DNA gyrase inhibition assays are necessary to demonstrate fluoroquinolone resistance secondary to gyrB mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT: The main mechanism of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mutation in DNA gyrase (GyrA(2)GyrB(2)), especially in gyrA. However, the discovery of unknown mutations in gyrB whose implication in FQ resistance is unclear has become more frequent. We investigated the impact on FQ susceptibility of eight gyrB mutations in M. tuberculosis clinical strains, three of which were previously identified in an FQ-resistant strain. We measured FQ MICs and also DNA gyrase inhibition by FQs in order to clarify the role of these mutations in FQ resistance. Wild-type GyrA, wild-type GyrB, and mutant GyrB subunits produced from engineered gyrB alleles by mutagenesis were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and used to reconstitute highly active gyrase complexes. MICs and DNA gyrase inhibition were determined for moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and enoxacin. We demonstrated that the eight substitutions in GyrB (D473N, P478A, R485H, S486F, A506G, A547V, G551R, and G559A), recently identified in FQ-resistant clinical strains or encountered in M. tuberculosis strains isolated in France, are not implicated in FQ resistance. These results underline that, as opposed to phenotypic FQ susceptibility testing, the DNA gyrase inhibition assay is the only way to prove the role of a DNA gyrase mutation in FQ resistance. Therefore, the use of FQ in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) patients should not be ruled out only on the basis of the presence of mutations in gyrB.
Project description:Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is emerging in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The main mechanism of FQ resistance is amino acid substitution within the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase, the sole FQ target in M. tuberculosis. However, substitutions in GyrB whose implication in FQ resistance is unknown are increasingly being reported. The present study clarified the role of four GyrB substitutions identified in M. tuberculosis clinical strains, two located in the QRDR (D500A and N538T) and two outside the QRDR (T539P and E540V), in FQ resistance. We measured FQ MICs and also DNA gyrase inhibition by FQs in order to unequivocally clarify the role of these mutations in FQ resistance. Wild-type GyrA, wild-type GyrB, and mutant GyrB subunits produced from engineered gyrB alleles by mutagenesis were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and used to reconstitute highly active gyrase complexes. MICs and DNA gyrase inhibition were determined for moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and enoxacin. All these substitutions are clearly implicated in FQ resistance, underlining the presence of a hot spot region housing most of the GyrB substitutions implicated in FQ resistance (residues NTE, 538 to 540). These findings help us to refine the definition of GyrB QRDR, which is extended to positions 500 to 540.
Project description:The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has resulted in increased interest in the fluoroquinolones (FQs) as antituberculosis agents. To investigate the frequency and mechanisms of FQ resistance in M. tuberculosis, we cloned and sequenced the wild-type gyrA and gyrB genes, which encode the A and B subunits of the DNA gyrase, respectively; DNA gyrase is the main target of the FQs. On the basis of the sequence information, we performed DNA amplification for sequencing and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis to examine the presumed quinolone resistance regions of gyrA and gyrB from reference strains (n = 4) and clinical isolates (n = 55). Mutations in codons of gyrA analogous to those described in other FQ-resistant bacteria were identified in all isolates (n = 14) for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was > 2 micrograms/ml. In addition, we selected ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis Erdman and H37ra. Spontaneously resistant mutants developed at a frequency of 1 in 10(7) to 10(8) at ciprofloxacin concentrations of 2 micrograms/ml, but no primary resistant colonies were selected at higher ciprofloxacin concentrations. Replating of those first-step mutants selected for mutants with high levels of resistance which harbored gyrA mutations similar to those found among clinical FQ-resistant isolates. The gyrA and gyrB sequence information will facilitate analysis of the mechanisms of resistance to drugs which target the gyrase and the implementation of rapid strategies for the estimation of FQ susceptibility in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.
