A locus-wide approach to assessing variation in the avian MHC: the B-locus of the wild turkey.
ABSTRACT: Studies of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity in non-model vertebrates typically focus on structure and sequence variation in the antigen-presenting loci: the highly variable and polymorphic class I and class IIB genes. Although these studies provide estimates of the number of genes and alleles/locus, they often overlook variation in functionally related and co-inherited genes important in the immune response. This study utilizes the sequence of the MHC B-locus derived from a commercial turkey to investigate MHC variation in wild birds. Sequences were obtained for nine interspersed MHC amplicons (non-class I/II) from each of 40 birds representing 3 subspecies of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Analysis of aligned sequences identified 238 single-nucleotide variants approximately one-third of which had minor allele frequencies >0.2 in the sampled birds. PHASE analysis identified 70 prospective MHC haplotypes in the wild turkeys, whereas a combined analysis with commercial birds identified almost 100 haplotypes in the species. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the class IIB loci was used to test the efficacy of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotyping to capture locus-wide variation. Diversity in SNP haplotypes and haplotype sharing among individuals was directly reflected in the DGGE patterns. Utilization of a reference haplotype to sequence interspersed regions of the MHC has significant advantages over other methods of surveying diversity while identifying high-frequency SNPs for genotyping. SNP haplotyping provides a means to identify both divergent haplotypes and homozygous individuals for assessment of immunological variation in wild and domestic populations.
Project description:Haplotypes are a powerful tool for identifying the genetic basis of common complex diseases. Disease-association mapping requires molecular methods for haplotyping biallelic SNP variation and highly complex polymorphisms. We developed a method for phasing HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 alleles on chromosome 6 in unrelated individuals. This method uses the highly polymorphic HLA-B locus to discriminate the two HLA haplotypes in heterozygous individuals and its ideal location 1.4 Mbp telomeric to HLA-DRB1 and 1.2 Mbp centromeric to HLA-A to capture 2-Mbp-long genomic DNA. Genomic DNA representing a single HLA-B-captured haplotype is genotyped for HLA-A and HLA-DRB1 alleles and linkage to HLA-B is established. Proof of principle was established in a large blinded study of phase-known samples. Availability of an efficient method for MHC haplotype phase determination will facilitate the mapping of causative MHC-resident genes in many human diseases and has the potential to be broadened to other polymorphic gene complexes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: One of the major obstacles to the exploitation of genetic variation in human medicine, veterinary medicine, and animal breeding is the difficulty in defining haplotypes in unrelated individuals. RESULTS: We have developed a Multiplex Double Amplification Refractory Mutation System combined with Solid Phase PCR on Fluorescently labelled beads. The process is inherently amenable to automation. It provides a high degree of internal Quality Control, as each PCR product is represented in duplicate on the bead array, and each SNP is tested against multiple partners. This technique can resolve very complex genotypes into their constituent haplotypes; it defined all the alleles at 60 SNP in exon 2 of the ovine DRB1 MHC locus in a sample of 109 rams. These 60 SNP formed 33 DRB1 exon 2 alleles; two of which had not been previously identified; although both of them have been independently confirmed. CONCLUSION: This technique has the same resolution as allele specific sequencing. Sequencing has the advantage of identifying novel polymorphic sites but where all SNP sites have been identified this novel procedure can resolve all alleles and haplotypes and identify novel combinations of polymorphisms. This method is similar in price to direct sequencing and provides a low cost system for direct haplotyping of extended DNA sequences.
Project description:The definition of human MHC class I haplotypes through association of HLA-A, HLA-Cw and HLA-B has been used to analyze ethnicity, population migrations and disease association.Here, we present HLA-E allele haplotype association and population linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis within the ~1.3 Mb bounded by HLA-B/Cw and HLA-A to increase the resolution of identified class I haplotypes. Through local breakdown of LD, we inferred ancestral recombination points both upstream and downstream of HLA-E contributing to alternative block structures within previously identified haplotypes. Through single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of the MHC region, we also confirmed the essential genetic fixity, previously inferred by MHC allele analysis, of three conserved extended haplotypes (CEHs), and we demonstrated that commercially-available SNP analysis can be used in the MHC to help define CEHs and CEH fragments.We conclude that to generate high-resolution maps for relating MHC haplotypes to disease susceptibility, both SNP and MHC allele analysis must be conducted as complementary techniques.
