was conducted among 1016 breast cancer patients and 806 age-matched healthy controls. Seven SNPs in the TNF-? (rs1800629, rs361525), TNFRSF1A (rs767455, rs4149577 and rs1800693) and TNFRSF1B (rs1061622 and rs1061624) genes were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. In TNFRSF1B, the rs1061622 GT genotype and the G allele conferred a reduced susceptibility to breast cancer (P?=?0.000662, OR?=?0.706, 95% CI: 0.578-0.863; P?=?0.002, OR?=?0.769, 95% CI; 0.654-0.905, respectively). Moreover, the AG genotype, the AA genotype and the A allele in rs1061624 conferred an increased risk of breast cancer (P?=?0.007, OR?=?1.470, 95% CI:1.112-1.943; P?=?0.00109, OR?=?1.405 95% CI:1.145-1.724; P?=?0.001, OR?=?1.248 95% CI:1.092-1.426, respectively). These two SNPs also had associations with breast cancer risk under the dominant model. In haplotype analysis, the CTA (rs767455 C-rs4149577 T-rs1800693 A) haplotype in TNFRSF1A and the TA (rs1061622 T-rs1061624 A) haplotype in TNFRSF1B had higher frequencies in breast cancer patients (P?=?0.00324; P?=?0.000370, respectively), but the frequency of GG (rs1061622 G-rs1061624 G) haplotype in TNFRSF1B was lower in breast cancer patients (P?=?0.000251). The associations of the three haplotypes remained significant after correcting for multiple testing. In addition, significant associations were also observed between TNFRSF1A polymorphisms and lymph node metastasis, P53, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) statuses. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that rs1061622 and rs1061624 in TNFRSF1B may affect breast cancer risk, and SNPs in TNFRSF1A are associated with the clinical features of breast cancer.
Project description:We previously found that genetic polymorphisms in gene coding for histamine H4 receptors were related to the risk and malignant degree of breast cancer. The roles of polymorphisms in other histamine-related genes, such as histidine decarboxylase (HDC), histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) and histamine H3 receptor (HRH3), remain unexplored. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical associations of polymorphisms in HDC, HNMT and HRH3 with breast cancer. Two hundred and one unrelated Chinese Han breast cancer patients and 205 ethnicity-matched health controls were recruited for case-control investigation. Genomic DNA from the participants was extracted and 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HDC, HNMT and HRH3 were genotyped. We found that polymorphisms of HNMT and HRH3 were irrelevant with breast cancer in the present study. However, the T allele of rs7164386 in HDC significantly decreased the risk of breast cancer (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 0.387; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 0.208-0.720; P?=?0.003). Furthermore, for HDC haplotypes, the CG haplotype of rs7164386-rs7182203 was more frequent among breast cancer patients (adjusted OR, 1.828; 95% CI, 1.218-2.744; P?=?0.004) while the TG haplotype was more frequent among health controls (adjusted OR, 0.351; 95% CI, 0.182-0.678; P?=?0.002). These findings indicated that polymorphisms of HDC gene were significantly associated with breast cancer in Chinese Han population and may be novel diagnostic or therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Further studies with larger participants worldwide are still needed for conclusion validation.
Project description:We performed a three-phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) using cases and controls from a genetically isolated population, Ashkenazi Jews (AJ), to identify loci associated with breast cancer risk. In the first phase, we compared allele frequencies of 150,080 SNPs in 249 high-risk, BRCA1/2 mutation-negative AJ familial cases and 299 cancer-free AJ controls using chi(2) and the Cochran-Armitage trend tests. In the second phase, we genotyped 343 SNPs from 123 regions most significantly associated from stage 1, including 4 SNPs from the FGFR2 region, in 950 consecutive AJ breast cancer cases and 979 age-matched AJ controls. We replicated major associations in a third independent set of 243 AJ cases and 187 controls. We obtained a significant allele P value of association with AJ breast cancer in the FGFR2 region (P = 1.5 x 10(-5), odds ratio (OR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.40 at rs1078806 for all phases combined). In addition, we found a risk locus in a region of chromosome 6q22.33 (P = 2.9 x 10(-8), OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.25-1.59 at rs2180341). Using several SNPs at each implicated locus, we were able to verify associations and impute haplotypes. The major haplotype at the 6q22.33 locus conferred protection from disease, whereas the minor haplotype conferred risk. Candidate genes in the 6q22.33 region include ECHDC1, which encodes a protein involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, and also RNF146, which encodes a ubiquitin protein ligase, both known pathways in breast cancer pathogenesis.