Project description:Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is a major health concern in the treatment of tularemia. Because DNA gyrase has been described as the main target of these compounds, our aim was to clarify the contributions of both GyrA and GyrB mutations found in Francisella novicida clones highly resistant to FQs. Wild-type and mutated GyrA and GyrB subunits were overexpressed so that the in vitro FQ sensitivity of functional reconstituted complexes could be evaluated. The data obtained were compared to the MICs of FQs against bacterial clones harboring the same mutations and were further validated through complementation experiments and structural modeling. Whole-genome sequencing of highly FQ-resistant lineages was also done. Supercoiling and DNA cleavage assays demonstrated that GyrA D87 is a hot spot FQ resistance target in F. novicida and pointed out the role of the GyrA P43H substitution in resistance acquisition. An unusual feature of FQ resistance acquisition in F. novicida is that the first-step mutation occurs in GyrB, with direct or indirect consequences for FQ sensitivity. Insertion of P466 into GyrB leads to a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) comparable to that observed for a mutant gyrase carrying the GyrA D87Y substitution, while the D487E-?K488 mutation, while not active on its own, contributes to the high level of resistance that occurs following acquisition of the GyrA D87G substitution in double GyrA/GyrB mutants. The involvement of other putative targets is discussed, including that of a ParE mutation that was found to arise in the very late stage of antibiotic exposure. This study provides the first characterization of the molecular mechanisms responsible for FQ resistance in Francisella.
Project description:DNA gyrase mutations are a major cause of quinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis We therefore conducted the first comprehensive study to determine the diversity of gyrase mutations in pre-extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR) (n = 71) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) (n = 30) Thai clinical tuberculosis (TB) isolates. All pre-XDR-TB and XDR-TB isolates carried at least one mutation within the quinolone resistance-determining region of GyrA (G88A [1.1%], A90V [17.4%], S91P [1.1%], or D94A/G/H/N/V/Y [72.7%]) or GyrB (D533A [1.1%], N538D [1.1%], or E540D [2.2%]). MIC and DNA gyrase supercoiling inhibition assays were performed to determine the role of gyrase mutations in quinolone resistance. Compared to the MICs against M. tuberculosis H37Rv, the levels of resistance to all quinolones tested in the isolates that carried GyrA-D94G or GyrB-N538D (8- to 32-fold increase) were significantly higher than those in isolates bearing GyrA-D94A or GyrA-A90V (2- to 8-fold increase) (P < 0.01). Intriguingly, GyrB-E540D led to a dramatic resistance to later-generation quinolones, including moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and sparfloxacin (8- to 16-fold increases in MICs and 8.3- to 11.2-fold increases in 50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s]). However, GyrB-E540D caused low-level resistance to early-generation quinolones, including ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin (2- to 4-fold increases in MICs and 1.5- to 2.0-fold increases in IC50s). In the present study, DC-159a was the most active antituberculosis agent and was little affected by the gyrase mutations described above. Our findings suggest that although they are rare, gyrB mutations have a notable role in quinolone resistance, which may provide clues to the molecular basis of estimating quinolone resistance levels for drug and dose selection.
Project description:To characterize mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mutants of strain H37Ra were selected in vitro with ofloxacin. Their quinolone resistance-determining regions for gyrA and gyrB were amplified and sequenced to identify mutations in gyrase A or B. Three types of mutants were obtained: (i) one mutant (TKp1) had no mutations in gyrA or gyrB; (ii) mutants that had single missense mutations in gyrA, and (iii) mutants that had two missense mutations resulting in either two altered gyrase A residues or an altered residue in both gyrases A and B. The TKp1 mutant had slightly reduced levels of uptake of [14C]norfloxacin, which was associated with two- to fourfold increases in the MICs of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and sparfloxacin. Gyrase mutations caused a much greater increase in the MICs of fluoroquinolones. For mutants with single gyrA mutations, the increases in the MICs were 4- to 16-fold, and for mutants with double gyrase mutations, the MICs were increased 32-fold or more compared