Project description:Adaptive genetic variations have direct influences on the fitness traits of the animal. The major histocompatibility complex B (MHC-B) region is responsible for adaptive and innate immune responses in chickens. In native Korean chicken breeds, no information on serologically defined B haplotypes is available. We investigated the MHC-B diversity in 5 restored lines of Korean native chicken and Ogye chicken breeds using a recently described MHC-B single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel and the MHC-linked LEI0258 variable number of tandem repeat marker. High SNP haplotype diversity was observed in Korean native chicken breeds with an average of 9.7 MHC-B SNP haplotypes per line. The total number of haplotypes ranged from 6 to 12 per line, and population-specific haplotypes ranged from 3 to 4. A total of 41 BSNP haplotypes, including 26 novel population-specific haplotypes and 15 common haplotypes, were reported over all populations. The 15 common haplotypes included 7 novel and 8 previously reported standard haplotypes. Selection and breeding evidence supports the observation of common haplotypes between the Korean native chicken and exotic breeds. Similarly, the LEI0258 marker showed allele variation, between 193 bp and 474 bp having 5 to 8 alleles per population. Some of these alleles (193, 249, 309, and 443 bp) were shared and more frequently observed. Comparison between SNP haplotypes and LEI0258 allele sizes for the same samples showed that some LEI0258 allele sizes correspond to more than one BSNP haplotype. The use of the MHC-B SNP panel greatly enhances the identification of MHC diversity compared with the sole use of the LEI0258 marker in native chicken populations.
Project description:The polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQ and DR genes in five common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) haplotypes was determined through sequencing of mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphocytes of eight ELA homozygous horses. Ten expressed MHC class II genes were detected in horses of the ELA-A3 haplotype carried by the donor horses of the equine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the reference genome sequence: four DR genes and six DQ genes. The other four ELA haplotypes contained at least eight expressed polymorphic MHC class II loci. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of genomic DNA of these four MHC haplotypes revealed stop codons in the DQA3 gene in the ELA-A2, ELA-A5, and ELA-A9 haplotypes. Few NGS reads were obtained for the other MHC class II genes that were not amplified in these horses. The amino acid sequences across haplotypes contained locus-specific residues, and the locus clusters produced by phylogenetic analysis were well supported. The MHC class II alleles within the five tested haplotypes were largely non-overlapping between haplotypes. The complement of equine MHC class II DQ and DR genes appears to be well conserved between haplotypes, in contrast to the recently described variation in class I gene loci between equine MHC haplotypes. The identification of allelic series of equine MHC class II loci will aid comparative studies of mammalian MHC conservation and evolution and may also help to interpret associations between the equine MHC class II region and diseases of the horse.
Project description:The genomic region (~4 Mb) of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p21 is a prime model for the study and understanding of conserved polymorphic sequences (CPSs) and structural diversity of ancestral haplotypes (AHs)/conserved extended haplotypes (CEHs). The aim of this study was to use a set of 95 MHC genomic sequences downloaded from a publicly available BioProject database at NCBI to identify and characterise polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes and pseudogenes, <i>MICA</i> and <i>MICB</i>, and retroelement indels as haplotypic lineage markers, and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) crossover loci in DNA sequence alignments of different haplotypes across the <i>Olfactory Receptor</i> (<i>OR</i>) gene region (~1.2 Mb) and the MHC class I region (~1.8 Mb) from the <i>GPX5</i> to the <i>MICB</i> gene. Our comparative sequence analyses confirmed the identity of 12 haplotypic retroelement markers and revealed that they partitioned the <i>HLA-A/B/C</i> haplotypes into distinct evolutionary lineages. Crossovers between SNP-poor and SNP-rich regions defined the sequence range of haplotype blocks, and many of these crossover junctions occurred within particular transposable elements, lncRNA, <i>OR12D2, MUC21, MUC22, PSORS1A3, HLA-C, HLA-B</i>, and <i>MICA</i>. In a comparison of more than 250 paired sequence alignments, at least 38 SNP-density crossover sites were mapped across various regions from <i>GPX5</i> to <i>MICB</i>. In a homology comparison of 16 different haplotypes, seven CEH/AH (<i>7.1, 8.1, 18.2, 51.x, 57.1, 62.x</i>, and <i>62.1</i>) had no detectable SNP-density crossover junctions and were SNP poor across the entire ~2.8 Mb of sequence alignments. Of the analyses between different recombinant haplotypes, more than half of them had SNP crossovers within 10 kb of <i>LTR16B/ERV3-16A3_I, MLT1, Charlie</i>, and/or <i>THE1</i> sequences and were in close vicinity to structurally polymorphic <i>Alu</i> and <i>SVA</i> insertion sites. These studies demonstrate that (1) SNP-density crossovers are associated with putative ancestral recombination sites that are widely spread across the MHC class I genomic region from at least the telomeric <i>OR12D2</i> gene to the centromeric <i>MICB</i> gene and (2) the genomic sequences of MHC homozygous cell lines are useful for analysing haplotype blocks, ancestral haplotypic landscapes and markers, CPSs, and SNP-density crossover junctions.