Project description:Prolonged exposure to combined hormone replacement therapy (estrogen plus progestin) increases a woman's risk of breast cancer, whereas estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy does not. This suggests that progesterone may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. Association studies have reported inconsistent relationships between progesterone receptor gene variants and breast cancer. A population-based case-control study in three counties of the Philadelphia Metropolitan area was undertaken. We evaluated 8 PGR candidate SNPs and 18 PGR tagging SNPS in 487 breast cancer cases and 843 controls using multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for combined hormone replacement therapy use. Separate analyses were conducted for European Americans (EA: 399 cases, 490 controls) and African Americans (AA: 88 cases, 353 controls). In EAs, no significant associations were observed with the investigated PGR variants. In AAs, two tagging SNPs (rs590688 and rs10895054) were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer. For rs590688, each addition of the C allele was protective compared to the G allele (OR = 0.56, 95 % CI 0.39-0.82, p value 0.003, corrected p value 0.03). For rs10895054, each addition of the T allele increased the risk of breast cancer compared to the A allele nearly threefold (OR = 2.9, 95 % CI 1.47-6.02, p value 0.002, corrected p value 0.04). Three haplotype blocks, all containing rs590688, were found to be significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Environmental exposures, namely parity and obesity modified the effect of both SNPs on breast cancer risk in EA. This is the first study to find an association between two PGR variants and breast cancer in AA women. These results suggest that studies of PGR variants in other non-White populations may reveal additional cancer associations of interest.
Project description:Obesity has consistently been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Proteins that are secreted by adipose tissue or are involved in regulating body mass may play a role in breast tumor development.We conducted a nested case-control study among postmenopausal women from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort to determine whether genes associated with obesity increase risk for breast cancer. Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture common variation across seven candidate genes that encode adipose-related proteins: ADRB2, ADRB3, GHRL, HSD11B1, IRS1, IRS2, and SHC1. Thirty-nine SNPs were genotyped in 648 cases and 659 controls. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between each tagging SNP and risk for breast cancer while adjusting for matching factors and potential confounders. We also examined whether these SNPs were associated with measures of adult adiposity.Two out of five tagging SNPs in HSD11B1 were associated with breast cancer (rs11807619, P = 0.006; rs932335, P = 0.0001). rs11807619 and rs932335 were highly correlated (r2 = 0.74) and, when modeled as a haplotype, only haplotypes containing the rs932335 C allele were associated with breast cancer. The rs932335 C allele was associated with a nearly twofold increased risk for breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-3.33 for C/C versus G/G). Three of the 11 SNPs for IRS2 were associated with breast cancer (rs4773082, P = 0.007; rs2289046, P = 0.016; rs754204, P = 0.03). When these three SNPs were examined as a haplotype, only the haplotype that included the G allele of rs2289046 was associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval = 0.63-0.92 for TGC versus CAT). IRS2 rs2289046, rs754204, and rs12584136 were also associated with adult weight gain but only among cases. None of the other SNPs in any gene investigated were associated with breast cancer or adiposity.Our findings suggest that these tagging SNPs in HSD11B1 and IRS2 mark regions of the genome that may harbor risk alleles for breast cancer, and these associations are probably independent of adiposity.
Project description:The rs2046210 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the 6q25.1 region was identified in a breast cancer genome-wide association study of Chinese women. The SNP has been replicated in European ancestry populations, but replication efforts have failed in African ancestry populations. We evaluated a total of 13 tagging SNPs in the linkage disequilibrium block around rs2046210 in a case-control study of breast cancer nested within the Black Women's Health Study, which included 1191 cases and 1941 controls. Replication of initial significant findings was carried out in 665 cases and 821 controls of African ancestry from the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS). No significant association was found for rs2046210 in univariate analysis. A new SNP, rs2046211, was significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer and was replicated in data from WCHS. In joint analyses that included both SNPs, the rs2046210-A allele was associated with increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.28], and the rs2046211-G allele was associated with reduced risk (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.67-0.95). Haplotype analysis confirmed these results and showed that the rs2046210-A allele is present in high-risk (rs2046211-C/rs2046210-A) and low-risk (rs2046211-G/rs2046210-A) haplotypes. Our results confirm the importance of 6q25.1 as a breast cancer susceptibility region. We replicated the rs2046210 association, after accounting for the haplotype background that included rs2046211 in African-American women, and we report the presence of a novel signal that is tagged by rs2046211.
Project description:GWAS have identified variation in the FGFR2 locus as risk factors for breast cancer. Validation studies, however, have shown inconsistent results by ethnics and pathological characteristics. To further explore this inconsistency and investigate the associations of FGFR2 variants with breast cancer according to intrinsic subtype (Luminal-A, Luminal-B, ER-&PR-&HER2+, and triple negative) among Southern Han Chinese women, we genotyped rs1078806, rs1219648, rs2420946, rs2981579, and rs2981582 polymorphisms in 609 patients and 882 controls. Significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for rs2420946, rs2981579, and rs2981582 with OR (95% CI) per risk allele of 1.19 (1.03-1.39), 1.24 (1.07-1.43), and 1.17 (1.01-1.36), respectively. In subtype specific analysis, above three SNPs were significantly associated with increased Luminal-A risk in a dose-dependent manner (P trend < 0.01); however, only rs2981579 was associated with Luminal-B, and none were linked to ER-&PR- subtypes (ER-&PR-&HER2+ and triple negative). Haplotype analyses also identified common haplotypes significantly associated with luminal-like subtypes (Luminal-A and Luminal-B), but not with ER-&PR- subtypes. Our results suggest that associations of FGFR2 SNPs with breast cancer were heterogeneous according to intrinsic subtype. Future studies stratifying patients by their intrinsic subtypes will provide new insights into the complex genetic mechanisms underlying breast cancer.