with those for the parent. A gyrA mutation in TKp1 secondary mutants was associated with 32- to 128-fold increases in the MICs of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin compared with the MICs for H37Ra and an eight-fold increase in the MIC of sparfloxacin. Sparfloxacin was the most active fluoroquinolone tested. No sparfloxacin-resistant single-step mutants were selected at concentrations of > 2.5 micrograms/ml, and high-level resistance (i.e., MIC, > and = 5 micrograms/ml) was associated with two gyrase mutations. Mutations in gyrB and possibly altered levels of intracellular accumulation of drug are two additional mechanisms that may be used by M. tuberculosis in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance. Because sparfloxacin is more active in vitro and selection of resistance appears to be less likely to occur, it may have important advantage over ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone (FQ) used for the treatment of leprosy. FQs are known to interact with both A and B subunits of DNA gyrase and inhibit supercoiling activity of this enzyme. Mutations conferring FQ resistance have been reported to be found only in the gene encoding A subunit of this enzyme (gyrA) of M. leprae, although there are many reports on the FQ resistance-associated mutation in gyrB in other bacteria, including M. tuberculosis, a bacterial species in the same genus as M. leprae.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>To reveal the possible contribution of mutations in gyrB to FQ resistance in M. leprae, we examined the inhibitory activity of FQs against recombinant DNA gyrases with amino acid substitutions at position 464, 502 and 504, equivalent to position 461, 499 and 501 in M. tuberculosis, which are reported to contribute to reduced sensitivity to FQ. The FQ-inhibited supercoiling assay and FQ-induced cleavage assay demonstrated the important roles of these amino acid substitutions in reduced sensitivity to FQ with marked influence by amino acid substitution, especially at position 502. Additionally, effectiveness of sitafloxacin, a FQ, to mutant DNA gyrases was revealed by low inhibitory concentration of this FQ.<h4>Significance</h4>Data obtained in this study suggested the possible emergence of FQ-resistant M. leprae with mutations in gyrB and the necessity of analyzing both gyrA and gyrB for an FQ susceptibility test. In addition, potential use of sitafloxacin for the treatment of problematic cases of leprosy by FQ resistant M. leprae was suggested.
Project description:Background:Levofloxacin (LVX) and Moxifloxacin (MXF) are the cornerstones for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). China is one of the highest MDR- and fluoroquinolones (FQ)-resistant TB burdens countries. DNA gyrase encoded by gyr genes is the main target of FQ in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). The prevalence and molecular characterization of LVX- and MXF-resistant MTB strains from southern China were examined in this study. Methods:Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of 400 MTB clinical isolates was evaluated by proportion method on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium against ten drugs. The sequencing of entire gyrA and gyrB genes and multiplex PCR were performed to distinguish the prevalence of mutant types in Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes. Results:Three hundred and twenty-one out of four hundred (80.25%) drug-resistant isolates (resistant > one drug) were categorized as 83/321 (25.80%) MDR, 174/321 (54.20%) pre-XDR and 64/321 (19.93%) XDR-MTB. Overall, 303/400 (75.75%) LVX- and 292/400 (73.00%) MXF-resistant (R) MTB strains were identified. Two hundred seventy-one out of three hundred and three (89.43%) resistant strains carried mutations in gyrA and 91/303 (30.03%) in gyrB. Interestingly, 18 novel mutations were detected in gyrA and gyrB genes. Mutations at (A90, D94) and (T500, G510, G512) frequently existed in QRDR(s) of gyrA and gyrB respectively in 286/400 (71.50%) LVXRMXFR strains. The novel mutations in- and out-side the QRDR of gyrA (L105R, A126E, M127K, D151T, V165A) and gyrB (D461H, N499S, G520A) increased the sensitivity and consistency of genotypic tests. Notably, 25 LVXRMXFR strains were found with unknown resistance mechanisms. Conclusions:Mutations in QRDR(s) were concomitantly associated with Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes. The prevalence of resistance and cross-resistance between LVX and MXF in MTB isolates from southern China was immensely higher than other countries. Our valuable findings provide the substantial implications to improve the reliability of genotypic diagnostic tests relying on potential resistance conferring mutations in entire gyr genes.