Project description:In humans, great apes, and different monkey species, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB region is known to display considerable copy number variation. The microsatellite D6S2878 has been shown to be a valuable marker for haplotyping the DR region in humans and macaque species. The present report illustrates that chimpanzee haplotypes also can be discriminated with this marker. The analyses resulted in the description of nine different region configurations, of which seven are present within the West African chimpanzee population studied. The region configurations vary in gene content from two up to five DRB genes. Subsequent cDNA sequencing increased the number of known full-length Patr-DRB sequences from 3 to 32, and shows that one to three Patr-DRB genes per haplotype apparently produce functional transcripts. This is more or less comparable to humans and rhesus macaques. Moreover, microsatellite analysis in concert with full-length DRB gene sequencing showed that the Patr-DRB*W9 and -DRB3*01/02 lineages most likely arose from a common ancestral lineage: hence, the Patr-DRB*W9 lineage was renamed to Patr-DRB3*07. Overall, the data demonstrate that the D6S2878 microsatellite marker allows fast and accurate haplotyping of the Patr-DRB region. In addition, the limited amount of allelic variation observed at the various Patr-DRB genes is in agreement with the fact that chimpanzees experienced a selective sweep that may have been caused by an ancient retroviral infection.
Project description:Dendrimer peptides are promising vaccine candidates against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Several B-cell epitope (B2T) dendrimers, harboring a major FMDV antigenic B-cell site in VP1 protein, are covalently linked to heterotypic T-cell epitopes from 3A and/or 3D proteins, and elicited consistent levels of neutralizing antibodies and IFN-?-producing cells in pigs. To address the contribution of the highly polymorphic nature of the porcine MHC (SLA, swine leukocyte antigen) on the immunogenicity of B2T dendrimers, low-resolution (Lr) haplotyping was performed. We looked for possible correlations between particular Lr haplotypes with neutralizing antibody and T-cell responses induced by B2T peptides. In this study, 63 pigs immunized with B2T dendrimers and 10 non-immunized (control) animals are analyzed. The results reveal a robust significant correlation between SLA class-II Lr haplotypes and the T-cell response. Similar correlations of T-cell response with SLA class-I Lr haplotypes, and between B-cell antibody response and SLA class-I and SLA class-II Lr haplotypes, were only found when the sample was reduced to animals with Lr haplotypes represented more than once. These results support the contribution of SLA class-II restricted T-cells to the magnitude of the T-cell response and to the antibody response evoked by the B2T dendrimers, being of potential value for peptide vaccine design against FMDV.
Project description:The genomic sequences of 15 horse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes and a collection of MHC class I homozygous horses of five different haplotypes were used to investigate the genomic structure and polymorphism of the equine MHC. A combination of conserved and locus-specific primers was used to amplify horse MHC class I genes with classical and nonclassical characteristics. Multiple clones from each haplotype identified three to five classical sequences per homozygous animal and two to three nonclassical sequences. Phylogenetic analysis was applied to these sequences, and groups were identified which appear to be allelic series, but some sequences were left ungrouped. Sequences determined from MHC class I heterozygous horses and previously described MHC class I sequences were then added, representing a total of ten horse MHC haplotypes. These results were consistent with those obtained from the MHC homozygous horses alone, and 30 classical sequences were assigned to four previously confirmed loci and three new provisional loci. The nonclassical genes had few alleles and the classical genes had higher levels of allelic polymorphism. Alleles for two classical loci with the expected pattern of polymorphism were found in the majority of haplotypes tested, but alleles at two other commonly detected loci had more variation outside of the hypervariable region than within. Our data indicate that the equine major histocompatibility complex is characterized by variation in the complement of class I genes expressed in different haplotypes in addition to the expected allelic polymorphism within loci.
Project description:A substantial genetic contribution to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk is conferred by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene(s) on chromosome 6p21. Previous studies in SLE have lacked statistical power and genetic resolution to fully define MHC influences. We characterized 1,610 Caucasian SLE cases and 1,470 parents for 1,974 MHC SNPs, the highly polymorphic HLA-DRB1 locus, and a panel of ancestry informative markers. Single-marker analyses revealed strong signals for SNPs within several MHC regions, as well as with HLA-DRB1 (global p = 9.99 x 10(-16)). The most strongly associated DRB1 alleles were: *0301 (odds ratio, OR = 2.21, p = 2.53 x 10(-12)), *1401 (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0002), and *1501 (OR = 1.39, p = 0.0032). The MHC region SNP demonstrating the strongest evidence of association with SLE was rs3117103, with OR = 2.44 and p = 2.80 x 10(-13). Conditional haplotype and stepwise logistic regression analyses identified strong evidence for association between SLE and the extended class I, class I, class III, class II, and the extended class II MHC regions. Sequential removal of SLE-associated DRB1 haplotypes revealed independent effects due to variation within OR2H2 (extended class I, rs362521, p = 0.006), CREBL1 (class III, rs8283, p = 0.01), and DQB2 (class II, rs7769979, p = 0.003, and rs10947345, p = 0.0004). Further, conditional haplotype analyses demonstrated that variation within MICB (class I, rs3828903, p = 0.006) also contributes to SLE risk independent of HLA-DRB1*0301. Our results for the first time delineate with high resolution several MHC regions with independent contributions to SLE risk. We provide a list of candidate variants based on biologic and functional considerations that may be causally related to SLE risk and warrant further investigation.