Project description:Resistance to fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics in Streptococcus pneumoniae has been attributed primarily to specific mutations in the genes for DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE). Resistance to some FQs can result from a single mutation in one or more of the genes encoding these essential enzymes. A group of 160 clinical isolates of pneumococci was examined in this study, including 36 ofloxacin-resistant isolates (MICs, > or = 8 micrograms/ml) recovered from patients in North America, France, and Belgium. The susceptibilities of all isolates to clinafloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and trovafloxacin were examined by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards reference broth microdilution and disk diffusion susceptibility testing methods. Among the ofloxacin-resistant strains, 32 of 36 were also categorized as resistant to levofloxacin, 35 were resistant to sparfloxacin, 29 were resistant to grepafloxacin, and 19 were resistant to trovafloxacin. In vitro susceptibility to clinafloxacin appeared to be least affected by resistance to the other FQs. Eight isolates with high- and low-level resistance to the newer FQs were selected for DNA sequence analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. The DNA and the inferred amino acid sequences of the resistant strains were compared with the analogous sequences of reference strain S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 and FQ-susceptible laboratory strain R6. Reduced susceptibilities to grepafloxacin and sparfloxacin (MICs, 1 to 2 micrograms/ml) and trovafloxacin (MICs, 0.5 to 1 microgram/ml) were associated with either a mutation in parC that led to a single amino acid substitution (Ser-79 to Phe or Tyr) or double mutations that involved the genes for both GyrA (Ser-81 to Phe) and ParE (Asp-435 to Asn). High-level resistance to all of the compounds except clinafloxacin was associated with two or more amino acid substitutions involving both GyrA (Ser-81 to Phe) and ParC (Ser-79 to Phe or Ser-80 to Pro and Asp-83 to Tyr). No mutations were observed in the gyrB sequences of resistant strains. These data indicate that mutations in pneumococcal gyrA, parC, and parE genes all contribute to decreased susceptibility to the newer FQs, and genetic analysis of the QRDR of a single gene, either gyrA or parC, is not predictive of pneumococcal resistance to these agents.
Project description:Fluoroquinolone (FQ) and cephalosporin (CEP) resistance among Enterobacteriaceae has been increasingly reported. FQ resistance occurs primarily through mutations in DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE). CEP resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is mainly due to the production of CTX-M type extended-spectrum ?-lactamases. Although prevalence and mechanisms of FQ and CEP resistance in Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli have been well studied, little is known about Proteus mirabilis in Japan. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and mechanism of FQ resistance in Japanese clinical isolates of P. mirabilis. We collected 5845 P. mirabilis isolates from eight hospitals between 2000 and 2013. Prevalence of FQ resistance was calculated as the annual average percentage of all P. mirabilis isolates. We selected 50 isolates exhibiting susceptibility, intermediate resistance, or resistance to levofloxacin (LVX) and identified amino acid substitutions in GyrA, GyrB, ParC, and ParE. The prevalence of FQ-resistant P. mirabilis gradually increased from 2001 to 2004, reaching 16.6% in 2005, and has remained relatively high (13.3-17.5%) since then. Low-level LVX-resistant strains (MIC, 8-16 mg/L) showed significant changes in GyrB (S464Y or -I, or E466D). High-level LVX-resistant strains (MIC, 32-128 mg/L) displayed significant changes in GyrA (E87K) and ParE (D420N). The highest-level LVX-resistant strains (MIC, ? 256 mg/L) presented significant changes in GyrA (E87K or -G), GyrB (S464I or -F), and ParE (D420N). Our findings suggest that substitutions in GyrA (E87) and ParE (D420) have played an important role in the emergence of high-level LVX-resistant P. mirabilis isolates (MIC, ? 32 mg/L) in Japan.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study aimed to analyze the association of mutation patterns in gyrA and gyrB genes and the ofloxacin resistance levels in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates sampled in 2009 from East China.<h4>Methods</h4>The quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA/B were sequenced in 192 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 95 ofloxacin-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates were determined by using microplate nitrate reductase assays.<h4>Results</h4>Mutations in gyrA (codons 90, 91 and 94) and in gyrB (G551R, D500N, T539N, R485C/L) were observed in 89.5% (85/95) and 11.6% (11/95) of ofloxacin-resistant strains, respectively. The gyrB mutations G551R and G549D were observed in 4.1% (4/97) of ofloxacin-susceptible strains and no mutation was found in gyrA in ofloxacin-susceptible strains. The MICs of all ofloxacin-resistant strains showed no significant difference among strains with mutations at codons 90, 91 or 94 in gyrA (F = 1.268, p = 0.287). No differences were detected among strains with different amino acid mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA (F = 1.877, p = 0.123). The difference in MICs between ofloxacin-resistant strains with mutations in gyrA only and ofloxacin-resistant strains with mutations in both gyrA and gyrB genes was not statistically significant (F = 0.549, p = 0.461).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although gyrA/B mutations can lead to ofloxacin resistance in M. tuberculosis, there were no associations of different mutation patterns in gyrA/B and the level of ofloxacin resistance in M. tuberculosis isolates from East China in 2009.